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FREQUENCY HOPPING

HOPPING-In frequency hopping


systems, the transmitter changes the
carrier frequency according to a
certain "hopping" pattern . The
advantage is that the signal sees a
different channel and a different set
of interfering signals during each
hop. This avoids the problem of
failing communication at a particular
frequency, because of a fade or a

PICTORIAL EXAMPLE:

Non Hopping
Freq. f1

Freq. f1

Hopping

Freq. f2
Corrupted
Bursts

PICTORIAL EXAMPLE:

f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1

Wanted Call (f1 fixed)


f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1

f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1 f1

Interfering Call (f1 fixed)


Corrupted Bursts because of
Interference

Non Hopping

FADING
In wireless communications, fading is
the attenuation affecting a signal over
certain propagation media, modeled as a
random process. In wireless systems,
fading may either be due to multipath
propagation, referred to as multipath
induced fading, or due to shadowing
from obstacles affecting the wave
propagation, sometimes referred to as
shadow fading.

EXAMPLE:

MULTIPATH FADING
REFLECTION,REFRACTION,DIFFRACTI
ON CAUSES MULTIPATH FADING

Reflection

Refraction
Diffraction

Fading (cont)

MULTIPATH FADING

SHADOW FADING
shadow fading is a phenomenon that occurs when a mobile moves behind an obstruction and experiences a significant reduction in signal power

Fading (cont)

BENEFITS
Frequency hopping is the technique of improving
the signal to noise ratio in a link by adding
frequency diversity. The base station commands
the mobile station to activate frequency hopping
as the mobile station moves toward the edge of a
cell or into an area of high interference. When
frequency hopping is activated in the mobile
station, the base station assigns the mobile station
a set of RF channels, rather than a single RF
channel.
Improved voice quality and prevention of dropped
calls

Types of Frequency Hopping


1. Base Band Hopping(BBH)
2. Synthesiser Frequency Hopping
(SFH)

Base Band Hopping

The TRXs always transmit a fixed frequency.


The call hops over the TRXs, maintaining
the same timeslot, on a per burst basis.
In reception the call is always processed by
the same TRX (the one where the call
started).
The number of frequencies to hop over is
limited by the number of TRX equipped in
the cell.

Base Band Hopping (cont)

TRX 0

Mobile A

TRX 1

Mobile B

TRX 2

Mobile C

TRX 3

Mobile D

TRX 4

Mobile E

Ner Hopping Frequencies = Ner TRXs in service

Synthesiser Frequency Hopping (SFH)


The TRXs are able to retune to a new
frequency each burst.
The call always stays in the same TRX.
One TRX can hop up to over 64 different
frequencies.
Wide-band combining devices (hybrids) are
required in the base station
The BCCH frequency can be included in the
hopping sequence, but in practice, BCCH
carrier never hops, and carries traffic on
timeslots 1 to 7.

Mobile Allocation (MA): Set of frequencies


the mobile is allowed to hop over. Maximum
of 63 frequencies can be defined in the MA
list.
Hopping Sequence Number (HSN):
Determines the hopping order used in the
cell. It is possible to assign 64 different HSNs.
Setting HSN = 0 provides cyclic hopping
sequence and HSN = 1 to 63 provide various
pseudo-random hopping sequences

CYCLIC HOPPING

PSEUDO-RANDOM HOPPING
SEQUENCES

Mobile Allocation Index Offset


(MAIO)
Determines inside the hopping
sequence, which frequency the
mobile starts do transmit on. The
valUe of MAIO ranges between 0 to
(N-1) where N is the number of
frequencies defined in the MA list.

Types of Synthesiser Frequency Hopping


1 X 1 SFH

One Single set of ARFCNs


Each Sector uses same MA

1 X 3 SFH

Three Sector Sites


Three Sets of ARFCNs
Each Sector uses different MA

Comparison b/w 1X1 and 1X3 SFH


1x3 is the best option in regular
networks
1x1 is the best option in irregular
networks
1x1 reuse is more robust in practice
(real networks)
1x1 pattern eliminates the frequency
planning effort

Quality Capacity Trade Off

SFH vs. BBH


Quality: Both SFH & BBH Enhance the
Quality. SFH Performs Better With
Few Carriers per Cell.
Capacity: SFH Permits Higher
Increase, Because Tighter Frequency
Reuses are Possible

SFH vs. BBH

Frequency Planning SFH is Much Easier to


Plan Than BBH or a Fixed System:

Only Requires BCCH Planning (TCH


planning is Not Required ).
All TCHs in The Cell Reuse the same Set of
Frequencies.
All the Frequencies for Hopping are Reused
in All the Sites (1x3 Reuse) or Cells (1x1
Reuse).
To Add a New Site Only Requires to Select a
Frequency for the BCCH.

COVERAGE OVERLAPPING CONSTRAIN


Due to 1x1 and 1x3 tight frequency
re-use is done coverage is a problem
then
Homogeneous network required

FRACTION LOAD

FREQUQNCY CONSTRAIN
Performance of SFH depends upon
FRACTIONAL LOAD
Maximum fractional load is 50%
means the number of frequencies is
2 times the number of TRXs