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CHAPTER 4

L E C TU RE 1

Isothermal Reactor Design

G I V E A M A N S O M E F I S H , Y O U F E E D H I M F O R A D A Y, T E A C H A
MAN HOW TO CATCH FISH, YOU FEED HIM FOR LIFE
-UNKNOWN-

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Engineering

Lesson Outcomes
After completing Chapter 4 the reader will be able to:
Describe the CRE algorithm that allows the reader to
solve chemical reaction engineering problems through
logic rather than memorization.
Size batch reactors, semibatch reactors, CSTRs, PFRs
and PBRs for isothermal operation given the rate law
and feed conditions.

CBB2074 - Reaction Engineering

Topics
Lecture 1:

Lecture 2:

Design structure for isothermal reactors


Scale up of liquid phase batch reactor
data to the design of CSTR
Design of CSTR

Lecture 3:

Design of tubular reactors

Lecture 4:

Recycle reactors

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Question 1:
Why flow reactor preferred over batch reactor in most of the chemical
industries?
Question 2:
What need to be done if we have lab scale data and we wanted to design
the reactor for the industry?

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Design structure for


isothermal reactor

5 STEPS
METHOD!!

1. MOLE BALANCE & DESIGN EQUATION


2. RATE LAW
3. STOICHIOMETRY
4. COMBINE INFORMATION
5. EVALUATE
GRAPHICAL METHOD
NUMERICAL METHOD
ANALYTICAL METHOD
SOFTWARE

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5 STEPS
METHOD!!

Refer to Handout that Ill give


in class

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Scale up of liquid phase BATCH reactor data


to the design of CSTR

Information required from labs:


Chemical kinetics - k
Mass transfer limitation

!!

Experiment to get the above data is


usually done in batch reactor!

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What does it mean???


Day 1: In the lab
BATCH
reactor

Day 2: Processing Plant

FLOW
reactor

I got k
value!!!

I can use
the same k
value to
design my
FLOW
reactor!!!

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Scale up of liquid phase batch reactor data to


the design of CSTR

Getting k
Mole balance for batch reactor:

dX
N A0
rAV
dt

dN A
rAV
dt
d ( N A0 N A0 X )
rAV
dt
dN A0 X

rAV
dt
dX
N A0
rAV
dt

For constant volume system, V= V0:

dC A

rA
dt

dN A
rAV
dt

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Scale up of liquid phase batch reactor data to the


design of CSTR
Rate law; Consider 2nd order
reaction, A B, rate law:
rA kCA2
Stoichiometry; Constant
N A0
volume batch reactor:

CA

V0

C A0 (1 X )

Mole Balance

dX
N A0
rAV
dt
dX
rAV

dt
N A0
dX
rA

dt
C A0

Combine rate law and mole


balance gives:

dX kCA2 0 (1 X ) 2

kCA0 (1 X ) 2
dt
C A0

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Scale up of liquid phase batch reactor data to the


design of CSTR

Evaluate; For isothermal reaction, integration gives reaction


time, tR:

dX
kCA0 (1 X ) 2
dt

1
dt
kCA0

1 X
tR

kCA0 1 X

dx
1 X 2

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Scale up of liquid phase batch reactor data to the


design of CSTR
Graphical analysis:

1
C A0

1 X
tR

kCA0 1 X

y=mx+c

1 X

c=0, x=y/m
Slope = k

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Scale up of liquid phase batch reactor data to


the design of CSTR
Similarly for first order reaction (try to derive this
yourself)

ln(CA0/CA)
Slope = 1/k

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Example 4.1: Find k from batch data for ethylene glycol


production
Equation for ethylene glycol production:

Data on batch reactor:


1.

Isothermal at 55oC

2.

CA0 = 1 kmol/m3 (after mixing)

3.

CB0 CB (in excess)

4.

Experimental data is given in Table 4-1

5.

Reaction is first order in ethylene oxide

PROBLEM STATEMENT: FIND k

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Example 4.1: Find k from batch data for ethylene glycol


production
Question: Why the time taken to find k is
relatively at short period?

t (min)

CC (kmol/m3)

0.0

0.000

0.5

0.145

1.0

0.270

1.5

0.376

2.0

0.467

3.0

0.610

4.0

0.715

6.0

0.848

10.0

0.995

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THE END