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9 Ansichten47 SeitenAnalogue modulation

May 27, 2016

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Analogue modulation

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Analogue modulation

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ETU 07123

Introduction to Communication System

Ally, J

jumannea@gmail.com

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Analogue Modulation

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Introduction to Modulation

Definitions

Analog modulation

Both the message signal and the transmitted signal are analog

signals

Two classes: amplitude modulation, angle modulation

Three signals:

transmitted

obtained after modulation

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Modulation

information over a medium.

parameters of a signal including power,

frequency, phase and amplitude depending

on the requirement of the transmission

system.

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Baseband, Passband

modulation, which have frequencies/bandwidth much lower

than the carrier frequency

modulation, which have frequencies/bandwidth around the

carrier frequency

transmitted signal

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frequencies when delivered by transmitters.

modulation.

modulation schemes.

message from the carrier so that it may be processed and

interpreted by the intended receiver

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Amplitude: A(t )

AM linear modulation

(t )

Phase:

PM

Non-linear modulation

Frequency: f (t ) d (t ) dt FM

Example Compare signal waveforms

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Concept of Modulation

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Spectrum (frequency-domain)

diagrams or circuits)

over other modulations)

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will learn

1. AM (amplitude modulation): AM radio, short wave

radio broadcast,

2. DSBSC (double sideband suppressed carrier AM):

data modem, Color TVs color signals

3. SSB (single sideband AM): telephone

4. VSB (vestigial sideband AM): TV picture signal

1. FM (frequency modulation): FM radio broadcast, TV

sound signal, analog cellular phone

2. PM (phase modulation): not widely used, except in

digital communication systems (but that is different)

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Amplitude Modulation (AM) is the one which the amplitude of a

sinusoidal carrier is varied in accordance with an incoming

message signal

Modulated signal

Carrier:

Message signal: m(t)

AM modulated signal

sensitivity of the modulator responsible for

the generation of the modulated signal s(t).

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Time-Domain description

The standard form of an AM wave is defined by

is called the

envelope of AM wave s(t).

The envelope of s(t) has essentially the same shape as the baseband signal

m(t) provided that two requirements are satisfied:

1. The amplitude of

is always less than unity, that is,

for all t

2. The carrier frequency fc, is much greater than the highest frequency

component W (message bandwidth) of the message signal m(t), that is

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Frequency-Domain description

The Fourier transform of the AM wave s(t) is given by

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Generation of AM Waves

AM waves typically generated using a nonlinear device to obtain the

desired multiplication

Square law modulator sums carrier c(t) and information m(t) signals,

then squares them using a nonlinear device. Unwanted terms are

filtered out with a bandpass filter.

Switched modulation sums c(t) and m(t) then passes sum through a

switch, which approximately multiplies it by a periodic square wave.

This generates the desired signal plus extra terms that are filtered

out. Accos(2fct+

m(t)

Square

or Switch

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s(t)

BPF

Modulation Index

The degree of modulation is an important parameter and is known as

the modulation index. It is the ratio of the peak amplitude of the

modulating signal, Am to the peak amplitude of the carrier signal, Ac

Am

ka

Ac

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Over Modulation

http://www.williamson-labs.com/480_am.htm

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Detection of AM waves

There are two devices for the detection of AM waves, namely, the

square-law detector and the envelope detector

LPF

Residual distortion proportional to m 2(t)

Non-coherent (carrier phase not needed in RX)

Envelope detection simple alternative method

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Explanation

portion of AM signal s(t)

When signal after D1 is positive,

C is charged.

When signal after D2 is 0,

C is discharged.

Overall effect:

y(t) remains approximately

as the envelope of s(t)

Envelope Detector.

using capacitor to remove d.c.1.

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Bandwidth of AM signal

BT = 2W

minimum channel bandwidth Bc

positive frequency

fc f fc W

fc W f fc

Transmission power:

PT = PM + Pcarrier

= PUSB + PLSB + Pcarrier

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AM Power Distribution

equal to the voltage squared divided by the

resistance.

Mathematically, power 2in an unmodulated carrier:

Pc

Pusb Plsb

Ac

2R

Ac / 2

2R

Ac

2 Pc

8R

4

2

2

2 Pc 2 Pc

2 Pc

Pt Pc Pusb Plsb Pc

Pc

Pc 1

4

4

2

2

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AM Modulation Efficiency

Definition : The modulation efficiency is the percentage of the total power of

the modulated signal that conveys information.

Only Sideband Components Convey information

Modulation Efficiency:

component

Translated version of

message signal

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Major Properties of AM

Advantages

transmitter

The major reason that AM was the first & most popular

broadcasting methods during early days

Disadvantages

carrier does not have message information

Both USB and LSB are transmitted, which carry the same

message information

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Remove one/partial sideband: SSB, VSB

Multiplex two message signals together: QAM

The simple envelope detector is no longer applicable

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c(t) is completely independent of the message signal m(t), which

means that the transmission of the carrier wave represents a waste

of power.

component from the modulated wave, resulting in double-sideband

suppressed carrier (DSB-SC) modulation.

is proportional to the product of the carrier wave and the message

signal.

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Time-Domain Description

s t c t m t

s t Ac cos 2f c t m t

This modulated wave undergoes a phase reversal whenever the message signal

m(t) crosses zero, as illustrated in figure below

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Frequency-Domain Description

The Fourier transform of the DSB-SC wave s(t) is given by

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message signal and the carrier wave. A device achieving this

requirement is called a Product Modulator.

Modulated signal is

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The baseband signal m(t) can be uniquely recovered from a DSBSC wave s(t) by first multiplying s(t) with a locally generated

sinusoidal wave and then low-pass filtering the product

It is assumed that the local oscillator output is exactly coherent or

synchronized, in both frequency and phase, with the carrier wave

c(t) used in the product modulator to generate s(t).

This method of demodulation is known as coherent detection or

synchronous detection.

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frequency 2fc, whereas the second term is proportional to the

baseband signal m(t).

the first term is removed by the low-pass filter, this requirement is

satisfied by choosing fc > W. At the filter output we then obtain a

signal given by

phase error is a constant.

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and it is minimum (zero) when

As long as the phase error is constant, the detector provides an undistorted version

of the original baseband signal m(t).

In practice, however, we usually find that the phase error varies randomly with time,

due to random variations in the communication channel. The result is that at the

detector output, the multiplying factor

also varies randomly with time, which is

obviously undesirable.

cos

Therefore, provision must be made in the system to maintain the local oscillator in the

receiver in perfect synchronism, in both frequency and phase, with the carrier wave

used to generate the DSB-SC modulated signal in the transmitter.

The resulting system complexity is the price that must be paid for suppressing the

carrier wave to save transmitter power.

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Goal: Maintain

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Costas Loop

for demodulating DSB-SC waves, is to use the Costas loop.

This receiver consists of two coherent detectors supplied with the same

input signal, namely, the incoming DSB-SC wave Accos(2fct)m(t), but with

individual local oscillator signals that are in phase quadrature with respect to

each other.

carrier frequency fc, which is assumed known a priori.

detector or I-channel, and that in the lower path is referred to as the

quadrature-phase coherent detector or Q-channel.

system designed in such a way as to maintain the local oscillator

synchronous with the carrier wave.

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Power in a AM signal is given by

s2 t

1 2

1 2 2

Ac

Ac m t

2

2

Sideband power

assumed to have a zero DC level

Then

s (t ) Ac m(t ) cos c t

Spectrum

A

S ( f ) c M f fc M f fc

2

Power

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s2 t

m2 t

m t

2

1 2 2

Ac m t

2

100 100%

Noise in AM Receivers

White Gaussian noise

(AWGN)

n(t)

s(t)=Accos(2fct+

m(t)

Product

Modulato

r

1

-B

LP

F

B

m(t)+ n

(t)

Accos(2fct

+

SNR=Pm/Pn= Ac2Pm/(2N0B)= Ps/(N0B) (SNR at the receiver output)

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bandwidth because they both require a transmission

bandwidth equal to twice message the message

bandwidth.

This means that insofar as the transmission of

information is concerned, only one sideband is

necessary, and no information is lost.

Thus the channel needs to provide only the same

bandwidth as the message signal, a conclusion that is

intuitively satisfying.

When only one sideband is transmitted, the modulation

is referred to as single-sideband modulation

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The transmitted signal can be written in terms m(t) and the

Hilbert Transform of m(t)

Use same demodulator as DSBSC

SSB has half the SNR of DSBSC for half the transmit

power: no SNR gain

SSB can introduce significant distortion at DC where the

sidebands meet: not good for TV signals

LSB

A

s (t ) c [ m(t ) cos(2f c t ) mh (t ) sin( 2f c t )]

2

USB

M(f)

-B

USB

LSB

-fc

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fc

Signals

passband signals.

cos(2fct) + sQ(t) sin(2fct).

quadrature signal component.

The sine and cosine are orthogonal signals, can be used to separate

out the in-phase and quadrature components from s(t).

We define

Then

analyze passband signals.

which is a compact way to represent and

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discrimination method

wave involves two separate simultaneous modulation processes and

subsequent combination of the resulting modulation products.

The system uses two product modulators, I and Q, supplied with

carrier waves in phase quadrature to each other.

The incoming baseband signal m(t) is applied to product modulator I,

producing a modulated DSBSC wave that contains reference phase

sidebands symmetrically spaced about carrier frequency fc.

The hilbert transform mh(t) of m(t) is applied to product modulator Q,

producing DSBSC modulated wave that containssideband having

identical amplitude spectra to those of modulator I, but with phase

spectra such that vector addition or subtraction of the two modulator

outputs results in cancellation of one setof sidebands and

reinforcement of the other set.

The use of plus sign yields SSB wave with only the upper sideband,

whereas the use of minus sign yields SSB wave with only upper

sideband.

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wave by phase discrimination method

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To recover the baseband signal m(t) from the SSB wave s(t), we

have to shift the spectrum by the amounts f c so as to convert

the transmitted sideband back into the baseband signal.

This can be accomplished using coherent detection, which

involves applying the SSB wave s(t), together with locally

generated carrier cos 2f c t , assumed to be of unit amplitude for

convenience, to a product modulator and then low-pass filtering

the modulator output.

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v t cos 2f c t s t

1

~ t sin 2f t

Ac cos 2f c t m t cos 2f c t m

c

2

1

1

~ t sin 4f t

Ac m t Ac m t cos 4f c t m

c

4

4

The first term is the desired message signal. The second term

represents an unwanted components in the product modulator

output that is removed by low-pass filtering.

The detection of SSB modulated waves assume perfect

synchronization between the local carrier and that in the transmitter

both in frequency and phase. The effect of a phase error in the

locally generated carrier wave is to modify the detector output as

follows

1

1 ~

t sin

vo t Ac m t cos Ac m

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vo(t) contains not only the message signal m(t)

but also its Hilbert transform mh(t).

Consequently, the detector output suffers from

phase distortion. This phase distortion is usually

not serious with voice communications because

the human ear is relatively insensitive to phase

distortion.

In the transmission of music and video signals,

on the other hand, phase distortion in the form of

a constant phase difference in all components

can be intolerable.

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transmission of voice because of the energy gap that exists

in the spectrum of voice signals between zero and a few

hundred hertz.

When the message signal contains significant components

at extremely low frequencies i.e. television signals, the

upper and lower sidebands meet at the carrier frequency.

This means SSB modulation is inappropriate for the

transmission of television signals.

This difficulty suggests another scheme known as vestigial

sideband modulation (VSB), which is a compromise

between SSB and DSBSC modulation.

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Vestigial Sideband

undesired sideband to reduce DC distortion. Transmits USB or LSB and

vestige of other sideband

USB

passing modulated signal through a band-pass filter i.e. it is the special

design of the band-pass filter that distinguishes VSB modulation from SSB

modulation.

Demodulation uses either standard AM or DSBSC demodulation

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where W is the message bandwidth, and f, is the width of the vestigial

sideband

To generate a VSB modulated wave, we pass a DSBSC modulated

wave through a sideband shaping filter.

The exact design of this filter depends on the desired spectrum of the

VSB modulated wave.

the VSB modulated wave is described in the time domain as

A

A

s t c m t cos 2f c t c mQ t sin 2f c t

2

2

This is the desired representation representation for a VSB modulated

wave containing a vestige of the lower sideband. The component

0.5Acm(t) constitutes the in-phase component of this VSB modulated

wave, and 0.5AcmQ(t) constitutes the quadrature components.

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of a VSB modulated wave

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carrier

is transmitted together with the modulated wave.

modulated wave by an envelope detector in the receiver.

sideband occupies a width of about 1.25 MHz, or about

one-quarter of a full sideband.

vestigial sideband required to keep the distortion due to

mQ(t) within tolerable limits when when the percentage

modulation is nearly 100.

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