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Oral Vocabulary
Print Vocabulary
Receptive Vocabulary
Productive Vocabulary
Passive Vocabulary
Active Vocabulary

Four Principles of Vocabulary

Students need to be active in developing their

understanding of words and ways to learn

Students should personalize word learning.
Students should be immersed in words.
Student should build on multiple sources of
information to learn words through repeated

Examples of discussion activities

Compare descriptions or definitions with a

Describe pictures to a partner or within a small
Construct example situation with a partner.

Truth of the language

People learn languages with words and words

come to us frome various sources

Listening (Listen as often as you can.)
Reading (While reading note difficult words.)
Watching (Watch phonetics of native speaker.)
Thinking (Very important.)

Role of context
Directive Context

Gives clues, hints, synonyms to determine

approximate word meaning in the context.
Non-Directional Context
Mentions the word without giving any clues
to determine word meaning.
Mis-Directive Context
Gives clues that lead readers to false word
meaning contruction.

Importance of
An extensive vocabulary aids expressions and

Vocabulary size has been directly linked to
reading comprehension.
Linguistic vocabulary is synonymous with
thinking vocabulary
Wilkins (1972) once said without grammer
very little can be conveyed, without
vocabulary nothing can be conveyed.

This point reflects my experience with different

languages; even without grammar, with some

useful words and expressions, I can often
manage to communicate.
Students often instinctively recognize the
importance of vocabulary to their language

Particularly as students develop greater

fluency and expression in English, it is
significant for them to acquire more
productive vocabulary knowledge and to
develop their own personal vocabulary
learning strategies

As Schmitt (2010) noted, learners carry

around dictionaries and not grammar

books .
Teaching vocabulary helps students
understand and communicate with others
in English.
Voltaire purportedly said, Language is
very difficult to put into words. I believe
English language students generally would
concur, yet learning vocabulary also helps
students master English for theirpurposes.

Examples of Activities

Vocabulary Building
Highlighting prefixes and suffixes
Idetify synonums and antonyms
Venn diagrams or other organizers
Revise their own definitions as their

understandings increases.