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Field test on Permeability

Pumping test
Direct determination of permeability by in-situ test

-Unconfined aquifer

Pumping test
Direct determination of permeability by in-situ test

-Confined aquifer

Pumping test
The arrangement consists of a test well and a

series of observation wells. The test well is sunk


through the permeable stratum up to the
impermeable layer. A well sunk into a water
bearing stratum, termed an aquifer, and tapping
free flowing ground water having a free ground
water table under atmospheric pressure, is
termed a gravity or unconfined well.
A well sunk into an aquifer where the ground
water flow is confined between two impermeable
soil layers, and is under pressure greater than
atmospheric, is termed as artesian or confined
well. Observation wells are drilled at various
distances from the test or pumping well A
minimum of two observation wells and their

Pumping test
The

test consists of pumping out water


continuously at a uniform rate from the test well
until the water levels in the test and observation
wells remain stationary. When this condition is
achieved the water pumped out of the well is
equal to the inflow into the well from the
surrounding strata. The drawdown resulting due to
pumping is called the cone of depression. The
maximum drawdown do is in the test well. It
decreases with the increase in the distance from
the test well. The depression dies out gradually
and forms theoretically, a circle around the test
well called the circle of influence. The radius of
this circle R is called the radius of influence of the
depression cone.

Pumping test

-Unconfined aquifer

Pumping test

-Unconfined aquifer

Pumping test

-Unconfined aquifer

Pumping test
Direct determination of permeability by in-situ test

-Confined aquifer

Pumping test
-Confined aquifer

Pumping test
-Confined aquifer

PERMEABILITY OF LAYERED SOILS


Flow Perpendicular to the Bedding Planes

PERMEABILITY OF LAYERED SOILS


Flow Perpendicular to the Bedding Planes
In this case, the velocity of flow v, and hence the discharge q,
is the same through all the layers, for the continuity of flow.
Let the total head lost be h and the head lost in each of the
layers be h1, h2, h3, ... hn.
h = h1 + h2 + h3 + ... hn.
The hydraulic gradients are :
i1 = h1/h1 If i is the gradient for the deposit, i = h/h
i2 = h2/h2
in = hn/hn
Let kz be the average permeability perpendicular to the
bedding planes.
Now kz . i = k1i1 = k2i2 = k3i3 = ... knin = v
vh/kz = vh1/k1 + vh2/k2 + ... + vhn/kn

PERMEABILITY OF LAYERED SOILS


Flow Parallel to the Bedding Planes

PERMEABILITY OF LAYERED SOILS


Flow Parallel to the Bedding Planes
The discharge through the entire deposit is equal to the
sum of the discharge through the individual layers.
Assuming kx to be the average permeability of the entire
deposit parallel to the bedding planes, and applying the
equation :
q = q1 + q2 + ... + qn,
we have, kx ih = k1i h1 + k2i h2 + ... kni hn.