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COMPUTER PERIPHERALS

VIDEO CARD
VOICE CARD
MODEM AND FAX

PREPARED BY : MOHD FADHIL BIN RAMLE


a circuit board installed in computer to
increase the capabilities of that computer.
The card must be match to the bus type
of the motherboard (example : install a
PCI network card only into a PCI
expansion slot).

WHAT IS ADAPTER CARD?


 Commonly called video card.
 To allow the computer to display information on
some kind of monitor or LCD display.
 Responsible to converting the data sent to it by
the CPU into the pixels, addresses and other
items required for display.
 Sometimes, video cards can include dedicated
chips to perform certain of these functions, thus
accelerating the speed of display.
 With today’s motherboard, most video cards are
AGP and, with increasing popularity, PCIe
expansion cards that fit in the associated slot on
a motherboard.

VIDEO CARD
History of video-display technology:
◦ MDA (Monochrome Display Adapter).
◦ HGC (Hercules Graphics Card)
◦ CGA (Color Graphics Adapter)
◦ EGA (Enhanced Graphics Adapter)
◦ VGA (Video Graphics Array)
◦ SVGA (Super VGA)
◦ XGA (Extended Graphics Array)
MDA, HGC, CGA, EGA or MCGA was obsolete.
All current display adapter that connect to
the 15-pin VGA analog connector or the DVI
analog/digital connector are based on the
VGA standard.

VIDEO CARD
VIDEO DISPLAY ADAPTOR
Unlike earlier video standards, which are
digital, VGA is an analog system.
Most personal computer displays introduced
before the PS/2 are digital.
This type of display generates different colors
by firing the RGB electron beams in on-or-off
mode, which allows for the display of up to
eight colors (23). In the IBM displays and
adapters, another signal doubles the number
of color combinations from 8 to 16 by
displaying each color at one of two intensity
levels.

VIDEO CARD
VIDEO DISPLAY ADAPTOR
 Digital display is easy to manufacturer and offers simplicity
with consistent color combination from system to system.
 The real drawback of the older digital displays such as CGA
and EGA is the limited number of possible colors.
 In the PS/2 system, IBM went to analog display circuit (April
2, 1987).
 Analog displays work like the digital displays but each color
in the analog display system can be displayed at varying
levels of intensity-64 levels, in the case of VGA.
 So, analog system provide 262,144 possible colors (643) of
which 256 could be simultaneously displayed.
 For realistic computer graphics, color depth is often more
important than high resolution because the human eye
perceives a picture that has more colors as being more
realistic.

VIDEO CARD
VIDEO DISPLAY ADAPTOR
Video Graphic Array
 a purely IBM-defined standard
 VGA BIOS is the control software residing in the
system ROM for controlling VGA circuits.
 The VGA can run almost any software that
originally was written for the CGA or EGA.
 A standard VGA card displays up to 256 colors
onscreen, from a palette of 262,144 (256KB)
colors; when used in the 640x400 text mode, 16
colors at a time can be displayed.
 Because the VGA outputs an analog signal, you
must have a monitor that accepts an analog
input.

VIDEO CARD
VIDEO DISPLAY ADAPTOR
Also come in monochrome VGA models.
64 gray shades are displayed instead of
colors.
Uses an algorithm that makes the desired
color and rewrites the formula to involve
all three color guns, producing varying
intensities of gray.

VIDEO CARD
VIDEO DISPLAY ADAPTOR
Super VGA
was defined by the Video Electronics
Standards Association (VESA)
In that first version, it called for a
resolution of 800 × 600 4-bit pixels (Each
pixel could therefore be any of 16
different colours).
extended to 1024 × 768 8-bit pixels, and
well beyond that in the following years.

VIDEO CARD
VIDEO DISPLAY ADAPTOR
SVGA uses a VGA connector (DE-15)
Integrated Video/Motherboard Chipsets
The performance and features of built-in
video differed only slightly from add-on
cards using the same or similar chipsets.

VIDEO CARD
VIDEO DISPLAY ADAPTOR
Integrated Video Features of Intel 8xx
Chipsets
Table 15.9
Allvideo adapters contain certain basic
components, such as the following:
◦ Video BIOS
◦ Video processor/video accelerator
◦ Video memory
◦ Digital-to-analog converter (DAC).
◦ Bus connector
◦ Video driver

VIDEO CARD
VIDEO DISPLAY ADAPTOR COMPONENTS
VIDEO CARD
VIDEO DISPLAY ADAPTOR COMPONENTS
VIDEO BIOS
 Containing basic instructions that provide an interface
between the video adapter hardware and the software
running on your system.
 Enables your system to display information on the
monitor during the system POST and boot sequences.
 Can be upgraded (use EEPROM).
 Video BIOS upgrades (sometimes referred as
firmware upgrades) are sometimes necessary in order
to use an existing adapter with a new operating
system or when manufacturer encounters a
significant bug in original programming.

VIDEO CARD
VIDEO DISPLAY ADAPTOR COMPONENTS
VIDEO PROCESSOR
 The heart of any video adapter and essentially defines
the card’s functions and performance levels.
 Two video adapters with the same chipset often have
the same capabilities and deliver comparable
performance.
 Software drivers that OS and applications use to
address the video adapter hardware are written
primarily with the chipset.
 The video adapter that use the same chipset may
differ in the amount and type of memory installed.

VIDEO CARD
VIDEO DISPLAY ADAPTOR COMPONENTS
VIDEO CARD
VIDEO DISPLAY ADAPTOR COMPONENTS
VIDEO AND SYSTEM CHIPSETS
Why you should find out which chipset the
video card or video circuit use?:
◦ Better comparisons of card or system to others
◦ Access to technical specifications
◦ Access to reviews and opinions
◦ Better buying decisions
◦ Choice of card manufacturer or chipset
manufacturer support and drivers.

VIDEO CARD
VIDEO DISPLAY ADAPTOR COMPONENTS
Video RAM
 most video adapters rely on their own onboard
memory to store video images while processing
them
 Size : 32MB, 64MB or more of onboard memory.
 Many low-cost system with onboard video use
the universal memory architecture (UMA) feature
to share the main system memory.
 Memory on the video card or borrowed from the
system performs the same tasks.

VIDEO CARD
VIDEO DISPLAY ADAPTOR COMPONENTS
Video RAM
 Amount of memory on the adapter or used by
integrated video determines the maximum
screen resolution and color depth the device can
support.
 Common memory size : 32MB, 64MB and
128MB.
 Adding more memory is not guaranteed to speed
up your video adapter.
 Speed can increase if it enables a wider bus
(from 64bits wide to 128bits wide) or provide
nondisplay memory as a cache.

VIDEO CARD
VIDEO DISPLAY ADAPTOR COMPONENTS
Video RAM

Table 15.11

VIDEO CARD
VIDEO DISPLAY ADAPTOR COMPONENTS
Video RAM
 SGRAM, SDRAM, DDR and DDR-II SDRAM have
replaced VRAM, WRAM and MDRAM as high
speed solutions.

VIDEO CARD
VIDEO DISPLAY ADAPTOR COMPONENTS
SDRAM
 Synchronous DRAM
 Usually surface mounted individual chips; on a few
early models, a small module containing SDRAMs
might be plugged into proprietary connector.
 Designed to work with bus speeds up to 200MHz and
provides performance just slightly slower than
SGRAM.
 Used in current low-end video cards and chipsets
such as NVIDIA’s GeForce2 MX and ATI’s RADEON
VE.

VIDEO CARD
VIDEO DISPLAY ADAPTOR COMPONENTS
SGRAM
 Synchronous Graphics RAM (SGRAM).
 High-end solution for very fast video adapter
designs.
 Differs from SDRAM by including circuitry to
perform block writes to increase the speed of
graphics fill or 3D Z-buffer operations.
 Although SGRAM is faster than SDRAM, most
video card makers dropped SGRAM in favor of
even faster DDR-SRAM in their newest products.

VIDEO CARD
VIDEO DISPLAY ADAPTOR COMPONENTS
DDR SDRAM
 Double Data Rate SDRAM.
 Designed to transfer data at speeds twice that of
conventional SDRAM by transferring data on both
the rising and falling parts of the processing clock
cycle.
 Today’s mid-range and low-end video cards
based on chipsets such as NVIDIA’s GeForce FX
and ATI’s RADEON 9xxx series use DDR SDRAM
for video memory.

VIDEO CARD
VIDEO DISPLAY ADAPTOR COMPONENTS
DDR-II SDRAM
 Second generation of DDR SDRAM.
 Fetches 4 bits of data per cycle, instead of 2 as
with DDR SDRAM (double performance at the
same clock speed).
 First video chipset to support DDR-II was
NVIDIA’s GeForce FX.

VIDEO CARD
VIDEO DISPLAY ADAPTOR COMPONENTS
GDDR-3 SDRAM
 Based on DDR-II memory with two major
differences:
◦ GDDR-3 separates reads and writes with a single-ended
unidirectional strobe, whereas DDR-II uses differential
bidirectional strobes. This method enables much higher
data transfer rates.
◦ GDDR-3 uses an interface technique known as pseudo-
open drain, which uses voltage instead of current. This
method makes GDDR-3 memory compatible with GPUs
designed to use DDR or DDR-II memory.

VIDEO CARD
VIDEO DISPLAY ADAPTOR COMPONENTS
VIDEO RAM SPEED
 Video cards with same type 3D graphics
processor chip (GPU) onboard might use different
speeds of memory.
 Example:
◦ Two cards use the NVIDIA GeForce FX 5200-the Prolink
PixelView (4ns memory) and the Chaintech A-FX20 (5ns
memory)-use different memory speeds.
◦ Sometimes, video makers also match different memory
speeds with different versions of the same basic GPU, as
with ATI’s Radeon 9800 XT and 9800 Pro: 9800XT has a
core clock speed of 412MHz versus the 9800 Pro’s
380MHz clock speed.

VIDEO CARD
VIDEO DISPLAY ADAPTOR
RAM CALCULATIONS
 To find amount of memory a video adapter needs to
display a particular resolution and color depth.
 Resolution determines the number of total pixels. For
example, a screen resolution of 1024x768 requires a
total 786,432 pixels.
 If you were to display that resolution with only two
colors, you would need only 1 bit of memory space to
represent each pixel.(0=dot is black, 1=dot is white)
 If you use 24 bits of memory space to control each
pixel, you can display more than 16.7 million colors
(224 )

VIDEO CARD
VIDEO DISPLAY ADAPTOR
 Amount of memory that adapter needs to display that
resolution.

1024x768 = 786432 pixels x 24 bits per pixels


= 18,874,368 bits
= 2,359,296 bytes
= 2.25 MB

 Because most adapters support memory amounts of


only 256KB, 512KB, 1MB, 2MB or 4MB. You would
need to use video adapter with at least 4MB of RAM
onboard to run your system using that resolution and
color depth.

VIDEO CARD
VIDEO DISPLAY ADAPTOR
VIDEO CARD
VIDEO DISPLAY ADAPTOR
DIGITAL-TO-ANALOG CONVERTER
 Commonly called a RAMDAC
 Convert the digital images your computer generates
into analog signals the monitor can display.
 Measured in MHz, the higher vertical refresh rates,
allow higher resolutions with flicker-free refresh rates
(72Hz-85Hz or above)
 Typically, cards with RAMDAC speeds of 300MHz or
above display flicker-free at resolutions up to
1920x1200.
 Of course, you must ensure that any resolution you
want to use is supported by both your monitor and
video card.

VIDEO CARD
VIDEO DISPLAY ADAPTOR
THE BUS
IBM
MCA
ISA OBSOLETE
EISA
VL-Bus
PCI
AGP
PCI-eXPRESS

VIDEO CARD
VIDEO DISPLAY ADAPTOR
THE BUS
AGP
 Deliver maximum bandwidth up to 16times
larger PCI
 Enhancement to PCI bus.
 Use with only video adapter
 Provides high-speed access to the main system
memory array.
 Four speed of AGP

VIDEO CARD
VIDEO DISPLAY ADAPTOR
VIDEO CARD
VIDEO DISPLAY ADAPTOR
THE BUS
PCI EXPRESS
 Succeed both AGP and PCI
 Use high speed bidirectional serial data transfer method.
 PCI Express channels (also known as lanes) can be
combine to create wider and faster expansion slots (each
lanes provides 250MBps data rate in each directional).
 Unlike PCI bus, PCI Express do not compete with each
other for bandwidth.
 PCI Express graphics cards use 16 lanes (x16) to enable
speeds of 4GBps in each direction.
 When PCI Express used for other types of cards, fewer
lanes are used.

VIDEO CARD
VIDEO DISPLAY ADAPTOR
VIDEO CARD
VIDEO DISPLAY ADAPTOR
THE VIDEO DRIVER
 Driver enables your software to communicate
with the video adapter.
 Video drivers are designed to support the
processor on the video adapter.
 Provide the interface you can use to configure
the display your adapter produces.
 Video driver: get from supplied disk from card
manufacturer or from chipset maker.
 Sometimes you might find that one of the
provides better performance than the other.

VIDEO CARD
VIDEO DISPLAY ADAPTOR
HOW 3D ACCELERATORS WORK
 To construct an animated 3D sequence, a
computer can mathematically animate the
sequences between keyframes.
 Example: a bouncing ball can have three
keyframes; up, down, and up.
◦ Using this frames as a reference point, the computer can
create all the interim images between the top and
bottom.
◦ After creating the sequence, the system can then refine
the appearance of the images by filling them in color.
◦ Flatshading: shape is filled with a solid color.
◦ Gouraud shading: colors to specific points on a shape.

VIDEO CARD
VIDEO DISPLAY ADAPTOR
HOW 3D ACCELERATORS WORK
 3D software convert image abstractions into the fully
realize images that are then displayed on the monitor.
 The image abstractions typically consist of the following
elements:
◦ Vertices: location of objects in three-dimensional space,
described in terms of their x, y and z coordinates on three
axes representing height, width and depth.
◦ Primitives: the simple geometric objects the application uses
to create more complex construction, describe in terms of the
relative locations of their vertices.
◦ Textures: two-dimensional bitmap images or surfaces
designed to be mapped onto primitives. The software
enhances the 3D effect by modifying the appearance of the
textures.

VIDEO CARD
VIDEO DISPLAY ADAPTOR
AUDIO ADAPTER
BASIC CONNECTORS
Stereo line, or audio, out connector (lime green)
 Used to send sound signals from the audio
adapter to a device outside the computer.
 Can hook up the cables from the line-out
connector to stereo speakers, a headphone set,
or your stereo system.
stereo lin, or audio, in connector (light blue)
 Can record or mix sound signals from an external
source, such as a stereo system or VCR, to the
computer hard disk.

AUDIO ADAPTER
AUDIO ADAPTOR
BASIC CONNECTORS
Rear out or speaker/headphone connector (no
standard color)
 Older sound cards often provided an amplified
jack supplying up to 4 watts of power for use
with unpowered speakers or headphones along
with the line-out connector.
 Today, this jack used for rear speakers in four-
speaker setups.

AUDIO ADAPTER
AUDIO ADAPTOR
BASIC CONNECTORS
Microphone, or mono, in connector (pink)
 Used to connect a microphone for recording your
voice or other sounds to disk.
 Record in mono and not suitable for high-quality
music recording.
 Use Automatic Gain Control (AGC) to improve
recordings, this feature adjust the recording
levels on-the-fly.
 A 600ohm-10,000ohm dynamic or condenser
microphone works best with this jack.

AUDIO ADAPTER
AUDIO ADAPTOR
BASIC CONNECTORS
Game port (gold)
 Also called joystick connector
 15-pin D-shaped connector that can connect to any
standard joystick or game controller.

MIDI connector (gold)


 Audio adapters typically use the same joystick port as their
MIDI connector.
 Two of the pins in connector are designed to carry signals
to and from a MIDI device, such as electronic keyboard.

AUDIO ADAPTER
AUDIO ADAPTOR
CONNECTORS FOR ADVANCED FEATURES
MIDI in and MIDI out
 Some advanced sound card don’t require you to convert the
game port (joystick port) to MIDI interfacing.
 Offering this ports on a separate external connector.
 Typical location: external device.

SPDIF in and SPDIF out.


 Sony/Philips Digital interface receives digital audio signals
directly from compatible devices without converting them to
analog first.
 Typical location: external device (also referred as “Dolby
Digital” interfaces.)

AUDIO ADAPTER
AUDIO ADAPTOR
CONNECTORS FOR ADVANCED FEATURES
CD SPDIF
 Connects compatible CD-ROM drives with SPDIF interfacing
to the digital input of the sound card.
 Typical location: side of audio card

TAD in
 Connects internal modems with Telephone Answering
Device support to the sound card for sound processing of
voice message.
 Typical location: side of audio card

AUDIO ADAPTER
AUDIO ADAPTOR
CONNECTORS FOR ADVANCED FEATURES
Digital DIN out
 This supports multispeaker digital speaker systems, such
as those produced by Cambridge for use with SoundBlaster
Live! Series.
 Typical location: side of audio card.

Optical SPDIF in/out


 This supports home theater and digital speaker system
with optical inputs.
 Typical location: rear of card or external device.

AUDIO ADAPTER
AUDIO ADAPTOR
CONNECTORS FOR ADVANCED FEATURES
Aux in
 Provides input for other sound sources, such as a TV tuner
card.
 Typical location: side of audio card.
I2S in
 Enables the sound card to accept digital audio input from
an external source, such as two-channel decoded AC-3
from DVD decoders and MPEG-2 Zoom Video
 Typical location: side of audio card

AUDIO ADAPTER
AUDIO ADAPTOR
CONNECTORS FOR ADVANCED FEATURES
USB port
 Enables the sound card to connect to USB speakers, game
controllers and other types of USB devices. The Hercules Game
Theater XP Series, the first sound card with built in USB ports,
supports USB 1.1 only.
 Typical location: external breakout box

IEEE 1394
 this enables the sound card to connect to IEEE 1394-compatible
DV camcoders, scanner, hard drives and other devices.
 Creative Labs Sound Blaster Audigy, Audigy 2 series and Hercules
Digifire 7.1 all feature one or nore IEEE 1394.
 Typical location: card bracket or external cable or breakout box.

AUDIO ADAPTER
AUDIO ADAPTOR
CONNECTORS FOR ADVANCED FEATURES
Figure 16.3

Figure 16.4

AUDIO ADAPTER
AUDIO ADAPTOR
AUDIO ADAPTER CONCEPTS AND TERMS
The Nature of Sound
 Every sound is produced by vibrations that compress air or
other substances.
 Two of the basic properties of any sound are pitch and
intensity.
 Pitch
◦ rate at which vibrations are produced.
◦ Measure in the number of hertz (Hz) or cycle per second.
◦ Higher the frequency the higher the pitch.
 Intensity
◦ Called amplitude
◦ Determine the sound’s volume and depends on the stength of
the vibrations producing the sound.

AUDIO ADAPTER
AUDIO ADAPTER CONCEPTS AND TERMS
AUDIO ADAPTER CONCEPTS AND TERMS
Evaluating the Quality of Your Audio Adapter
 Quality of audio adapter is often measured by the three
criteria
◦ Frequency response (or range)
◦ Total harmonic distortion
◦ Signal-to-noise ratio.
 Frequency Response
◦ Range in which an audio system can record or play at a
constant and audible amplitude level.
◦ Many cards support 30Hz-20kHz.
◦ Wider the spread better the adapter.

AUDIO ADAPTER
AUDIO ADAPTER CONCEPTS AND TERMS
AUDIO ADAPTER CONCEPTS AND TERMS
Evaluating the Quality of Your Audio Adapter
 Total harmonic distortion
◦ Measures an audio adapter’s linearity and straightness of a
frequency response curve.
◦ In Layman’s term, the harmonic distortion is a measure of
accurate sound reproduction.
◦ Any nonlinear elements cause distortion in the form of
harmonics.
◦ Smaller the percentage of distortion , the better.
◦ This harmonic distortion factor might make difference between
cards that use the same audio chipset.
◦ Cards with cheaper components might have greater distortion,
making them to produce poorer-quality sound.

AUDIO ADAPTER
AUDIO ADAPTER CONCEPTS AND TERMS
AUDIO ADAPTER CONCEPTS AND TERMS
Evaluating the Quality of Your Audio Adapter
 Signal-to-noise ratio (S/N or SNR)
◦ Measures the strength of the sound signal relative to
background noise (hiss).
◦ Higher the number (measured in decibels), the better the
sound quality.
◦ For example: the top-of-the-line Sound Blaster Audigy 2 sound
card features an SNR of 106db, whereas the older Sound
Blaster Audigy is rated at 100db.
 These factors affect all types of audio adapter use, from
WAV file playback to speech recognition.
 Low-quality microphones and speakers can degrade the
performance of a high-quality sound card.

AUDIO ADAPTER
AUDIO ADAPTER CONCEPTS AND TERMS
AUDIO ADAPTER CONCEPTS AND TERMS
Evaluating the Quality of Your Audio Adapter
 Quality of audio adapter is often measured by the three
criteria
◦ Frequency response (or range)
◦ Total harmonic distortion
◦ Signal-to-noise ratio.
 Frequency Response
◦ Range in which an audio system can record or play at a
constant and audible amplitude level.
◦ Many cards support 30Hz-20kHz.
◦ Wider the spread better the adapter.

AUDIO ADAPTER
AUDIO ADAPTER CONCEPTS AND TERMS
AUDIO ADAPTER CONCEPTS AND TERMS
Sampling
 With an audio adapter, a PC can record waveform audio.
 Waveform audio : sampled or digitized sound.
 Analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) convert analog sound
waves into digital bits that the computer can understand.
 Digital-to-analog converters (DACs) convert the recorded
sounds to an audible analog format.
 Sampling is the process of turning the original analog
sound waves into digital (binary) signals that the computer
can save and later replay.
 The system samples the sound by taking snapshots of its
frequency and amplitude at regular intervals.

AUDIO ADAPTER
AUDIO ADAPTER CONCEPTS AND TERMS
AUDIO ADAPTER CONCEPTS AND TERMS

Figure 16.7

AUDIO ADAPTER
AUDIO ADAPTER CONCEPTS AND TERMS
MODEMS
a device that modulates an analog carrier
signal to encode digital information, and
also demodulates such a carrier signal to
decode the transmitted information.

WHAT IS MODEM
Modems are generally classified by:
◦ amount of data they can send in a given time,
normally measured in bits per second (bit/s, or
bps).
◦ the number of times the modem changes its
signal state per second (Baud).

HOW MODEMS ARE


CLASSIFIED
Allmodems support the following ITU
protocols:
◦ ITU V.90 (modulation)
◦ ITU V.42 (error correction)
◦ ITU V.42bis (data compression)

MODEM PROTOCOLS
BITs
◦ the number of bits that are conveyed or processed per
unit of time.
◦ Unit ; bps or Kbps

Baud rates
◦ Is a signaling rate, not a data-transmission rate.
◦ Eg: if a signal between two modems can change
frequency or phase at a rate of 300 times per second,
the device is said to communicate at 300 baud.

BITs AND BAUD RATES


Three most popular modulation methods:
◦ frequency-shift keying (FSK)
◦ phase-shift keying (PSK).
◦ Quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM)

MODULATION STANDARDS
A form of frequency modulation,
otherwise known as FM. By causing and
monitoring frequency changes in a signal
sent over the phone line, two modem can
sent information.

Frequency-shift Keying (FSK)


Frequency-shift Keying (FSK)
isa digital modulation scheme that
conveys data by changing, or modulating,
the phase of a reference signal (the
carrier wave).

Phase-shift Keying (PSK).


conveys two analog message signals, or
two digital bit streams, by changing
(modulating) the amplitudes of two carrier
waves, using the amplitude-shift keying
(ASK) digital modulation scheme or
amplitude modulation (AM) analog
modulation scheme.

Quadrature amplitude modulation


(QAM)
 Allmodem protocols since ITU V.34 (33.6Kbps
maximum speed) up through the current ITU V.90
and ITU V.92 standards (56Kbps maximum speed)
are full-duplex protocols.
 ITU V.90 and V.92 protocols are the industry-
standard protocols used today; V.92 support V.90.
 Full-duplex : communications can travel in both
directions at the same time and at the same speed.
example: telephone call.
 Half-duplex : communications can travel in both
directions, but only one side can transmit at a time.
example: radio call.

MODEM
V.90
 V.90 is the ITU-T designation for a 56Kbps communication
standard.
 Reconciles the conflict between the proprietary U.S
Robotics (3Com) x2 and Rockwell K56flex modem
specifications developed in 1996 and 1997.
 The last ISA modems manufactured by major vendors
typically support V.90, as do many PC Card and PCI
modems built from 1998 to 2001.
V.92
 Improved version of V.90 standard.
 Provide faster negotiation of the connection, call waiting
support and faster uploading than V.90.
 Most PCI and PC Card sold since mid-2001.

MODEM
PROTOCOLS
MODEM
MODEM NEGOTIATION
 Dialing state:
◦ a ring input causes a transition to the ringing state,
◦ while a busy input causes a transition back to the idle state.
◦ Note: In a better modem design, the modem would set a timer and attempt to
dial again after some time had expired.
 Answer tone is detected, state machine transitions to the modem
detected state because it has now been determined that there is a
modem at the other end of the telephone line.
◦ In case there is no modem at the other end of the line, a timer is set which
produces a timout event after 15 seconds, causing the modem to transition
back to the idle state.
 In the modem detected state, the modem emits a signal that
identifies its highest possible connection speed.
◦ e.g. 33 kbps (kilobits per second). If the modem at the other end is capable of
operating at this speed, it will respond with a signal that is seen by the modem
as an id1 response input.

MODEM
MODEM NEGOTIATION
 If instead the timer expires, then the modem at the other end
must not be capable of operating at 33 kbps, so the modem
emits a different signal identifying a lower speed that it is
capable of operating at, say 14.4 kbps.
 When the far-end modem responds to any of the id signals,
then the near end modem emits a training sequence.
 Training sequence which is a pre-agreed signal that permits the
modem at the far end to measure the impairments on the
telephone channel and set up adaptive filters to compensate for
these impairments. Then the modem at the far end responds by
sending back a training sequence, which allows the near-end
modem to set up its adaptive filters.

MODEM
MODEM NEGOTIATION
 After both modems have set up their filters, a converged
event causes the modem to transition to the connected
state, in which data communication occurs. You can now
start surfing the web.
Note: A better design would use a timeout timer so
that if convergence does not occur, the modem tries
to connect at a lower speed.

MODEM
MODEM NEGOTIATION
Modem Fails to Dial
1. Check line and phone jacks on the modem. Use the line jack to attach the
modem to the telephone line. The phone jack takes the same RJ-11 silver cord
cable, but it’s designed to let you daisy-chain a telephone to your modem, so
you need only a single line for modem and telephone use. If you have reversed
these cables, you will not get a dial tone.
2. If the cables are attached properly, check the cable for cuts or breaks. The
outer jacket used on RJ-11 telephone cables is minimal. If the cable looks bad,
replace it.
3. If the modem is external, make sure the RS-232 modem cable is running from
the modem to a working serial port on your computer and that is switched on.
Signal lights on the front of the modem can be used to determine whether the
modem is on and whether it is responding to dialing commands.

MODEM
PROBLEMS & TROUBLESHOOTING
Modem Fails to Dial
4. If the modem is a PC Card (PCMCIA card). Make sure it is fully plugged into the PCMCIA/PC
slot. With Windows 9x/Me/2000/XP, you should see a small PCMCIA/PC Card icon on the
toolbar. Double click it to view the cards that are currently connected. If your modem is
properly attached, it should be visible. Otherwise, remove it, reinsert it into the PCMCIA/PC
Card slot, and see whether the computer detects it.
5. Make sure your modem has been properly configured by your OS. With Windows
9x/Me/2000, use the Modems control panel to view and test your modem configuration (with
Windows XP, you can use the Modem Troubleshooter). Select your modem and click the
diagnostics tab. This displays the COM (serial) ports in your computer. Select the COM port
used by the modem, and click the More Info tab. This sends test signals to your modem. A
properly working modem responds with information about the port and modem.

MODEM
PROBLEMS & TROUBLESHOOTING
Modem Fails to Dial
6. If you get a Couldn’t Open Port error message, your modem
isn’t connected properly. It might be in use already by a
program running in the background, or there might be an IRG
or I/O port address conflict with another card in your
computer. Whether you have a modem installed, every COM
port that is working will display its IRQ, I/O port address and
UART chip type when you run Diagnostics. The UART type
should be 16550 or above for use with any modern modem.

MODEM
PROBLEMS & TROUBLESHOOTING
Computer Can’t Detect External Modem

1. Make sure the modem has been connected to the computer


with the correct type of cable.
2. Make sure the COM (serial) port or USB port to which the
modem is connected to is working.
3. Check the power cord and power switch.

MODEM
PROBLEMS & TROUBLESHOOTING
Using Your Modem Sound to Diagnose Your Modem

1. If you listen to your modem when it makes a connection, you might


have realized that different types of modems make distinctive
connection sounds and that different connection speeds also make
distinctive sounds.
2. The various types of 56Kbps modems have distinctly different
handshakes of tones, buzzes and warbles as they negotiate speeds with
the ISP’s modem.
3. Check out www.modemsite.com/56k/trouble.asp (click handshake link)
for find out sound samples of various modems during the handshaking
process for troubleshooting.

MODEM
PROBLEMS & TROUBLESHOOTING
END