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Mangroves Forests in

Pakistan

Mohummad Tahir Qureshi


Coastal Ecosystem Expert
IUCN - Pakistan
International Union for Conservation of Nature

Largest arid climate mangroves in the World


Maritime Zone is one of the most productive areas in the world
80 percent of the Worlds oil tankers pass through Pakistan water
Government of Pakistan earns 8.8 billion rupees on exports, on an average
annually

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Coastal & Marine Resource Potential


90 million tons is the world wide catches of marine fishes per

annum and 0.665 million tons is the catch in Pakistan


About 450 sp: of fish are recorded from Arabian sea and
Pakistan has over 100 sp:
25 sp: of fish are of commercial importance

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Coastal & Marine Resource Potential

Over 150,000 people use about 36,000 tons of mangrove


fire wood per month along Pakistan coast.

About 16,000 camels, 4,000-6,000 cows and water buffaloes


and 2,500 3,000 cattle graze in mangroves.

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Distribution of Mangrove
Forests along the Coast of
Pakistan
Mangrove Categories

Year

1. Dense, normal and sparse


mangroves vegetation

1932

604,870

2. Dense, normal and sparse


vegetation

1986

440,000

3. Dense, normal and sparse


vegetation

1992

160,000

2005

86,000

4. Dense, normal and sparse


vegetation
(approx.)
Source:

Area in Hectares

coastal environmental management plan for Pakistan, UNESCAP, GOP, 1996


Mangroves of Pakistan Status & Management,
IUCN Pakistan,
2005
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Union for
Conservation of Nature

Causes of Changes in Mangrove Habitat


Scarcity of Fresh Water
Average Annual & Seasonal Discharge
Volumes Downstream of Kotri Barrage

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Causes of Changes in Mangrove Habitat

Waste disposal and pollution

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Causes of Changes in Mangrove Habitat


Marine Pollution
Municipal Waste:

104 million gallons/day

Industrial Waste:

175 million gallons/day

(Tanneries
Power Plants, Steel Mills, Harbours, Ports etc )
Oil Pollution:

1.5 million tons/year

International Conventions relating to Sea


MARPOL 73-78
Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and other Matters
Oil Pollution Preparedness, Response and Cooperation Control of
Transboundary movement and hazardous waste and their disposal.
Laws Relating to Pakistan
Pakistan Penal Code 1861
Port Act 1905
Factories Act 1934
Regulating Bodies / Agencies
Maritime Security Agency (MSA), Sindh and Balochistan
(Environmental Protection Agencies), Port Authorities, Fish Harbour Authorities

Source: Karachi Development Authority (2000)


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Causes of Changes in Mangrove Habitat

Improper
management
and over
exploitation

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Ecological implications of
Destruction/Depletion of
Mangrove Resources
Change in composition of vegetation

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Ecological implications of
the Destruction of Mangroves
Sea Intrusion

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Mangrove Rehabilitation in
Pakistan
Replanting 1987-2008 30,000 hectares

Plantation

Organizations involved
IUCN-Pakistan, Gwader Development
Authority (GDA), Port Qasim Authority,
Balochistan & Sindh Forests and Wildlife
Deptt, Balochistan Coastal Development
Authority, District Govt. Communities

Nursery

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Re-introduction of 2 mangroves
species to increase biodiversity
along Balochistan Coast

To develop
effective
methods of
rehabilitating
degraded
mangroves
forests, using
both artificial and
assisted natural
regeneration.

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Mangroves protective plantation


against natural disaster (cyclone,
Tsunami) and sand dunes shifting
New nursery grounds for shrimp
and fishes

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Awareness Raising & Capacity Building

to raise awareness among the coastal


communities, in order to promote
sustainable use of mangrove forest

to build the capacity of the Sindh and


Balochistan forest departments.

to provide technical back stropping to


the agencies responsible for the
conservation of mangrove forests.

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Apiculture & Ecotourism


Alternate source of Income for
Coastal Community
Mangrove Walkway

Honeybee keeping in
Mangrove

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Suggestions and
Recommendations
Minimum environmental flows should be released
down the Kotri barrage for ecosystem and livelihood
of local population.
The pollution should be treated at source before
discharging into the sea.
Deep sea fishing policy should be developed in
consultation with coastal community.
Government should sanction long term mangrove
forests and fisheries rehabilitation project along the
coast of Pakistan.
Coastal communities should be involved in coastal
resource
management at all levels.
Communities should be provided alternatives for
reducing
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their dependence on mangrove ecosystems.

Thanks
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