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Exercise 5

Plant Cell Types and Tissues

Tissue group of cells that perform


a specific function
2 kinds of tissues (state of development):
1. Meristematic tissues/ meristerms
- responsible for the production of new cells
2. Permanent tissues
- perform specific functions

Kinds of meristems based on their


position or location:
1. Apical meristem responsible for the increase in
length of stems or roots
- at tips or apices of stems and roots
- with very small or no vacuole at all
- very thin-walled and isodiametric
Includes:
a. Protoderm
b. Ground meristem
c.
Procambium

2. Lateral meristem
3. Intercalary meristem at bases of young
leaves and internodes
- for further lengthening of stems and leaves
far away from the tips of stems

Kinds of Permanent Tissues:


1. Simple permanent tissues
- consist only of one kind of cell
a. Epidermis outermost tissue of leaves,
stems and roots of all monocots and
herbaceous dicot
- has a layer of cuticle made up of waxy
substance called cutin to prevent excessive
evaporation of water
- uniseriate when young, multiseriate when old

b. Parenchyma
uniformly thin-walled
- Function: for food
storage
- Examples: cassava
pith, tomato fruit
pulp, Spanish flag
petiole

c. Collenchyma with
unevenly thickened
walls
- function: for
strengthening & support
and sometimes for
storage
- examples: lotus petiole,
celery petiole, coleus
petiole

d. Sclerenchyma with
heavily thickened walls
because of the presence
of lignin
- function: for
strengthening & support
- Examples: mungbean
seed coat, peanut
pericarp, pineapple leaf

e. Cork outermost tissue of leaves and roots of woody


dicot plants
- function: for protection

2. Complex Permanent Tissue


1. Phloem conducts dissolved organic food materials
Sieve tubes

Companion cells

Arranged end to end

Shorter, narrower, vertically


elongated

Denucleated when matured

Nucleated even when matured

2. Xylem conducts water


a. Tracheids without perforations
b. Vessel elements with perforations

Accessory cells participate in osmotic changes involved


in movements of the guard cells

Closed Stomata

Open Stomata

Exercise 6 Absorption
1.
2.

Tap Root
Fibrous Root

Specialized Roots
Specimen
Camote

Modification & function


Enlarged fleshy root for food
storage

Radish

Enlarged fleshy root for food


storage

Carrot

Enlarged fleshy root for food


storage

Rhizophora
Pandan

Brace roots for support


Prop roots for support

*brace roots aerial roots arising from the main stem which penetrates the ground
*prop roots aerial roots arising from the branches which penetrate the ground

Exercise 7 Transport &


Nutrition

Origin of the stem: from the epicotyl and


partly from the hypocotyl of the embryo

Shoot a stem with leaves

Shoot system all the stems and leaves of a


plant

General Features of the Stem:


1. Node where leaves, branches & buds arise
2. Internode portion between 2 consecutive nodes
3. Leaf sheath
- in some monocotyledons (Poaceae/ Gramineae/
grass family), a distinct petiole is lacking. Instead,
the blade is supported by a flattened structure
called the leaf sheath, which clasps the stem.

4. Petiole or leaf stalk


- holds the blade upright
5. Leaf scar mark left on the stem by a fallen
leaf
6. Bundle scar cut end of vascular bundles
seen within each leaf scar
7. Leaf axil angle formed by the leaf stalk
and the stem

8. Axillary bud located at the leaf axil


9. Terminal bud located at the tip of the stem
10. Bud scale protective scale that covers
the bud
11. Lenticels tiny raised pores on dicot stems
for gaseous exchange

Modified Stems:
Plant Specimen
Fern plant, Ginger

Modification
Rhizome for food storage

Gabi

Corm

Potato (Solanum tuberosum)

Tuber for reproduction

with eyes = buds


Bermuda Grass
Bougainvillea
Dilang-baka
Vine
Cycas

Runner/Stolon
Thorn for protection
Cladophyll
Tendril
Spines for protection

Exer 7 Leaf
Important Terms:
1. Phyllotaxy system of leaf arrangement on the
stem:
a. Alternate or spiral only 1 leaf develops at each
node
b. Opposite 2 leaves develop opposite each other
at a node
c. Whorled 3 or more leaves develop equidistantly
around the node

2. Blade or lamina thin, flattened, green


structure
3. Leaf stalk or petiole holds the blade
upright; to provide maximum exposure
*sessile leaf without petiole
4. Stipules a pair of outgrowths at base of
some dicotyledonous leaves
*exstipulate without stipules

Petiolule stalk of each leaflet


Stipels outgrowths in pairs found at the
base of petiolule
Rachis continuation of the petiole

5. Nature of leaf blade


a.
b.

Simple leaf blade consists of only 1 piece


Compound leaf blade is divided into
separate segments called leaflets or pinna

6. Venation arrangement of vein of


a leaf blade
a.

b.

Netted or reticulate venation veins branch


profusely and form a network over the
blade; commonly found in dicot leaves
Parallel venation veins do not form a
network; commonly found in monocot
leaves