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Academic Guide:
Praveen S.P
Asst. Professor,

By Anusha S Sharma
USN: 1RN12EC016

Intra-body communication (IBC) is a data
transmission method to transmit data using the
human body as a transmission channel.
The idea is driven from the vision of a cable free
secure data transmission system.
Currently, data transmissions are performed over
wired or wireless networks.
Drawback of the wired network: Routing of the
Drawback of the wireless network: Packet collision
and security risk.

IBC is a new short range non-RF wireless
communication technique specified by the IEEE
802.15.6 using the human body as a transmission
Mobile devices near the human body can
exchange digital information by capacitive
coupling with pico ampere currents.
IBC technique potentially provides a more power
efficient and naturally secure short range
communication method for body area networks



Hardware Model
The hardware model consists of the following components:
A mobile device with a graphical user interface (GUI)
which can perform transmission of personal data or files
stored on an SD card.
A Bluetooth device for the transmission of the data
between the mobile device and the hardware.
An ARM7 processor which has 2 UART ports. One port is
useful for the Bluetooth to transmitter hardware and
another is used for the mobile device to receiver

Hardware Model
Amplifier LM358 to amplify the signal for long
range transmission.
o The input to the amplifier comes from the body in
terms of mA current.
o 1M resistor is used to convert the current into
equivalent voltage.

Software Model
The software model is divided into 2 parts:
Mobile side
Processor side
The software model is operated in two modes the GUI data or personal data transmission and
transmission of the file which is resides in the

Software Model
Mobile side:
o Define and create GUI elements such as edit text field, radio
button for choosing personal data or file transmission, some
simple buttons for the data transmission methods i.e. only
transmission, only reception or transceiver.
o Check whether the mobile device has a facility for Bluetooth
by passing the MAC address of the device.
o If yes then establish the connection between mobile device
and external Bluetooth device.
o Define the input output stream for the Bluetooth. Then click
on the GUI element ActiveTx or DeactiveTx or ActiveRx or
DeactiveRx for the data transmission.

o For the Bluetooth transmission check for the BTTransmit Active

button. If it is true then check for the TxBusy if it is false then
convert the data into one string with some specific format.
o If the data is a personal message then make a string starting
with starting with M or if it is a file then make a string
starting with F.
o Next field in data string is the message length followed by the
actual personal data or file content.
o For the Bluetooth reception check whether BTReceive Active is
true or false. If it is true the start reception of the data.
o Check whether the data is personal or file by checking the first
field of the received string. Then check the length of the data
from the next field.
o If it is the personal data then display it on to the GUI and if it
is the file then store it into the MMC.

Data flow diagram for mobile side:

1. A user fills the information in the GUI form or read

the file from the MMC through the file handling
system in the mobile.
2. Then the data or file is converted into packets and
transmitted to the receiver controller through the
3. At the time of reception the receiver controller
receives the data from the body.
4. The received data is decoded and if the data is
information, it will be sent to the GUI and
5. If the data is file then it is given to the file handing
system and stored into the MMC.

Processor side:
o On the processor side, the data transmission from
external Bluetooth device to the touch pad and from
touch pad to the external Bluetooth device.
o The program is written in embedded C language using
Keil software.
o The mobile data will be received from UART 1 and the
data is transmitted to the touch pad from UART 0.
o The data is transmitted using the serial transmission
protocol shown.

Data flow diagram for processor side:


Remote monitoring- A HAN
network in place on a
patient can alert the
hospital, even before they
have a heart attack, through
measuring changes in
theirvital signs.
Easy data acquisition and
display- A pulse-rate or other
health monitoring function
communicates via electricfield transmissions with a
watch-type display unit. This
allows a user to check body
reactions at a glance.

User authentication for notebook
computers-An authorized
computer user gains access to the
PC when the smart watch with
HAN capability communicates
successfully with a security
module in the laptop.
Door access control- An
authorized person with a smart
phone with HAN capability only
has to approach close to the
security door to initiate a data
communication process that
authenticates the individual and
opens the door.

Low power consumption.
Private data can be shared instantly.
High data rates can be achieved.
More secure as signal starts falling as distance
from transmitter or person increases.

Signal weakness
Noise interference

A mobile phone with the above discussed
functionalities as inbuilt capabilities can be
New techniques to improve data rates in low
frequency ranges required.
Theoretical models to understand the body
channel characteristics and constraints. Human
channel modeling will be necessary while the
body is in motion.

Chanakya Kumar , Hiren R. Italia Intrabody
communication for human area network application,
International Conference for Convergence of Technology
Kirti Thosar, Geetha Narayanan; Intra-body
Communication using Personal Area Network; IJIRSET
-2015 - Renesas
Solutions for Wireless Sensor NetworksPart 2: Body Area