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A Study on Dehydration of Fermented Idli

Batter to Increase its Shelf Life


By
Sathya Uma Lakshmi K
15AG66R02

Department of Agricultural and Food Engineering


Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur

Objectives
To study the increase in the shelf life of fermented and
dehydrated idli batter under non-refrigerated conditions
To study the quality changes in idli batter
- before and after processing (dehydration)
- with and without addition of leavening agents
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Methodology
Preparation of idli
batter

Allow fermentation
for 12hr

Develop batter with


stable moisture
content by
dehydration
Test the batter for
quality (fresh and
developed)
Physical and chemical

Development of drying
curve

Water activity analysis


on idli batter for
various moisture
content
Testing of idli (fresh
and developed
batter)
Sensory evaluation

Results

DRYING CURVE
Preliminary studies to form drying curve:
The approximate drying time required for temperatures of 50 and 60C with
thickness of 2mm, 5mm, 10mm and 15mm.
THICKNESS OF
IDLI BATTER

TEMPERATURE USED FOR DEHYDRATION


(high or slow)
50C

60C

2mm

Very fast

Very fast

5mm

Moderate

Moderate

10mm

Very slow

Very slow

15mm

Very slow

Very slow
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WATER ACTIVITY ANALYSIS


Tabulation shows the water activity value of idli batter for various moisture
content
Testing was done on Aqualab digital water activity meter.
Moisture Content

Water Activity

0.6

1.000

0.5

1.000

0.4

1.000

0.3

0.992

0.2

0.984

0.1

0.888

Physio-chemical parameters

Bulk density
pH
Viscosity
Colour
Ash content
Protein
Titrable acidity
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Bulk density
Samples dehydrated (B) were made with same moisture
content as fresh batter (A) by adding required amount of
water.
Sampl Proporti
e
on

3:1

0.940

4:1

0.973

3:1

1.210

4:1

1.237

pH
10% concentration of the sample was made and the pH
was found using pH meter
Proportio
Sample
n

pH

3:1

3.96

4:1

3.95

3:1

4.00

4:1

4.00

pH meter

Viscosity
Sampl Proporti Spindl
Viscosity (Centi
e
on
e
RPM
Poise)
A
3:1
S18
10
245.9

4:1

3:1

4:1

S18

60

40.8

S18

100

24.5

S18

10

242

S18

60

40.1

S18

100

24.1

S18

10

243.8

S18

60

40.5

S18

100

24.3

S18

10

242.9

S18

60

40.3

Brookfield Viscometer

Colour test
The maximum for L is 100 which would be a perfect reflecting diffuser.
The minimum for L would be zero, which would be black.
Sample Proportion
A

L*

3:1

86.075

4:1

0.195
86.435

3:1

0.065
84.505

4:1

0.005
84.670
0.010

L * - Brightness

Colour Spectrophotometer
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Total ash test

Sample Proportion Dry matter(g) Ash obtained (g) Ash (%)

3:1

1.6477

0.0038

0.2316

4:1

1.4678

0.0035

0.2407

3:1

5.1139

0.0125

0.2448

4:1

4.7918

0.0120

0.2505

MUFFLE FURNACE
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Titrable Acidity test


10% concentration solution was made and titration done

Sample

Proportion

Batter
(ml)

3:1

10

1.2

1.08096

4:1

10

1.0

0.90080

3:1

10

1.1

0.99088

4:1

10

0.9

0.81072

Titre Value(ml) Acidity (%)

The slight variation in pH gets justified by the slight decrease in titrable acidity in
the processed sample compared with the control.
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Protein
Sample

Proportion Protein(%)
3:1

12.3

4:1

10.6

3:1

11.5

4:1

10.1

The protein test indicates that around 95% of the protein is preserved in the sample
even after processing.
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Sensory Evaluation of Idli Prepared


Idlis were prepared and given to 6 members for sensory evaluation.
No side dish was given. The properties tested are

Colour
Texture
Aroma
Mouth feel

And the overall acceptance of idli

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The ID no of idli and its sample composition:


1 idlis made from idli batter dehydrated @ 60C without leavening
agent(3:1 ratio)
2 idlis made from idli batter dehydrated @ 60C with leavening
agent (3:1 ratio)
3 - idlis made from commercial ready to cook idli powder mix
4 idlis made from idli batter dehydrated @ 60C with leavening
agent (4:1)
5 idlis made from idli batter dehydrated @ 60C without leavening
agent (4:1)
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SENSORY ACCEPTANCE OF IDLI PREPARED


The tabulation shows average of 10 points scale considering 10
points for the idli made from fresh batter.
ID No

Colour

Smell

Texture

Mouth feel

Overall Acceptability

8.33

2.5

6.16

7.5

8.5

2.33

8.66

9.5

8.66

6.33

2.5

7.5

5.66

7.5

2.5

8.5

9.33

8.5

8.5

2.33

6.16

8.5

7.66
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Physio- chemical parameters of the best sample


Parameters

60C Dehydrated sample

Bulk density
Ash content

0.24 % of dry mass

pH

Titrable Acidity

0.99 % of lactic acid

Protein

11.5 % of dry mass

Colour

(L* 84.51) ( a* -0.5) (b* 7.36)

Viscosity

243.8 cP (S18 spindle,


10RPM)

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Conclusion
Out of all the tests done on idli batter, the only
property which varied significantly was the bulk
density. This could be overcome by adding permitted
limits of baking soda and allowed for leavening.
All the other tests yield positive results and hence
doesnt require much consideration.
The processed sample is expected to have a
increased shelf life and the exact shelf life has to be
studied further.
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Future scope in the study


The quality changes and increase in shelf life can
also be studied with reference to different packing
and storage conditions.
The future scope in the project includes identifying
maximum temperature suitable for dehydration and
time required.
For commercialization, optimized thickness and
temperature relationship has to be developed to
commercialize the project.
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Thank You

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