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Generator

Electric Generator
Convert the mechanical energy into the
electrical energy.
Works on the principle of Faradays laws of
Electromagnetic Induction
Basically , inverse of the electric motor which
converts electrical energy into the mechanical
energy

Magnetic Flux
Magnetic flux is a measure of the amount of
magnetic B field (also called "magnetic flux
density") passing through a given surface
(such as a conducting coil).
Magnetic flux is the product of the average
magnetic field times the perpendicular area
that it penetrates.
To simplify, magnetic flux is the measure of
the strength of the magnetic field over a
given area.
3

Representation of Magnetic Flux

Faraday's law of induction

The induced electromotive force (EMF) in any closed circuit is


equal to time rate of change of magnetic flux through the circuit.
OR
EMF generated is proportional to rate of change of the magnetic
flux.

EXPEREMENTAL EXAMPLE OF FARADAYS LAW

Faraday's experiment showing induction between coils of wire:


The liquid battery (right) provides a current which flows through
the small coil (A), creating a magnetic field. When the coils are
stationary, no current is induced. But when the small coil is
moved in or out of the large coil (B), the magnetic flux through
the large coil changes, inducing a current which is detected by
the galvanometer (G)

Flemings Right Hand Rule


The thumb, the first and the
second fingers on the right
hand are held so that they are
at right angles to each other.
If the first finger points in the
direction of the magnetic field
and the thumb in the
direction of the motion of the
conductor then the second
finger will point in the
direction of the induced emf
in the conductor.

AC Generator
Generator consists of two parts:
Field ( part which produces magnetism)
Armature (part where emf is induced)

Working of AC Generator
Due to strong magnets a
magnetic field is created.
This field is cut by the
armature which has coils
wound around it.
According to the Faradays
Law
of
Electromagnetic
Induction, an EMF is induced
in these coils.
This generated EMF is
collected by the slip rings
and the brush.

This collector assembly is


connected to the bulb which
glows every time when an

Principle of Exciter
Exciter is the
backbone of
Generator control
system. It is the
power source of DC
magnetizing current
to the field windings
of a synchronous
generator thereby
ultimately inducing
AC voltage and
current in the
generator rotating
armature.

WHY EXCITATION IN D.C , WHY


NOT IN A.C ???
According to Weber & Ewings molecular Theory
The molecules of all substances are inherently

magnets in themselves, each having a N & S pole.


In the unmagnetised material electronic spin alignment is
haphazard manner.
If we placed the unmagnetised material in a magnetic
field or we give the D.C supply then the
Electronic spin start turn round their axis & arrange
Parallel to the magnetic field.
The arrangement of electronic spin results in N polarity
at one end & the S polarity at the other.

INTERNAL STRUCTURE

BEFOREEXCITATION
(UNMAGNETISED)

Continue

AFTER EXCITATION
(MAGNETISED)

effect of A.C
If we placed the unmagnetised material
across the A.C supply then the positive &
negative electron spins are equal.
Because in the A.C supply we found both
positive & negative half cycle in a fraction
of time.
At a particular time the electron alignment
try to achieve both positive & negative electron
spin. So they cancel each other &
results in there is no such pole for field.

Continue

POSITIVE SPIN
NEGATIVE SPIN

AFTER A.C EXCITATION

TYPES OF EXCITATION

WITH BRUSH EXCITATION

The function of the brush is to collect current


from Commutator.
It is usually made of carbon or graphite and
are in
the shape of rectangular block.
It requires collector ring, brushes or
commutator.

BLOCK DIAG OF STATIC


EXCITATION SYSTEM
REGULATOR
EXCITATION
TRANSF
CT

220V BATTERY BANK


FOR FIELD FLASHING

THYRISTOR
BRIDGE

FIELD WDG
FIELD DISCHARGE
RESISTANCE

PT

BRUSHLESS EXCITATION
While brushless excitation system eliminate the
need for brushes, commutator & slip-ring.
It uses bridge rectifier circuit consists of SCR &
diode.
The bridge rectifier circuit placed on the rotor.
The bridge rectifier circuit rotates with the speed
of the rotor.
The A.C supply given to the bridge rectifier by
the principle of Electromagnetic Induction.
Bridge rectifier being represented by a transformation
from A.C voltage to D.C voltage.
The D.C output of the rotating rectifier is applied
to the D.C rotating field of the Generator.

BLOCK DIAG OF BRUSHLESS


EXCITATION SYSTEM
PILOT
EXCITOR
PERMENANT MAGNET
FIELD ON ROTOR
ARMATURE ON STATOR

MAIN
EXCITOR

3Ph POWER

ARMATURE ON
ROTOR
FIELD ON STATOR

3Ph
POWER

SILICON
DIODE
BRIDGE ON
SHAFT

CONTROLLED
DC FIELD ON
STATOR

ALT FIELD

CT

THY CONTROLLED
BRIDGE

REGULATOR

PT

Comparison: Indirect and static


excitation system.

Equivalent ckt of synchronous machines.

Generator no load characteristics


The relation between excitation current
and generator voltage can be determined
from the no load characteristics. if one
slowly increase the excitation current the
generator voltage increase in proportion
with the excitation current. The excitation
current required to reach the nominal
voltage is known as the no load field
current

Generator no load characteristics.

Short ckt characteristics:


From the short ckt characteristics we can
calculate the xd. For the short ckt test
machine terminals must be short ckted.
Beaware that the machine current can go
up its nominal value.

Generator Short ckt


Characterstics.

AVR Controlling Components :


P.F. Regulation: Maintains set power factor of the machine under
steady-state condition within the machine capability and excitation
set limits.
Soft Start: Enables gradual build up generator terminal voltage to
preset value in auto channel depending on the set time.
MVAR Regulation: Maintains set MVAR of the machine under
steady state condition within the machine capability and excitation
set limits.

AVR Controlling Components :


V/Hz Limiters: Reduces excitation with a delay whenever set V/Hz
ratio has been exceeding, to prevent saturation effect in generator.
Maximum field Current Limiter: Reduces excitation with a delay
whenever set max. Excitation (exciter field/generator) current limit
has been exceeded.
Inductive Stator Current limiter: Reduces excitation with a delay
whenever set maximum generator stator current limit has been
exceeded in the lagging zone of the machine capability.
Capacitive Stator Current Limiter: Increases excitation whenever
set maximum generator stator current limit has been exceeded in
the leading zone of the machine capability.

AVR Controlling Components :


Load Angle Limiter: Whenever the load angle increases the set
value, the limiter increases the excitation to reduce the load angle.
BUS Voltage Matching: This function when selected enables the
machine to build up the generator terminal voltage matched to the of
the BUS terminal voltage.
Channel follow-up Control: Automatic tracking of standby channel
for bump less transfer of excitation control, due to failure of the
operating channel.
Generator over Voltage Monitoring: Automatic switch over to
manual control in case of over voltage at generator terminal.

Digital Voltage Regulator (DVR) :


To regulate the voltage and the reactive power of the generator, the field
voltage must be adjusted quickly to the changes in the operating
condition. To accomplish this analog control system includes amplifiers
which makes continuous comparison of the actual values against the
reference values and very the control variable to the convertor with
almost no delay. In digital voltage regulator most of the delays that occurs
originates in the convertors, since the firing pulse of changing the rectifier
DC output are only issued.
The DAVR regulator calculates the control variable from the measured
and reference data in very short time intervals. This results outwardly in
the contentious behavior with a negligible delay time. The calculations are
made in the binary number system. Analog measurement signals, such
as those for generator voltage, current, exciter field current, are converted
into binary signals in analog to digital convertors. The set point and limit
values have already been defined in DAVR in binary forms.

Digital Voltage Regulator (DVR) :


In digital voltage regulator system in auto mode it
is capable to regulate the following functions :

To limit capacitive stator current.


To limit the load angle.
To limit minimum field current.
To limit reactive current depending on the active current.
To limit dampen active power oscillation (PSS).
To provide soft starter of generator.
To matching of generator voltage to bus voltage.

CAPABILITY & LIMITATION

Under Excitation
Limiter (Man)

Field
Current
Limiter

1pu 247MW

220 MW
Turbine Limit

n
ed atio
t
Ra xcit
E
70MW

118 100

LEADING

Ra
M ted
VA

Under Excitation
Limiter (Auto)

Stator
Current
Limiter

210MW

130

LAGGING

INCREASED
EXCITATION

STEADY STATE
OVER SHOOT
1 pu
0.9 pu
SETTLING
TIME

Exciter Voltage

Response Characteristics

RESPONSE CHARECTERISTICS

Ceiling
Rated

0.5Sec

Rise Time
TIME

Steady State Error < 0.5%


Ideal Performance One Over
shoot & One Under Shoot

STABLE
ZONE

Time

Pmax

P2

UNSTABLE
ZONE

P
P1

P=

ExV

90

180

Sin

X
E

TRANSIENT STABILITY
Severe disturbance during FAULT for a short time
dip in the M/C terminal voltage & power transfer
resulting acceleration of m/c.

I.XS

Load
2
I

DYNAMIC STABILITY
Following a disturbance , the group of m/c operating in the sane control group
Experience smaller oscillation reacting with each other , Hence change of Excitation
May not result in a stable operation for a slow acting exciter having a inherent time delay
Depending on the oscillation a separate excitation requirement to be meet. Faste excitation
System meet this requirement rather avoid this problem to certain extent by PSS to damp out
The smaller oscillation

I.Xe
2
1

1
I at Unity PF
I Lag

V Infinite
Bus Voltage

Field Flashing:

Field Flashing Features:


If the excitation system is supplied from a
shunt supply that is directly from the
generator terminals ,then the residual
voltage of the generator is some times not
sufficient to build up the voltage at that
time we require the field flashing .field
consists of a diode bridge and a switch
which connect a external auxiliary voltage
to the field.

Field Suppression:

Field suppression:
A rapid de excitation of the synchronous machine is
necessary to limit the damage in the case of internal faults.
These faults can not be switched of by tripping the generator
bkr .it is therefore important to eliminate quickly the source
voltage which drives the fault current. physically the field
suppression is a conversion of the magnetic field energy to
heat. This happens partly in the field winding and partly in the
field suppression resistors.
Components of field suppression equipments:
1)field bkr. With discharge contact.
2) discharge resistors
3)over voltage protection.
The most important things for a bkr is its interrupting capability

Field Suppression circuit:

Control Functions

Regulators

Limiters

Protection

Monitoring

Logic control

ABB Group
6/5/16 | Slide 38

Follow-up Control

Main sections of Excitation


System.
The main sections of the excitation system are
divided into:
1) Supply
2) AVR control
3) Converter section
4) Discharge and field bkr section
These above section are named as ER,EE,EG,EA
cubicles, that is +ER cubicle consists of regulator
section of system, +EG cubicle consists converter
section ,+EA cubicle consists of auxiliary supply
section, +EE cubicle consists of field breaker.

Main sections of Excitation


system.

UNITROL 6000 type code.


The type code says the overall details of
the project that is about the configuration
of the channel, hardware concept,
converter configuration, additional function
,converter type, converter connection/
supply, breaker configuration and finally
breaker rating

UNITROL 6000 TYPE CODE

UNITROL 6080 field circuit breaker


arrangement.
The breaker which is used is either in dc
side or in ac side of the unitrol 6080
system that is ac field ckt breaker and dc
field ckt breaker

Hardware concept of UN6080.

Hardware concept of UN6080 consists :


mechanical design
control hardware
HMI
power converter design
Ethernet ckt
field ckt breaker and discharge ckt
field flashing ckt
protection devices and hardware diagram

Mechanical Design.
Mechanical design consists:
1) D1 non segregated channel upto max two
channel.
2) D1-D4 max three channel (segregated channel)
3) D5 max two channel.
Segregated channel means every converter is its
own cubicle with its own controller
D1-D4 cubicle version is EM,ER1,ER2,ER3 or
EM,EA/ET,ER1,ER2and ER3
D5 cubicle version is ER,EA,EG1,EG2,EE1,EE2. Or
ER,EG1,EG2,EA/EE

Mechanical Design.

Mechanical Design

Mechanical Design.

Mechanical Design

Unitrol 6080-Block Diagram.

Control Hardware.
UN6080 consists of AC 800PEC controller
.it is from the AC 800M family.PEC is the
power electronic controller.PEC 80 is for
6080 and PEC800 for 6800.
AC800PEC is fully integrated into the ABB
800XA control system.

Control Hardware

CONTROL HARDWARE
OVERVIEW.
Control hardware of unitrol 6080 consists of CCM, PIN-6080, CIO.
CCM-is the communication control measurement and pin6080 is the
pulse control for converter.
CIO-is the combined input and output for communication.CCM is
taking generator voltage and current for measurement.
The hardware connection is having digital input and digital output
signal.
Raise, lower, excitation off, online, channel fault input are the digital
inputs and channel ok, internal trip, channel selected are the digital
output.
There are four indications like fault, run, power and activity in CCM
to shows the channel healthiness.
TCP/IP settings for channel1 are 172.16.0.11, channel 2 is
172.16.0.12 and for back up channel is 172.16.0.13.
PIN6080 consists of firing pulses unit, snuber resistor, converter
fuses, temp sensing unit, current sensing unit, Uf sensing unit.

Combined input output (CIO):


The overall features of the CIO are:
3 inputs PT100 for transformer temperature
18 relay output
12 digital inputs 24/48v.
3 analog outputs
3 analog inputs
Ethernet and CAN interfaces.
LED indications
CIO is connected to the CCM with optical link.
CIO is having basic configuration and with redundancy. basic
configuration consists of 2 CIO followed by two slave CIO.
redundancy CIO consists of 4 CIO per channel that is total 8
numbers of CIO for two channel.
There are also indication for CIO that is fault, run, power and
activity.TCP/IP address for CIO are 172.16.0.41/42/43/44.

Electronic power supply.


Electronic power supply consists of basic
redundant power supply and double
redundant power supply that is 24v power
supply to the electronic ckt.
It consists :
ICU: input coupling unit.
PS: power pack/power supply unit.
APD: advanced power distributor

Control Hardware

HMI
ECT and SCP panels are HMI.
ECT is connected with Ethernet TCP/IP and
SCP is connected with mudbus RTU.
IN ECT display of actual value, local
operation of the excitation system,
parameter settings, transient recorder,
event/fault recorder is possible. all the
operations are possible in SCP except
transient recorder. In SCP real time clock
setting is possible

Control panels of Unitrol 6000.

Converter Section.
Power converter UN6080 consists of D1,
D2,D3,D4, and D5.
D1: current rating is up to 125Adc.
D2: current rating is up to 230Adc
D3: current rating is up to 500Adc
D4: current rating is up to 900Adc
D5: current rating is up to 2000Adc.

UNITROL 6080-Converter Type.

UN6080 hardware drawings.


Purpose of the hardware drawing is to shows the arrangement
of the hardware devices, shows the interconnection between
devices, Indicate type designation and id of the devices, useful
for trouble shooting.
It contains :
Coversheet
List of content
List of symbols.
List of components.
System over view.
Wiring diagram.
Cover page contains information regarding the plant name,
order number, type code, sheet no, sheet title, status of
drawing, previous and next page, document number language.

UNITROL 6080 Software


function

UNITROL 6080 Software


function

Control priority rules.


The control priority rules to operate is:
Service control builder->local ECT>remote ECT ->fieldbus->remote ECT.
That is service control builder has higher
priority and remote ECT has lower priority.

Tools for AC 800PEC


Controllers.
Tools for AC 800PEC controllers are:
Process portal
control builder
ECT(excitation control terminal)
Simulink
PEC installer
PEC configurator
com interface.
PEC Installer:
PEC installer is a software tool used for communicating
between PEC controller to PC. That is for download , upload.
This is done by giving a proper TCP/IP address.
PEC installer consists of download of instllation package,
uploading of updated installation package, changing IP-address.

Tools for UNITROL 6080

Uploading procedure.
For uploading we have to follow the
following:
Start the PEC installer.
Click the upload tab.
Enter the access IP address and location
and name where the backup .zip file shall
be stored.
Then click upload.

PEC configurator.
PEC configurator is used to scanning of
the controllers TCP/IP address,
management of controllers in a project
environment, change controller
configuration (memory size, clock
frequency etc.) that is for SNTP
application.

Tools for UNITROL 6080

ECT.
ECT:
Excitation control terminal is used to controlling and
monitoring the excitation system. The ECT can be located in
the door panel of the excitation system for local control or in
the control room for the remote control.
Operational features:
Independent industrial pc.
Mod bus/TCP communication
To use as local/remote.
Password protected
Selectable languages
ECT requires a hard lock dongle otherwise the panel will not
work.

Installation of ECT.
Installation of ECT:
Before installation of the ECT we have to
check the latest ECT release version ,ECT
configuration release that is software
version. we have to connect OPC server.
Copy three files from ABB industrial IT
data.Then connect ECT data base. finally
we have to do the ECT setting

How to use ECT.


How to use the ECT:
Ethernet switch is required for using the
ECT. For starting the ECT we have to start
the OPC server. The main task of the ECT
is operate the excitation system , Alarm
handling and troubleshooting for
maintenance staff, commissioning of the
excitation system that is for
commissioning engineers

Excitation control terminal.

Operation Screen of ECT.


The operation screen of the ECT consists of various function of the
ECT that is :
Login we have to use to go inside the ECT.
Command buttons for operating the excitation system.
Displays the values of the excitation system like voltage, current,
field current, power factor and machine reactive power.
Also shows the operating conditions of the synchronous machine in
the power chart.
Alarm handling
Signal trending. signal trending is of three types.
Slow trending.
Fast trending
Transient recorder.
We can also change the parameters, adjust the parameters.
Downloading parameters to the controllers is possible .