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NIFT CPT

(Clothing and Production Technology)


DYEING AND PRINTING

Ppt 1: QUALITY AND FABRIC


TESING
April 08 + April 22, 2016

A CONSUMERS PERCEPTION OF APPAREL QUALITY IS


FORMED BY:

(LEARN THIS CHART!)

Physical
Features [What the
garment is]

Intrinsic
Attributes
Performance
Features [What the
garment does]

Extrinsic
Attributes

- Price
- Brand Image
- Image of Retailer
- Packaging
- Country of Origin

- Design
-Materials
- Construction
- Finish
Aesthetic
Performance
Attractiveness
- Fulfilling fashion
needs
- Design principles
of color, line,
balance, proportion
Functional
Performance
- Utility (usefulness)
- * Durability and
serviceability

*Consumers cannot determine


durability/serviceablity at point of purchase

QUALITY PROCESSES USED IN THE


APPAREL INDUSTRY
Consumers aesthetic expectations are easier to
discern than their functional expectations.
However, it is not easy to get a clear message
regarding functional performance preferences, since
consumers are neither satisfied nor dissatisfied with
the utility or durability of a garment at the point of
sale.
Consumers can only tell if garments meet - or fail to
meet - functional performance standards after wear
and care.
It is therefore up to apparel companies to pursue
and acquire an understanding of customers
functional performance expectations.

Companies determine their brands performance


standards that will reflect the expectations of the
target consumer, and then perform extensive quality
tests to ensure conformance to these standards as
part of routine procedure.
They evaluate raw materials as well as assembled
apparel products for adherence to standards.
Smaller manufacturers often do not have the staff or
equipment to perform quality analysis at their
workplace, so they send the raw materials and
assembled apparel products to independent testing
laboratories that provide testing services.
No matter what the size of the company and what
limits are placed on resources, it is always possible
to monitor and maintain functional performance
quality.

Many large manufacturers and retailers establish


quality departments that monitor and maintain
quality standards.
These departments, called quality assurance (QA)
or quality control (QC), constantly refine methods
and procedures to consistently achieve the
companys desired level of quality.
The company determines the quality level that will
reflect the expectations of the target consumer.
Quality departments promote the principle that
quality is built into the manufacturing process and is
not a separate function. it is the responsibility of all
employees to do it right the first time.

Most retail quality departments measure products to


check conformance-to-fit specifications and they
launder the products to confirm appropriate end-use
performance.
Some retailers have quality requirements as
comprehensive as those of the most sophisticated
manufacturer. For example, they might require boys
denim jeans to achieve specified levels of
shrinkage, tensile strength, tear strength, crocking,
weight, colorfastness to light, laundering, and
bleaching.
A specified number of samples from all incoming
shipments is tested to ensure conformance to these
standards.

ESTABLISHING STANDARDS AND


SPECIFICATIONS

Standards are general guidelines adopted by


companies to reflect the overall quality level of
their products.
Standards answer the question, At what level
must these products perform? For example, a
company might set a standard for seam strength
then all seams in a garment must be at least
as strong as the standard.
Standards are often written as minimum
standards to establish a base line.
Usually companies adopt existing international
standards such as ASTM, ISO or AATCC for
their products.

Standards are communicated throughout the


company, to all suppliers, and to the testing
laboratories.
Standards are not proprietary or secret; they are
open and available to anyone who needs them if a
company is going to achieve its quality goals.
Standards should be updated on a regular basis.
Companies adopt standards for two separate
aspects of apparel production:
- Fabric and trims, or raw material, standards,
and,
- Garment or product standards.
Both fabric and findings and garment standards
must be strictly enforced to protect the image of a
quality-oriented business.

Specifications or specs define how to meet the


companys standards for a particular garment.
Specifications serve to inform suppliers and staff
about how a particular product is to be made.
For example, to meet a seam strength standard,
the tech-pack may specify a stitch and seam
type, the number of stitches per inch, and thread
size.
Unlike standards, which are general to all
products, specifications are specific to one
product and are written exactly as needed to
ensure conformance.

Specifications are written for a particular product


and are therefore always current, but standards
tend to be generic and apply to many products.
It is easy to take standards for granted and
forget to update them.
New technology or new fashion trends can
cause a standard to become permanently or
temporarily obsolete. Both standards and
specifications must balance required levels of
aesthetic and functional performance with the
cost limitations of the price line on the design,
materials, construction, and finish.

DISTINGUISHING BETWEEN STANDARDS &


SPECIFICATIONS
Document

Used by

To maintain
product quality
level desired by
target market

Testing Technicians,
Quality Engineers,
Buyers,
Merchandisers

Garment
Standards

To maintain
consistent sewing
practices on all
garments

Quality Auditors,
Sewing Operators,
Sewing Engineers,
Costing Merchants

Fabric &
Trim
Specifications

To specify desired
raw material to
supplier for the
purchase process

Buyers,
Merchandisers,
Buying agents,
Costing & Quality
teams

Garment
Specifications

To specify how
the garment has
to be constructed
so it meets
performance

Designers,
merchandisers,
pattern makers,
technical
departments,

Standar Fabric
ds
Standards

Specifications

Purpose

WHO SETS THE STANDARDS?


ISO, the International Organization for
Standardization, is an independent, nongovernmental organization, and the world's largest
developer of voluntary international standards.
Nearly twenty thousand standards have been set by
ISO covering everything from manufactured products
and technology to food safety, agriculture and
healthcare.
Use of the ISO standards aids in the creation of
products and services that are safe, reliable and of
good quality. By enabling products from different
markets to be directly compared, these standards
facilitate companies in entering new markets and assist
in the development of global trade on a fair basis.
The standards also serve to safeguard consumers and
the end-users of products and services, ensuring that
certified products conform to the minimum standards

TheAmerican Association of Textile Chemists


and Colorists(AATCC) is a not-for-profit association
that provides test method development, quality
control materials, and professional networking for
textile professionals throughout the world.

AATCC has developed more than 200 textile-related


test methods and evaluation procedures. It also
manages several functions relating to International
Organization for Standardization (ISO) textile test
method development
ASTM International (earlier American Society for
Testing and Materials) is another international

QUALITY MANUALS
Most major brands have a documented
Quality Assurance Policy, referred to as the
Quality Manual. The information is very
detailed and often runs into a hundred pages.
The objective of these manuals is to ensure
the garments being manufactured at a facility
conform to the required functional
performance i.e. ensuring the garments
utility and durability.
TO REPEAT: Utility refers to usefulness. Is the garment
comfortable? Is it easy to care for? Does it function
appropriately for the intended use?
Durability or serviceability refers to how well the
garment retains its structure and appearance after wear
and care. Does it resist shrinking? Do the seams remain
intact? Does the zipper continue to zip?

WHAT DO THESE MANUALS


CONTAIN?

APPAREL PERFORMANCE SPECIFICATIONS


sorted by
- fabric type (woven or knit)
- apparel type (outerwear, innerwear,
sportswear)
- performance standards
- testing procedures
- audit processes
- sample submissions and timelines

FABRIC AND GARMENT TESTING


All raw materials fabrics and trims - which
go into the making of a garment have to meet
prescribed performance standards.
In addition, the garment itself is tested for
performance.
Apparel brands and apparel sourcing
companies always demand that fabrics and
garments are tested across a specific set of
parameters and this is referred to as the FPT
(fabric package tests) and GPT (garment
package tests).
Production companies are required to submit
samples to nominated testing labs, which
take between 2 and 3 days to submit their

FABRIC PACKAGE TESTS


These include:
1. Fabric Composition (% fiber)
2. Yarn Count (Ne or Denier)
3. Dimensional Stability To
Washing (%)
4. Flammability Test (Class 1, 2,
3)
5. Tensile Strength (lbs)
6. Bursting Strength (psi or
kilo-pascals)
7. Tear Strength (lbs)
8. Seam Slippage (lbs/in)
9. Seam strength (lbs/in)
10. Pilling Resistance (scale 1-5)
11. pH Value (4 7.5)
12. Skewness/Spirality/Torqueing
(%)
13. Appearance after Care

14. Fabric Weight (gsm or oz/sq


yd
15. Threads Per Unit Length
(epi/ppi)
16. Colour Fastness to Light (15)
17. Colour Fastness To Heat (15)
18. Color Fastness To Laundering
(1-5)
19. Color Fastness To Nonchlorine Bleach (1-5)
20. Color Fastness To Crocking
(dry and wet) (1-5)
21. Colorfastness to perspiration
(1-5)
22. Colorfastness to Saliva (1-5)
23. Colorfastness to Water (1-5)
24. Formaldehyde Test (Neg/Pos)
25. Harmful azo dyes (22

GARMENT PACKAGE TESTS

Dimensional Stability In Washing


Spirality After Laundering
Bursting Strength
Tensile Strength
Tear Strength
Seam Strength
Seam Slippage
Seam Appearance
Seam Stretchability (including head opening)
Trim Compatibility
Zipper Performance
Snap Performance
Cross Staining Embroidery/ Screen-print or
pieced garment

THE NEED FOR FABRIC


INSPECTION
FABRIC INPUT USUALLY
COMPRISES 60-70% OF THE COST
OF A GARMENT
MORE THAN 50% OF ALL
GARMENT REJECTIONS ARE DUE
TO FABRIC!

THE INSPECTION PROCESS


At the time of receiving FOB (first of bulk):
i. Check the fabric for physical parameters against purchase order and
approved standard construction, width, gsm, color, handfeel, pattern
repeat.
ii. Check also for shade variation, visual appearance, shrinkage and color
fastness.
. After receiving bulk fabric:
i. Fabric inspection is usually conducted when at least 80% of consignment
or lot is received.
ii. The physical parameters (as for FOB above) are checked first. The
length (or weight, in case of knits) of each roll inspected must be
compared to the ticketed tag, and any deviation must be documented
and reported for replacement to avoid shortage.
iii. If a patterned (yarn dyed or printed) fabric is being inspected the repeat
measurement must be done from beginning, middle and end of selected
rolls.
iv. For the main fabric inspection, a minimum of 10 per cent of the total rolls
are selected at random, with at least one roll in each colour way.

FACTORY FABRIC SOPs: THREE KEY FABRIC REPORTS


A. FABRIC SHADE BAND REPORT
B. FABRIC SHRINKAGE REPORT
C. FABRIC INSPECTION REPORT
A. THE SHADE BAND REPORT

Objective: to segregate the bulk fabric into families of like


(similar) colors. Usually done for solid dyed and printed fabrics.
Method:
i. For styles which are required non-washed, or minimally
washed:
Cut 8 X 8 swatches from each roll. Mark the fabric lot
numbers, roll numbers and date on each swatch. Segregate
into color families after visual inspection. Then segregate the
bulk fabric rolls. File the swatches for records.
For knits, the gsm circle cuttings can serve as a shade band.

ii. For styles which are required washed:


This calls for creating before and after wash blankets.
Method: Cut 6 inch full width panels from the end of each
roll. Mark the fabric lot numbers, roll numbers and date on
each panel. Stitch the panels together along correct grain
line direction to form a blanket.
Four blankets are prepared - 2 blankets are kept unwashed
and 2 blankets are washed to the approved standard.
Once the shade bands are ready, dye lot or color
segregation can be done. If the Shade Band consists of 2 or
more different shades, such shades should be segregated
into families marked A, B, C, etc.
A copy of the segregation of shades is handed over to the
store in-charge, cutting room, merchandising and
production departments. Stores will issue and cutting and
production department will proceed as per the segregated
shades without the rolls getting mixed.

B. THE SHRINKAGE REPORT


To maintain the integrity of garment fit, all
fabric rolls need to be tested for dimensional
stability. Shrinkage tests are carried out in
order to manipulate the cutting patterns if
necessary.
A transparent plastic shrinkage
template with 25cm x 25cm &
50cm x 50cm benchmark
length-wise &width-wise is
used. It has a calibrated scale to evaluate
shrinkage and stretch directly up to 15%. Two
fine tipped black and yellow fabric markers
are used for accurate marking on light and
dark colour fabrics.

How Shrinkage Template and Scale works?


The marking template is placed on the specimen to be tested and the
fabric marked through the eight slots of the template.
The fabric is then washed in the washing machine, or dry cleaned, as
per the approved care instructions.
The sample is dried as per approved method - line dry or flat dry or
tumble dry.
To find the dimensional change read the shrinkage/stretch on 3 points
on the warp and 3 points on weft. Then average the 3 readings.
If a template is not available the fabric can still be tested with help of a
simple scale.

S % = [(A B)/A] x 100


G % = [(B A)/A] x 100

C. THE FABRIC INSPECTION REPORT


Factors such as type of weave, yarn used, finishing treatment,
mechanical condition of the machines and weavers practices
influence the fabric quality.
The FOUR POINT inspection system is the established method of
fabric inspection globally and is based on penalty points given to
a defect found when inspecting fabric. Defects in both the wrap &
weft directions for woven fabrics and course & wale directions for
knit fabrics are assigned penalty points based on defect size.

THE FOUR POINT INSPECTION RULES:


- Not more than four penalty points are given for any single defect.
- No more than four penalty points are given to one linear yard
regardless of the number of defects found within that one yard.
- For continuous defects such as side to side shading or end to end
shading, no penalty points are assigned and the entire roll is
rejected.

THE PROCESS FOR FOUR POINT INSPECTION


SYSTEM

Pass the fabric longitudinally through the Inspection


machine at a speed not exceeding 15 yards /min
The light source should be perpendicular to the
surface of the fabric and the fabric should run at an
angle of 45 60 degrees to the vertical
The inspection area surface illumination level shall
be a minimum 1075 lux. The lighting source should
be cool white fluorescent (CWF) lamps having a
correlated colour temperature of 4100 to 4500K
with white reflectors
Inspect the fabric from a distance of one metre

Assign defect points based on the length of the defect:


Defect length (inches) Points to be assigned
Up to 3
1
3 to 6 2
6 to 9 3
Over 9
4
Assign four points to each metre of fabric where usable
width is less than the minimum specified.
No running meter of the fabric shall be penalised more
than four points
Defects not visible on the face of the fabric shall not be
counted

40 points per 100 square yards is considered an


acceptable defect rate by fabric industry . . . But the
garment industry is not usually in agreement . . .
Here is an example to work the math:
Total fabric received: 5400 metres, width 60
Acceptance Point Count: 40 per 100 square yards
Total fabric Inspected : 540 linear metres = 590.5 linear
yards = 984 sq yards
Total penalty points found in the sample inspection: 250
points
250 divided by 984 multiplied by 100 = 25.4 points per
100 sq yards.
Because the allowance is 40 points per 100 sq yards this
shipment would be acceptable.

FABRIC INSPECTION MACHINE


The back can be lit for easy detection of
holes, frays, double ends or pics etc.

VISIBLE FABRIC DEFECTS


Yarn contamination or Fly: floating fibers of different
colors or different content enmeshed in the yarn
Broken or missing ends or picks
Coarse End Or Pick A warp or weft yarn having larger
diameter or more plies than the body of the fabric.
Slack or tight ends or picks
Reed marks due to improper spacing of the warp yarns
Streaks across the width of the fabric or barre marks
due yarn count variation or faulty loom functioning
Chafe An area where the fabric has been damaged by
abrasion or friction
Flat Two or more threads weaved as one and not
meant to be a feature of the weave

Fuzz Balls Loose fibres originated from within the fabric


that have formed balls and is woven into the fabric.
Kink (Snarl) A short length of yarn spontaneously doubled
on itself.
Miss-pick A pick woven in the wrong order with respect to
the weave or colour pattern
Smash An area where the fabric been ruptured by
breakage of large number of ends.
Oil or Grease marks.
Slub An abruptly thickened portion of yarn woven into
fabric.
Float A thread that extends unwoven over the threads of
the opposite set with which it should normally be interlaced

GRAIN DEFECTS
GRAIN: Position of warp yarns relative to filling yarns in
fabric
On-grain: Warp yarns lie parallel to each other
(lengthwise) & weft yarns lie parallel to each other
(crosswise). Warp & weft yarns lie perpendicular to each
other.
Off-grain: Lowers fabric quality, fabric does not drape
properly, Printed designs are not straight.
Skewed fabric: Filling yarn is at an angle other than 90
degrees to warp yarns. Note Skewing is sometimes
deliberately introduced in denim and twill fabrics.
Bowed fabric: Filling yarns dip forward or backward in
the centre of fabric.