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Geographic Information

System (GIS)
Pushkar K Pradhan, PhD
Professor of Geography, Tribhuvan
University
Kathmandu, Nepal
Email: pushkarkpradhan@gmail.com

Pushkar K Pradhan-GIS
Concept

Institute of Science & Technology: COM


GIS & RS (10 hours)
Introduction, components of GIS
Map projection, spatial and non-spatial
data
Data model and input, data analysis
and output
Remote Sensing applications:
agriculture, forestry, land use/land
cover mapping, water resources snow
K Pradhan-GIS Concept
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and glacier,Pushkar
wetland
management

GIS is defined as
A computer-based system
capable of holding and
using data describing
places on the earths
surface
The real world
consists of many
geographies which
can be represented as
a number of related
data
GIS islayers
not a

Hydrology
Land use
Districts
Topography
Soils

decision making
tool; it is rather
supporting tool
for decision Pushkar K Pradhan-GIS Concept
makers

GIS concerns with following features of


geographic phenomena:
Location of phenomenon
o Absolute location X & Y
coordinates
UTM modified Universal
Transverse Mercator Projection
system in Nepal
o Relative location factors
describing locations or relationships
between locations
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Pushkar K Pradhan-GIS
Concept

Evolution of GIS
Revolution in information technology
Computer Technology
Remote Sensing
Global Positioning System (GPS)
Communication Technology
Drastic declining in computer hardware
cost
Enhanced functionality of software
Pushkar K Pradhan-GIS
Concept

Historical Development of GIS

CAD/CAM

Surveying and
Photogrammetry

Civil Engineering

Pushkar K Pradhan-GIS
Concept

Why GIS?
70% of information includes some
geographical facts in decisionmaking process
Ability to assimilate divergent
sources of data both spatial and nonspatial (attribute data)
Visualization impact
Sharing of information
K Pradhan-GIS Concept
AnalyticalPushkar
capability
in a spatial

Components of GIS
IDRISI
ILWIS
ARC/
INFO

PEOPLE

GIS

Arc
GIS
SOFTWARE

POLICY AND
PROCEDURES
FOR
RESOURCE
MANAGEMENT

DATA
Pushkar K Pradhan-GIS Concept

Handling Geographic Information

Patan
Real-world
Abstract
representation

Factory

Sand and
Gravel

Solid Waste

Water Table

Sandstone
Aquifer

Shale

Gravel

Geographic features

Spreadsheets
Data Base Management Systems
Computer Aided Design (CAD)
Cartographic Packages
Photogram metrical Software
Image Processing Software

Pushkar K Pradhan-GIS Concept

Data Types two


1. Spatial Data
TOPOGRAPHIC

ZONAL

ISOLINE

REAL-WORLD

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Concept

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2. Attribute
Data
District
Area (km2)
Name
Kathmandu
395
Lalitpur
Bhaktapur

385
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Populatio
n
1,744,24
0
468,132
304,651

Population Census
Information

Industry

Agriculture Census
Health

Education and

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Concept

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Geometry of Spatial Data


Point
Area

Pushkar K Pradhan-GIS
Concept

Line

Volume

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Data Acquisition Sources


Analogue maps
Topographic map
Aerial photograph
Written documents or statistical data
Digital maps
Satellite imagery
Global Positioning System (GPS)
Scanning
Others spreadsheets, dbase, etc.
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GIS digital data processing steps

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Types of GIS
Vector GIS
Raster GIS
Hybrid GIS
Technology is moving towards hybrid
GIS
Raster Vector Integration
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The Vector Data Model

Vector
Representation
Original map

Features of Spatial Object


Points (Example : Location of
house)
Lines (Example : Railway)
Polygons (Examples : Forest
area)
The location of features on the
earths surface are referred to
map positions using an XY
coordinate system (termed a
Cartesian Coordinate System).
Point A Singly XY pair
Line
Series of XY pair
Polygon
A closed loop of
XY coordinate pairs
that

Y Coordinate

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Vector representation

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X Coordinate

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Satellite Imagery

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Raster
Representation
Row
Column
Cell Size
Resolutio
n

Buildings

Road

Pushkar K Pradhan-GIS
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River

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Raster Model

ROW
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Cell Size
Resolution
File Coordinate
Starting Row,
Column
Geographic
Coordinate
COLUMN

(0,0)

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Raster and Vector Data


Models
RASTER MODEL
Advantages
-

Advantages

simple data structure


compact data structure
easy and efficient overlaying
efficient for network analysis
compatible with RS imagery
efficient projection transformation
high spatial variability is efficiently represented
accurate map output
simple for own programming
same grid cells for several attributes

Disadvantages
-

VECTOR MODEL

Disadvantages

inefficient use of computer storage complex data structure


errors in perimeter, area, and shape difficult overlay operations
difficult network analysis
high spatial variability is inefficiently
inefficient projection transformationsnot compatible with RS imagery
loss of information when using large cells
less accurate (although attractive) maps

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Integration of Vector and Raster System Hybrid System


Raster
Vector
Conservatio
n

Vector
Handling

Vector Input

Vector Data

Vector Output

1. Computer Cartography
2. Photogrammetry
3. Existing Data

Vector Display

Raster
Handling

Raster Data

Raster Display

Spatial
Analysis

Vector-Raster
Conservation

Pushkar K Pradhan-GIS
Concept

Raster Input

Raster Output

Spatial
Analysis

1.
2.
3.
4.

Remote Sensing
GPS
Scanner
Existing Data

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Four Major GIS Functions


Data capture
Geographic data: digitized, converted from
existing data
Attribute data: keyed-in, loaded from existing
data files
Data storage and manipulation
File management
Editing
Data analysis
database query
modeling
spatial analysis
Data display
Maps
Reports

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GIS Functions
Maintenance and Analyses of the Spatial Data

Format Transformations
Geometric Transformation
Transformations between Map Projections
Edge Matching
Editing of Graphic Elements
Line Coordinate Thinning & Spline
Vector to Raster Conversion
Raster to vector Conversion
Resampling, Pixel duplication, Pixel
Thinning
Subseting by polygon or a rectangular
window
Maintenance
and Analyses of the Attribute Data

Attribute Editing Functions


Attribute Query Functions
Attribute Relationship Functions
Assigning new attributes
Creating attributes based on selected
region
Importing Database files of different
formats

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Building Arc Topology


Building Polygon Topology
Building Node Topology

Topology

Building Arc Coordinate Data


Tables
Polygon Attributes Tables
Point Attributes Tables
Arc Attributes Tables
Address Geocoding
Network and Turn tables

Integrated Analyses of Spatial and Attributes Data


Retrieval
Classification
Measurements

AND (INTERSECT)
OR (UNION)
XOR
CLIP, UPDATE, RECLASSIFICATION

Overlay Operations

Importing the Database File


Combines maps with Arithmetic Logic (=,
>, <)
High-value, Low-Value, Top-Map, Bottommap
Add, Subtract, Divide, Multiplication,
Exponent
Log of Maps
Map Algebra

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Neighborhood and
Distance operations

Topographic Functions
or Context operators

Connectivity Functions

Buffering
Spatial search (Average, Diversity,
Majority, Max&Min, Total)
Line in polygon
Point in polygon
Thiessen Polygon
Resource Allocation
Cost Surface and Path calculation
TIN model
DEM and Interpolation
Break line features
3D Display, Perspective View
Flow direction modeling
Watershed boundary delineation
Slope, aspect and contour generation
Creating viewsheds, Intervisibility
Cut and fill calculation

Contiguity Measures
Network analyses such as optimum path calcul
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Statistical Analyses Absolute, relative, cumulative frequency


Simple statistics
Functions
Cross tabulation
Time series analyses
Relative richness, diversity index, dominance in
fragmentation index
Principle Component Analyses
Autocorrelation and Regression

Modeling

Linear Combination Model


Factor Combination Model
Non Point Source Modeling

Output Formatting
Map Annotation
Text labels
Texture patterns and line styles
Polygon filled pattern
Graphic symbols
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GIS Applications
Agricultural land use classification and
distribution
Suitability
Capability
Production systems extensive &
intensive or production estimation and
trend
Environmental degradation
Monitoring, management
Environmental impacts
Channel network- irrigation, d-water, etc
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