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Nutrition During

Pregnancy

Importance of Good
Nutrition during Pregnancy
Important before, during and after
pregnancy
Good control of weight, blood pressure
and blood glucose increase chances of
healthy, normal weight, term infant
Affects fetal and placental growth

Importance of Good
Nutrition during Pregnancy
Affects maternal well being and maternal
outcomes
Not getting enough micronutrients causes low
birth weight, premature birth, and other fetal
problems
Micronutrients include: folic acid, iron, omega-3
fatty acids, Vitamin A, calcium, Vitamin D and
iodine

Folic
Acid
Reduces risk of
having a baby with
neural tube
defects
Reduces the risk
of premature birth
Recommended
amount of folic
acid is 0.4
milligrams (400
micrograms) per
day

Folic Acid
Supplement should be started at least
one month before getting pregnant
It is recommended that any woman
of childbearing age should be
taking folic acid supplements
because they may not know they
are pregnant until it is too late.

Good Sources of Folic


Acid
Green leafy vegetables
Fortified cereals

Iron
Reduces the risk of premature birth and
low birth weight
Not getting enough iron could cause
anemia
Could contribute to developmental delays and
behavioral disturbances in the infant and poor
health in the mother
Contributes to death and other disease
development

Iron
Essential for normal
infant brain
development
Iron helps create
blood that is
necessary for fetal
demands and blood
loss during delivery.

Good Sources of Iron

Lean red meat


Green leafy vegetables
Fortified breakfast cereals

Omega-3 Fatty Acids


Important for brain development and
preventing preterm birth
Essential for visual development
Reduces the incidence of heart disease
and heart related death of the infant
Recommended 300 milligrams per day

Good Sources of Omega3 Fatty Acids


Fish oil capsules
Certain fish such as salmon, trout,
mackerel, sardines, and fresh tuna
Vegetable oils such as sunflower,
rapeseed, flaxseed, and walnut oils

Calcium and Vitamin D


Calcium and vitamin
D are needed for
strong bones and
teeth
Vitamin D is needed
for the formation of
the fetal bones
Recommended 10
micrograms of
Vitamin D per day

Good Sources of
Calcium and Vitamin D

Milk and other dairy products


Eggs
Meat
Certain fish such as salmon, trout,
mackerel, sardines, and fresh tuna

Vitamin A and Iodine


Vitamin A is needed in small amounts to
protect the fetus from immune system
problems, blindness, infections, and death
Can cause birth defects in high doses

Lack of iodine could contribute to stillbirth,


birth defects, and decreased brain
development
Iodine is important for brain development

No Alcohol and Limited Caffeine


Protect the infant from fetal alcohol
syndrome and other birth defects
Avoid alcohol, including all wines, beers, hard
liquor, and wine coolers

High caffeine intake linked to low birth


weight and spontaneous fetal death
Avoid food and beverages such as teas,
coffee, colas, energy drinks, and chocolate

Weight Gain and Caloric


Intake
Pattern of weight gain during pregnancy is more
important than the total amount of weight gained

It is better to gain the majority of your


pregnancy weight during the last two
trimesters

Weight Gain and Calorie


Intake
Do not consume anymore calories than
normal per day during the first trimester
340 additional calories recommended
per day during the second trimester
450 additional calories recommended
per day during the third trimester
Needed for adequate fetal growth and to
support the higher maternal metabolism

Foods to avoid or
minimize when pregnant
Alcohol
Caffeine from coffee, tea, soft drinks,
energy beverages, and other sources
Raw or Undercooked Food of Animal
Origin
Certain Seafood and Fish

Effects of Poor Nutrition


During Pregnancy
In adequate nutrition during pregnancy can
lead to a difficult pregnancy, labour difficulties,
and a slower recovery.
Poor nutrition can lead to labour commencing
too early.
Pregnant women who are overweight or obese
have a greater risk for developing gestational
diabetes, hypertension, preclampsia or needing
a Cesarean section delivery.

Other Effects on the


Child

Eight Question Quiz

1. When is nutrition
important?
A:

Before the pregnancy begins

B:

During the actual pregnancy

C:

After the birth of the baby

D:

All the above

Correct!
Nutrition is important
before pregnancy to
prepare the body for the
baby. It is essential
during the pregnancy to
make sure the baby is
safe. After the birth, it is
important to eat healthy
if breastfeeding and to
get your body back to a
healthier state.

2. What is the
importance Folic Acid ?
A:

Prevents Neural Tube Defects


Reduces the risk of premature birth

B:

Helps the babys heart pump better


A&B

C:

A&C
All of the Above

D:
E:
F:

Youre Right!
Folic Acid reduces
the risk of neural
tube defects and
the risk of
premature birth.

3.
of

What
Folic

is a good source
Acid?

A:

Milk

B:

Green leafy vegetables

C:

All fruits

D:

None of the above

Correct!
Green leafy vegetables
are a good source of
folic acid. So are
fortified cereals.

4.
of

What is a good source


Iron?

A:

Carrots

B:

Soup

C:

Fortified Cereal

D:

Whole Milk

Youre Right!
Fortified cereals, as
well as green leafy
vegetables and
lean red meats, are
a good source of
iron.

5. What is a good source


of Omega- 3 Fatty
Acids?
A: Steak
B: Trout
C:

Salmon

D:

Chicken

E:

A&D

F:

B&C

Correct!
Trout and Salmon are
good sources of
Omega-3 Fatty Acids.

6. What is a good source


of Calcium and Vitamin
D?
A: Dairy products
B:

Fruit

C:

Vegetables

D:

Bread

Youre Right!
Dairy products are
a good source of
Calcium and
Vitamin D. Eggs,
meat, and certain
fish are also good
sources.

7. Where is caffeine found?


A:

Tea

B:

Coffee

C:

Cola
Chocolate

D:

All of the Above


E:

Youre Right!
All of these are
sources of caffeine
and should be
avoided during
pregnancy.

8. How many extra calories


should you eat during the
third trimester?
A:

Zero

A:

340

A:

450

A:

600

Correct!
450 extra calories
should be consumed
during the third trimester.
340 extra should be
consumed during the
second, and no extra
calories are necessary
during the first trimester.