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Dar es Salaam institute of Technology

ETU 07123
Introduction to Communication System
Ally, J


Analogue Modulation


Introduction to Modulation


Analog modulation

Both the message signal and the transmitted signal are analog
Two classes: amplitude modulation, angle modulation

Three signals:

Message signal: the information signal to be modulated and


Carrier signal c(t) : high frequency sinusoidal signal

Modulated signal: the signal to be transmitted, or the signal

obtained after modulation



It is the process of facilitating the transfer of

information over a medium.

This is done by changing one or more the

parameters of a signal including power,
frequency, phase and amplitude depending
on the requirement of the transmission


Baseband and Passband signals

Baseband, Passband

Baseband: refers to the signals and systems before

modulation, which have frequencies/bandwidth much lower
than the carrier frequency

Passband: refers to the signals and systems after (including)

modulation, which have frequencies/bandwidth around the
carrier frequency

Baseband signal: is usually the message signal

Passband signal: is usually the modulated signal, or

transmitted signal


Baseband and Bandpass Signals

Baseband signal is the original signal having the original

frequencies when delivered by transmitters.

In Baseband communication, signals are transmitted without


Bandpass signal is a signal which is modulated by one of the

modulation schemes.

Demodulation is the process of extracting the baseband

message from the carrier so that it may be processed and
interpreted by the intended receiver


Message signal m(t) modifies:

Amplitude: A(t )
AM linear modulation
(t )
Non-linear modulation
Frequency: f (t ) d (t ) dt FM
Example Compare signal waveforms


Concept of Modulation


Checkpoints for studying each modulation

Modulated signal (time-domain)

Spectrum (frequency-domain)

Parameters: bandwidth, power, etc

Modulator and demodulator (Principles, block

diagrams or circuits)

Major properties (advantages/disadvantages

over other modulations)


List of modulation methods we

will learn

Amplitude modulation methods and applications

1. AM (amplitude modulation): AM radio, short wave
radio broadcast,
2. DSBSC (double sideband suppressed carrier AM):
data modem, Color TVs color signals
3. SSB (single sideband AM): telephone
4. VSB (vestigial sideband AM): TV picture signal

Angle modulation methods and applications

1. FM (frequency modulation): FM radio broadcast, TV
sound signal, analog cellular phone
2. PM (phase modulation): not widely used, except in
digital communication systems (but that is different)


Amplitude Modulation (AM)

AM (conventional amplitude modulation)

Amplitude Modulation (AM) is the one which the amplitude of a
sinusoidal carrier is varied in accordance with an incoming
message signal

Modulated signal
Message signal: m(t)
AM modulated signal

where ka, is a constant called the amplitude

sensitivity of the modulator responsible for
the generation of the modulated signal s(t).


Time-Domain description
The standard form of an AM wave is defined by

The amplitude of the time function multiplying cos 2f c t

is called the
envelope of AM wave s(t).
The envelope of s(t) has essentially the same shape as the baseband signal
m(t) provided that two requirements are satisfied:
1. The amplitude of
is always less than unity, that is,
for all t
2. The carrier frequency fc, is much greater than the highest frequency
component W (message bandwidth) of the message signal m(t), that is

(a) Baseband signal m(t) (b) AM wave for


(c) AM wave for

Frequency-Domain description
The Fourier transform of the AM wave s(t) is given by

(a) Spectrum of baseband signal

(b) Spectrum of AM wave


Generation of AM Waves

Multipliers difficult to build in hardware

AM waves typically generated using a nonlinear device to obtain the
desired multiplication
Square law modulator sums carrier c(t) and information m(t) signals,
then squares them using a nonlinear device. Unwanted terms are
filtered out with a bandpass filter.
Switched modulation sums c(t) and m(t) then passes sum through a
switch, which approximately multiplies it by a periodic square wave.
This generates the desired signal plus extra terms that are filtered
out. Accos(2fct+

or Switch




Modulation Index
The degree of modulation is an important parameter and is known as
the modulation index. It is the ratio of the peak amplitude of the
modulating signal, Am to the peak amplitude of the carrier signal, Ac


(a) Under Modulation (ka < 1)

(b) Ideal Modulation (ka = 1)

(c) Over Modulation (ka > 1)


Over Modulation


Detection of AM waves

There are two devices for the detection of AM waves, namely, the
square-law detector and the envelope detector

Square law detector, squares signal and then passes it through a

Residual distortion proportional to m 2(t)
Non-coherent (carrier phase not needed in RX)
Envelope detection simple alternative method



Diode D1 cut the negative

portion of AM signal s(t)
When signal after D1 is positive,
C is charged.
When signal after D2 is 0,
C is discharged.
Overall effect:
y(t) remains approximately
as the envelope of s(t)

Very important: this is

Envelope Detector.

m(t) can be detected from y(t)

using capacitor to remove d.c.1.


Bandwidth of AM signal

BT = 2W

AM signals bandwidth is twice message bandwidth

This is also transmitted signal bandwidth, or required

minimum channel bandwidth Bc

Negative frequency contents of m(t) becomes visible in

positive frequency

Upper sideband (USB):

fc f fc W

Lower sideband (LSB):

fc W f fc

Transmission power:

PT = PM + Pcarrier
= PUSB + PLSB + Pcarrier


AM Power Distribution

In any electrical circuit, the power dissipated is

equal to the voltage squared divided by the
Mathematically, power 2in an unmodulated carrier:

The upper and lower sideband powers is given by:

Pusb Plsb


Ac / 2


2 Pc


The total power in AM wave is equal to:

2 Pc 2 Pc
2 Pc
Pt Pc Pusb Plsb Pc

Pc 1


AM Modulation Efficiency
Definition : The modulation efficiency is the percentage of the total power of
the modulated signal that conveys information.
Only Sideband Components Convey information
Modulation Efficiency:

Voltage Spectrum of the AM signal:

Carrier line spectral


Translated version of
message signal


Major Properties of AM


Simplicity in implementation, especially in receiver and


The major reason that AM was the first & most popular
broadcasting methods during early days


Waste power and bandwidth

Carrier components wastes a major portion power, but

carrier does not have message information
Both USB and LSB are transmitted, which carry the same
message information


Ways for AM improvement

To enhance power efficiency

To enhance bandwidth efficiency

Reduce/remove carrier: DSB-SC

Remove one/partial sideband: SSB, VSB

Remove one/partial sideband: SSB, VSB

Multiplex two message signals together: QAM

Cost for the improvement

More expensive implementation

The simple envelope detector is no longer applicable


Double-Sideband Suppressed-carrier (DSB-SC)

In the standard form of Amplitude Modulation (AM), the carrier wave

c(t) is completely independent of the message signal m(t), which
means that the transmission of the carrier wave represents a waste
of power.

To overcome this shortcoming , we may suppress the carrier

component from the modulated wave, resulting in double-sideband
suppressed carrier (DSB-SC) modulation.

Thus, by suppressing the carrier, we obtain a modulated wave that

is proportional to the product of the carrier wave and the message


Time-Domain Description

The standard form of a DSB-SC wave is defined by

s t c t m t

s t Ac cos 2f c t m t

This modulated wave undergoes a phase reversal whenever the message signal
m(t) crosses zero, as illustrated in figure below

(a) Baseband signal

(b) DSB-SC modulated wave


Frequency-Domain Description
The Fourier transform of the DSB-SC wave s(t) is given by

(a) Spectrum of message signal

(b) Spectrum of DSB-SC modulated wave


Generation of DSB-SC Waves

A DSB-SC modulated wave consists simply of the product of the

message signal and the carrier wave. A device achieving this
requirement is called a Product Modulator.

Remove inefficient constant term

Modulated signal is

Can also use ring modulator: diodes and inductors


Coherent Detection of DSB-SC Modulated Wave

The baseband signal m(t) can be uniquely recovered from a DSBSC wave s(t) by first multiplying s(t) with a locally generated
sinusoidal wave and then low-pass filtering the product
It is assumed that the local oscillator output is exactly coherent or
synchronized, in both frequency and phase, with the carrier wave
c(t) used in the product modulator to generate s(t).
This method of demodulation is known as coherent detection or
synchronous detection.


Coherent Detection of DSB-SC Modulated Wave-2

We find that the product modulator output is:

The first term represents a DSB-SC modulated signal with a carrier

frequency 2fc, whereas the second term is proportional to the
baseband signal m(t).
the first term is removed by the low-pass filter, this requirement is
satisfied by choosing fc > W. At the filter output we then obtain a
signal given by

The demodulated signal is therefore proportional to m(t) when the

phase error is a constant.


Coherent Detection of DSB-SC Modulated Wave-3

The amplitude of this demodulated signal is maximum when

and it is minimum (zero) when

As long as the phase error is constant, the detector provides an undistorted version
of the original baseband signal m(t).

In practice, however, we usually find that the phase error varies randomly with time,
due to random variations in the communication channel. The result is that at the
detector output, the multiplying factor
also varies randomly with time, which is
obviously undesirable.

Therefore, provision must be made in the system to maintain the local oscillator in the
receiver in perfect synchronism, in both frequency and phase, with the carrier wave
used to generate the DSB-SC modulated signal in the transmitter.

The resulting system complexity is the price that must be paid for suppressing the
carrier wave to save transmitter power.


Costas Loop (DSB-SC Demodulator)

Goal: Maintain


Costas Loop

One method of obtaining a practical synchronous receiver system, suitable

for demodulating DSB-SC waves, is to use the Costas loop.

This receiver consists of two coherent detectors supplied with the same
input signal, namely, the incoming DSB-SC wave Accos(2fct)m(t), but with
individual local oscillator signals that are in phase quadrature with respect to
each other.

The frequency of the local oscillator is adjusted to be the same as the

carrier frequency fc, which is assumed known a priori.

The detector in the upper path is referred to as the in-phase coherent

detector or I-channel, and that in the lower path is referred to as the
quadrature-phase coherent detector or Q-channel.

These two detectors are coupled together to form a negative feedback

system designed in such a way as to maintain the local oscillator
synchronous with the carrier wave.


Double Side Band Suppressed Carrier

Power in a AM signal is given by

s2 t

1 2
1 2 2
Ac m t

Discrete carrier power

Sideband power

Discrete carrier power can be eliminated (Suppressing carrier )if m(t) is

assumed to have a zero DC level

s (t ) Ac m(t ) cos c t

S ( f ) c M f fc M f fc


Since no power is wasted in carrier the efficiency is


s2 t

m2 t
m t

1 2 2
Ac m t
100 100%

Noise in AM Receivers
White Gaussian noise

Power in s(t) is 0.5Ac2Pm

Power in n(t) is N0B




m(t)+ n


SNR=Pm/Pn= Ac2Pm/(2N0B)= Ps/(N0B) (SNR at the receiver input)

Power in m(t) is 0.25Ac2Pm (half the power in s(t))

Power in n(t) is 0.5N0B (PSD 0.25N0 over BW 2B)

SNR=Pm/Pn= Ac2Pm/(2N0B)= Ps/(N0B) (SNR at the receiver output)


Single-SideBand (SSB) Modulation

Standard AM and DSB-SC Modulation are wasteful of

bandwidth because they both require a transmission
bandwidth equal to twice message the message
This means that insofar as the transmission of
information is concerned, only one sideband is
necessary, and no information is lost.
Thus the channel needs to provide only the same
bandwidth as the message signal, a conclusion that is
intuitively satisfying.
When only one sideband is transmitted, the modulation
is referred to as single-sideband modulation


Single Sideband Modulation(2)

Only transmits upper or lower sideband of AM and DSBSC

The transmitted signal can be written in terms m(t) and the
Hilbert Transform of m(t)
Use same demodulator as DSBSC
SSB has half the SNR of DSBSC for half the transmit
power: no SNR gain
SSB can introduce significant distortion at DC where the
sidebands meet: not good for TV signals

s (t ) c [ m(t ) cos(2f c t ) mh (t ) sin( 2f c t )]








Baseband Representation of Modulated


Baseband signal representation is a compact way to represent

passband signals.

All passband signals at carrier frequency fc can be written as s(t) = sI(t)

cos(2fct) + sQ(t) sin(2fct).

sI(t) is called the in-phase signal component; sQ(t) is called the

quadrature signal component.

The sine and cosine are orthogonal signals, can be used to separate
out the in-phase and quadrature components from s(t).

We define
analyze passband signals.

as the baseband signal representation.

which is a compact way to represent and


Generating of SSB modulated wave by phase

discrimination method

The phase discrimination method of generating an SSB modulated

wave involves two separate simultaneous modulation processes and
subsequent combination of the resulting modulation products.
The system uses two product modulators, I and Q, supplied with
carrier waves in phase quadrature to each other.
The incoming baseband signal m(t) is applied to product modulator I,
producing a modulated DSBSC wave that contains reference phase
sidebands symmetrically spaced about carrier frequency fc.
The hilbert transform mh(t) of m(t) is applied to product modulator Q,
producing DSBSC modulated wave that containssideband having
identical amplitude spectra to those of modulator I, but with phase
spectra such that vector addition or subtraction of the two modulator
outputs results in cancellation of one setof sidebands and
reinforcement of the other set.
The use of plus sign yields SSB wave with only the upper sideband,
whereas the use of minus sign yields SSB wave with only upper


Block diagram for generating of SSB modulated

wave by phase discrimination method


Demodulation of SSB wave

To recover the baseband signal m(t) from the SSB wave s(t), we
have to shift the spectrum by the amounts f c so as to convert
the transmitted sideband back into the baseband signal.
This can be accomplished using coherent detection, which
involves applying the SSB wave s(t), together with locally
generated carrier cos 2f c t , assumed to be of unit amplitude for
convenience, to a product modulator and then low-pass filtering
the modulator output.


Demodulation of SSB wave (2)

The product modulator output is given by

v t cos 2f c t s t

~ t sin 2f t
Ac cos 2f c t m t cos 2f c t m
~ t sin 4f t
Ac m t Ac m t cos 4f c t m
The first term is the desired message signal. The second term
represents an unwanted components in the product modulator
output that is removed by low-pass filtering.
The detection of SSB modulated waves assume perfect
synchronization between the local carrier and that in the transmitter
both in frequency and phase. The effect of a phase error in the
locally generated carrier wave is to modify the detector output as
1 ~
t sin
vo t Ac m t cos Ac m


Demodulation of SSB wave (3)

Owing to the phase error , the detector output

vo(t) contains not only the message signal m(t)
but also its Hilbert transform mh(t).
Consequently, the detector output suffers from
phase distortion. This phase distortion is usually
not serious with voice communications because
the human ear is relatively insensitive to phase
In the transmission of music and video signals,
on the other hand, phase distortion in the form of
a constant phase difference in all components
can be intolerable.


Vestigial Side-Band (VSB) Modulation

Single-sideband modulation is well-suited for the

transmission of voice because of the energy gap that exists
in the spectrum of voice signals between zero and a few
hundred hertz.
When the message signal contains significant components
at extremely low frequencies i.e. television signals, the
upper and lower sidebands meet at the carrier frequency.
This means SSB modulation is inappropriate for the
transmission of television signals.
This difficulty suggests another scheme known as vestigial
sideband modulation (VSB), which is a compromise
between SSB and DSBSC modulation.


Vestigial Sideband

VSB is similar to SSB but it retains a small portion (a vestige) of the

undesired sideband to reduce DC distortion. Transmits USB or LSB and
vestige of other sideband

Reduces bandwidth by roughly a factor of 2

VSB signals are generated using standard AM or DSBSC modulation, then

passing modulated signal through a band-pass filter i.e. it is the special
design of the band-pass filter that distinguishes VSB modulation from SSB
Demodulation uses either standard AM or DSBSC demodulation

VSB used for image transmission in TV signals


Generation of VSB modulated wave

The transmission bandwidth of VSB modulation is given by

where W is the message bandwidth, and f, is the width of the vestigial
To generate a VSB modulated wave, we pass a DSBSC modulated
wave through a sideband shaping filter.
The exact design of this filter depends on the desired spectrum of the
VSB modulated wave.
the VSB modulated wave is described in the time domain as
s t c m t cos 2f c t c mQ t sin 2f c t
This is the desired representation representation for a VSB modulated
wave containing a vestige of the lower sideband. The component
0.5Acm(t) constitutes the in-phase component of this VSB modulated
wave, and 0.5AcmQ(t) constitutes the quadrature components.


Scheme for generation and demodulation

of a VSB modulated wave

Block diagram of VSB modulator

Block diagram of VSB demodulator


Envelope detection of a VSB wave plus


In commercial television broadcasting, a sizable carrier

is transmitted together with the modulated wave.

This makes it possible to demodulate the incoming

modulated wave by an envelope detector in the receiver.

In commercial television broadcasting, the vestigial

sideband occupies a width of about 1.25 MHz, or about
one-quarter of a full sideband.

This has been determined empirically as the width of

vestigial sideband required to keep the distortion due to
mQ(t) within tolerable limits when when the percentage
modulation is nearly 100.