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Dar es Salaam institute of Technology

(DIT)
ETU 07123
Introduction to Communication System
Ally, J
jumannea@gmail.com

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Analogue Modulation

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Introduction to Modulation

Definitions

Analog modulation

Both the message signal and the transmitted signal are analog
signals
Two classes: amplitude modulation, angle modulation

Three signals:

Message signal: the information signal to be modulated and


transmitted

Carrier signal c(t) : high frequency sinusoidal signal

Modulated signal: the signal to be transmitted, or the signal


obtained after modulation

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Modulation

It is the process of facilitating the transfer of


information over a medium.

This is done by changing one or more the


parameters of a signal including power,
frequency, phase and amplitude depending
on the requirement of the transmission
system.

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Baseband and Passband signals

Baseband, Passband

Baseband: refers to the signals and systems before


modulation, which have frequencies/bandwidth much lower
than the carrier frequency

Passband: refers to the signals and systems after (including)


modulation, which have frequencies/bandwidth around the
carrier frequency

Baseband signal: is usually the message signal

Passband signal: is usually the modulated signal, or


transmitted signal

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Baseband and Bandpass Signals

Baseband signal is the original signal having the original


frequencies when delivered by transmitters.

In Baseband communication, signals are transmitted without


modulation.

Bandpass signal is a signal which is modulated by one of the


modulation schemes.

Demodulation is the process of extracting the baseband


message from the carrier so that it may be processed and
interpreted by the intended receiver

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Message signal m(t) modifies:

Amplitude: A(t )
AM linear modulation
(t )
Phase:
PM
Non-linear modulation
Frequency: f (t ) d (t ) dt FM
Example Compare signal waveforms

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Concept of Modulation

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Checkpoints for studying each modulation

Modulated signal (time-domain)

Spectrum (frequency-domain)

Parameters: bandwidth, power, etc

Modulator and demodulator (Principles, block


diagrams or circuits)

Major properties (advantages/disadvantages


over other modulations)

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List of modulation methods we


will learn

Amplitude modulation methods and applications


1. AM (amplitude modulation): AM radio, short wave
radio broadcast,
2. DSBSC (double sideband suppressed carrier AM):
data modem, Color TVs color signals
3. SSB (single sideband AM): telephone
4. VSB (vestigial sideband AM): TV picture signal

Angle modulation methods and applications


1. FM (frequency modulation): FM radio broadcast, TV
sound signal, analog cellular phone
2. PM (phase modulation): not widely used, except in
digital communication systems (but that is different)

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Amplitude Modulation (AM)

AM (conventional amplitude modulation)


Amplitude Modulation (AM) is the one which the amplitude of a
sinusoidal carrier is varied in accordance with an incoming
message signal

Modulated signal
Carrier:
Message signal: m(t)
AM modulated signal

where ka, is a constant called the amplitude


sensitivity of the modulator responsible for
the generation of the modulated signal s(t).

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Time-Domain description
The standard form of an AM wave is defined by

The amplitude of the time function multiplying cos 2f c t


is called the
envelope of AM wave s(t).
The envelope of s(t) has essentially the same shape as the baseband signal
m(t) provided that two requirements are satisfied:
1. The amplitude of
is always less than unity, that is,
for all t
2. The carrier frequency fc, is much greater than the highest frequency
component W (message bandwidth) of the message signal m(t), that is

(a) Baseband signal m(t) (b) AM wave for

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(c) AM wave for

Frequency-Domain description
The Fourier transform of the AM wave s(t) is given by

(a) Spectrum of baseband signal

(b) Spectrum of AM wave

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Generation of AM Waves

Multipliers difficult to build in hardware


AM waves typically generated using a nonlinear device to obtain the
desired multiplication
Square law modulator sums carrier c(t) and information m(t) signals,
then squares them using a nonlinear device. Unwanted terms are
filtered out with a bandpass filter.
Switched modulation sums c(t) and m(t) then passes sum through a
switch, which approximately multiplies it by a periodic square wave.
This generates the desired signal plus extra terms that are filtered
out. Accos(2fct+
m(t)

Square
or Switch

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s(t)

BPF

Modulation Index
The degree of modulation is an important parameter and is known as
the modulation index. It is the ratio of the peak amplitude of the
modulating signal, Am to the peak amplitude of the carrier signal, Ac

Am
ka
Ac

(a) Under Modulation (ka < 1)

(b) Ideal Modulation (ka = 1)

(c) Over Modulation (ka > 1)

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Over Modulation
http://www.williamson-labs.com/480_am.htm

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Detection of AM waves

There are two devices for the detection of AM waves, namely, the
square-law detector and the envelope detector

Square law detector, squares signal and then passes it through a


LPF
Residual distortion proportional to m 2(t)
Non-coherent (carrier phase not needed in RX)
Envelope detection simple alternative method

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Explanation

Diode D1 cut the negative


portion of AM signal s(t)
When signal after D1 is positive,
C is charged.
When signal after D2 is 0,
C is discharged.
Overall effect:
y(t) remains approximately
as the envelope of s(t)

Very important: this is


Envelope Detector.

m(t) can be detected from y(t)


using capacitor to remove d.c.1.

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Bandwidth of AM signal

BT = 2W

AM signals bandwidth is twice message bandwidth

This is also transmitted signal bandwidth, or required


minimum channel bandwidth Bc

Negative frequency contents of m(t) becomes visible in


positive frequency

Upper sideband (USB):

fc f fc W

Lower sideband (LSB):

fc W f fc

Transmission power:

PT = PM + Pcarrier
= PUSB + PLSB + Pcarrier

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AM Power Distribution

In any electrical circuit, the power dissipated is


equal to the voltage squared divided by the
resistance.
Mathematically, power 2in an unmodulated carrier:
Pc

The upper and lower sideband powers is given by:

Pusb Plsb

Ac
2R

Ac / 2

2R

Ac
2 Pc

8R
4
2

The total power in AM wave is equal to:

2
2 Pc 2 Pc
2 Pc
Pt Pc Pusb Plsb Pc

Pc
Pc 1
4
4
2
2

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AM Modulation Efficiency
Definition : The modulation efficiency is the percentage of the total power of
the modulated signal that conveys information.
Only Sideband Components Convey information
Modulation Efficiency:

Voltage Spectrum of the AM signal:

Carrier line spectral


component

Translated version of
message signal

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Major Properties of AM

Advantages

Simplicity in implementation, especially in receiver and


transmitter

The major reason that AM was the first & most popular
broadcasting methods during early days

Disadvantages

Waste power and bandwidth

Carrier components wastes a major portion power, but


carrier does not have message information
Both USB and LSB are transmitted, which carry the same
message information

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Ways for AM improvement

To enhance power efficiency

To enhance bandwidth efficiency

Reduce/remove carrier: DSB-SC


Remove one/partial sideband: SSB, VSB

Remove one/partial sideband: SSB, VSB


Multiplex two message signals together: QAM

Cost for the improvement

More expensive implementation


The simple envelope detector is no longer applicable

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Double-Sideband Suppressed-carrier (DSB-SC)

In the standard form of Amplitude Modulation (AM), the carrier wave


c(t) is completely independent of the message signal m(t), which
means that the transmission of the carrier wave represents a waste
of power.

To overcome this shortcoming , we may suppress the carrier


component from the modulated wave, resulting in double-sideband
suppressed carrier (DSB-SC) modulation.

Thus, by suppressing the carrier, we obtain a modulated wave that


is proportional to the product of the carrier wave and the message
signal.

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Time-Domain Description

The standard form of a DSB-SC wave is defined by

s t c t m t

s t Ac cos 2f c t m t

This modulated wave undergoes a phase reversal whenever the message signal
m(t) crosses zero, as illustrated in figure below

(a) Baseband signal

(b) DSB-SC modulated wave

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Frequency-Domain Description
The Fourier transform of the DSB-SC wave s(t) is given by

(a) Spectrum of message signal

(b) Spectrum of DSB-SC modulated wave

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Generation of DSB-SC Waves

A DSB-SC modulated wave consists simply of the product of the


message signal and the carrier wave. A device achieving this
requirement is called a Product Modulator.

Remove inefficient constant term

Modulated signal is

Can also use ring modulator: diodes and inductors

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Coherent Detection of DSB-SC Modulated Wave

The baseband signal m(t) can be uniquely recovered from a DSBSC wave s(t) by first multiplying s(t) with a locally generated
sinusoidal wave and then low-pass filtering the product
It is assumed that the local oscillator output is exactly coherent or
synchronized, in both frequency and phase, with the carrier wave
c(t) used in the product modulator to generate s(t).
This method of demodulation is known as coherent detection or
synchronous detection.

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Coherent Detection of DSB-SC Modulated Wave-2

We find that the product modulator output is:

The first term represents a DSB-SC modulated signal with a carrier


frequency 2fc, whereas the second term is proportional to the
baseband signal m(t).
the first term is removed by the low-pass filter, this requirement is
satisfied by choosing fc > W. At the filter output we then obtain a
signal given by

The demodulated signal is therefore proportional to m(t) when the


phase error is a constant.

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Coherent Detection of DSB-SC Modulated Wave-3

The amplitude of this demodulated signal is maximum when


and it is minimum (zero) when

As long as the phase error is constant, the detector provides an undistorted version
of the original baseband signal m(t).

In practice, however, we usually find that the phase error varies randomly with time,
due to random variations in the communication channel. The result is that at the
detector output, the multiplying factor
also varies randomly with time, which is
obviously undesirable.
cos

Therefore, provision must be made in the system to maintain the local oscillator in the
receiver in perfect synchronism, in both frequency and phase, with the carrier wave
used to generate the DSB-SC modulated signal in the transmitter.

The resulting system complexity is the price that must be paid for suppressing the
carrier wave to save transmitter power.

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Costas Loop (DSB-SC Demodulator)


Goal: Maintain

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Costas Loop

One method of obtaining a practical synchronous receiver system, suitable


for demodulating DSB-SC waves, is to use the Costas loop.

This receiver consists of two coherent detectors supplied with the same
input signal, namely, the incoming DSB-SC wave Accos(2fct)m(t), but with
individual local oscillator signals that are in phase quadrature with respect to
each other.

The frequency of the local oscillator is adjusted to be the same as the


carrier frequency fc, which is assumed known a priori.

The detector in the upper path is referred to as the in-phase coherent


detector or I-channel, and that in the lower path is referred to as the
quadrature-phase coherent detector or Q-channel.

These two detectors are coupled together to form a negative feedback


system designed in such a way as to maintain the local oscillator
synchronous with the carrier wave.

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Double Side Band Suppressed Carrier


Power in a AM signal is given by

s2 t

1 2
1 2 2
Ac
Ac m t
2
2

Discrete carrier power

Sideband power

Discrete carrier power can be eliminated (Suppressing carrier )if m(t) is


assumed to have a zero DC level
Then

s (t ) Ac m(t ) cos c t

Spectrum
A
S ( f ) c M f fc M f fc
2

Power

Since no power is wasted in carrier the efficiency is

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s2 t

m2 t
m t
2

1 2 2
Ac m t
2
100 100%

Noise in AM Receivers
White Gaussian noise
(AWGN)
n(t)
s(t)=Accos(2fct+
m(t)

Power in s(t) is 0.5Ac2Pm

Power in n(t) is N0B

Product
Modulato
r

1
-B

LP
F
B

m(t)+ n
(t)

Accos(2fct
+

SNR=Pm/Pn= Ac2Pm/(2N0B)= Ps/(N0B) (SNR at the receiver input)

Power in m(t) is 0.25Ac2Pm (half the power in s(t))

Power in n(t) is 0.5N0B (PSD 0.25N0 over BW 2B)


SNR=Pm/Pn= Ac2Pm/(2N0B)= Ps/(N0B) (SNR at the receiver output)

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Single-SideBand (SSB) Modulation

Standard AM and DSB-SC Modulation are wasteful of


bandwidth because they both require a transmission
bandwidth equal to twice message the message
bandwidth.
This means that insofar as the transmission of
information is concerned, only one sideband is
necessary, and no information is lost.
Thus the channel needs to provide only the same
bandwidth as the message signal, a conclusion that is
intuitively satisfying.
When only one sideband is transmitted, the modulation
is referred to as single-sideband modulation

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Single Sideband Modulation(2)

Only transmits upper or lower sideband of AM and DSBSC


The transmitted signal can be written in terms m(t) and the
Hilbert Transform of m(t)
Use same demodulator as DSBSC
SSB has half the SNR of DSBSC for half the transmit
power: no SNR gain
SSB can introduce significant distortion at DC where the
sidebands meet: not good for TV signals
LSB

A
s (t ) c [ m(t ) cos(2f c t ) mh (t ) sin( 2f c t )]
2
USB

M(f)

-B

USB

LSB

-fc

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fc

Baseband Representation of Modulated


Signals

Baseband signal representation is a compact way to represent


passband signals.

All passband signals at carrier frequency fc can be written as s(t) = sI(t)


cos(2fct) + sQ(t) sin(2fct).

sI(t) is called the in-phase signal component; sQ(t) is called the


quadrature signal component.

The sine and cosine are orthogonal signals, can be used to separate
out the in-phase and quadrature components from s(t).

We define
Then
analyze passband signals.

as the baseband signal representation.


which is a compact way to represent and

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Generating of SSB modulated wave by phase


discrimination method

The phase discrimination method of generating an SSB modulated


wave involves two separate simultaneous modulation processes and
subsequent combination of the resulting modulation products.
The system uses two product modulators, I and Q, supplied with
carrier waves in phase quadrature to each other.
The incoming baseband signal m(t) is applied to product modulator I,
producing a modulated DSBSC wave that contains reference phase
sidebands symmetrically spaced about carrier frequency fc.
The hilbert transform mh(t) of m(t) is applied to product modulator Q,
producing DSBSC modulated wave that containssideband having
identical amplitude spectra to those of modulator I, but with phase
spectra such that vector addition or subtraction of the two modulator
outputs results in cancellation of one setof sidebands and
reinforcement of the other set.
The use of plus sign yields SSB wave with only the upper sideband,
whereas the use of minus sign yields SSB wave with only upper
sideband.

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Block diagram for generating of SSB modulated


wave by phase discrimination method

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Demodulation of SSB wave

To recover the baseband signal m(t) from the SSB wave s(t), we
have to shift the spectrum by the amounts f c so as to convert
the transmitted sideband back into the baseband signal.
This can be accomplished using coherent detection, which
involves applying the SSB wave s(t), together with locally
generated carrier cos 2f c t , assumed to be of unit amplitude for
convenience, to a product modulator and then low-pass filtering
the modulator output.

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Demodulation of SSB wave (2)

The product modulator output is given by


v t cos 2f c t s t

1
~ t sin 2f t
Ac cos 2f c t m t cos 2f c t m
c
2
1
1
~ t sin 4f t
Ac m t Ac m t cos 4f c t m
c
4
4
The first term is the desired message signal. The second term
represents an unwanted components in the product modulator
output that is removed by low-pass filtering.
The detection of SSB modulated waves assume perfect
synchronization between the local carrier and that in the transmitter
both in frequency and phase. The effect of a phase error in the
locally generated carrier wave is to modify the detector output as
follows
1
1 ~
t sin
vo t Ac m t cos Ac m

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Demodulation of SSB wave (3)

Owing to the phase error , the detector output


vo(t) contains not only the message signal m(t)
but also its Hilbert transform mh(t).
Consequently, the detector output suffers from
phase distortion. This phase distortion is usually
not serious with voice communications because
the human ear is relatively insensitive to phase
distortion.
In the transmission of music and video signals,
on the other hand, phase distortion in the form of
a constant phase difference in all components
can be intolerable.

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Vestigial Side-Band (VSB) Modulation

Single-sideband modulation is well-suited for the


transmission of voice because of the energy gap that exists
in the spectrum of voice signals between zero and a few
hundred hertz.
When the message signal contains significant components
at extremely low frequencies i.e. television signals, the
upper and lower sidebands meet at the carrier frequency.
This means SSB modulation is inappropriate for the
transmission of television signals.
This difficulty suggests another scheme known as vestigial
sideband modulation (VSB), which is a compromise
between SSB and DSBSC modulation.

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Vestigial Sideband

VSB is similar to SSB but it retains a small portion (a vestige) of the


undesired sideband to reduce DC distortion. Transmits USB or LSB and
vestige of other sideband
USB

Reduces bandwidth by roughly a factor of 2

VSB signals are generated using standard AM or DSBSC modulation, then


passing modulated signal through a band-pass filter i.e. it is the special
design of the band-pass filter that distinguishes VSB modulation from SSB
modulation.
Demodulation uses either standard AM or DSBSC demodulation

VSB used for image transmission in TV signals

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Generation of VSB modulated wave

The transmission bandwidth of VSB modulation is given by


where W is the message bandwidth, and f, is the width of the vestigial
sideband
To generate a VSB modulated wave, we pass a DSBSC modulated
wave through a sideband shaping filter.
The exact design of this filter depends on the desired spectrum of the
VSB modulated wave.
the VSB modulated wave is described in the time domain as
A
A
s t c m t cos 2f c t c mQ t sin 2f c t
2
2
This is the desired representation representation for a VSB modulated
wave containing a vestige of the lower sideband. The component
0.5Acm(t) constitutes the in-phase component of this VSB modulated
wave, and 0.5AcmQ(t) constitutes the quadrature components.

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Scheme for generation and demodulation


of a VSB modulated wave

Block diagram of VSB modulator

Block diagram of VSB demodulator

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Envelope detection of a VSB wave plus


carrier

In commercial television broadcasting, a sizable carrier


is transmitted together with the modulated wave.

This makes it possible to demodulate the incoming


modulated wave by an envelope detector in the receiver.

In commercial television broadcasting, the vestigial


sideband occupies a width of about 1.25 MHz, or about
one-quarter of a full sideband.

This has been determined empirically as the width of


vestigial sideband required to keep the distortion due to
mQ(t) within tolerable limits when when the percentage
modulation is nearly 100.

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