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Structure and

function of
Prokaryotes.
DEH12BPT
Virus, Bacteria,
Lecture 2
Protists,
and
Fungi
16 February 2013

Microbes in Our Lives

Microbiology is the study of microorganisms.

The overall theme of the Microbiology course is to study the relationship between
microbes and our lives.

Microorganisms (microbes) are organisms that are too small to be seen with
the unaided eye, and usually require a microscope to be seen.

This relationship involves harmful effects such as diseases and food spoilage as well
as many beneficial effects.

Germ refers to a rapidly growing cell.

Microorganisms include:
1.

Bacteria

2.

Fungi (yeasts and molds)

3.

Microscopic Algae

4.

Protozoa

5.

Viruses, Viroids, Prions


(Non-living infectious agents)

Microbes in Our Lives

These small organisms are usually associated with major diseases such as AIDS,
uncomfortable infections, or food spoilage.

However, the majority of microorganisms make crucial contributions to the to the


welfare of the worlds inhabitants by maintaining balance of living organisms and
chemicals in our environment.

Therefore, Microorganisms are essential for life on earth.

They have important beneficial biological functions:


1. Photosynthesis: Marine and freshwater MO (Algae and some bacteria) capture
energy from sunlight and convert it to food, forming the basis of the food chain in
oceans, lakes, and rivers and generates oxygen which is critical for life on Earth.
2.

Decomposers: Soil microbes break down dead and decaying matter and recycle
chemical elements that can be used by other organisms.

3. Nitrogen Fixation: Some bacteria can take nitrogen from air and incorporate it
into organic compounds in soil, water, and air.

Microbes in Our Lives


4.

Digestion: Human and many other animals have microorganisms in their digestive
tract, that are essential for digestion and vitamin synthesis.
a.

Cellulose digestion by ruminants (cows, rabbits, etc.)

b.

Synthesis of Vitamin K (for blood clotting) and Vitamin B (for metabolism)


in humans.

5.

Synthesis of chemical products: MOs have many commercial applications, such as


the synthesis of acetone, organic acids, enzymes, alcohols.

6.

Medicine: Many antibiotics and other drugs are naturally synthesized by microbes.

7.

Penicillin is made by a mold.

Food industry: many important foods and beverages are made with microbes:
vinegar, pickles, alcoholic beverages, green olives, soy sauce, buttermilk, cheese,
yogurt, and bread.

Microbes in Our Lives


8.

Genetic engineering: recombinant microbes produce important

a.

Medical and therapeutic products: human growth hormone, insuline, blood


clotting factor, recombinant vaccines, monoclonal antibodies,etc.

b.
9.

Commercial products: cellulose, digestive aids, and drain cleaner.

Medical Research: Microbes are well suited for biological and medical research
for several reasons:

a.

Relatively simple and small structures, easy to study

b.

Genetic material is easily manipulated.

c.

Can grow a large number of cells very quickly and at low cost.

d.

Short generation times make them very useful to study genetic changes.

Though only a minority of MOs are pathogenic (disease-producing), practical


knowledge of microbes is necessary for medicine and related heath sciences .

Ex.: Hospital workers must be able to protect patients from common


microbes that are normally harmless but pose a threat to the sick and
injured.

Knowledge of Microorganisms

Today we understand that MOs are almost everywhere !

Yet not long ago, before the invention of the microscope,


microbes were unknown to scientists and :

Thousands of people died in devastating epidemics, the causes


of which were NOT understood.

Entire families died because vaccinations and antibiotics were


NOT available to fight infections.

Therefore, knowledge of MOs allows humans to


1. Prevent disease occurrence
2. Prevent food spoilage
3. Led to aseptic techniques to prevent contamination in medicine

and in microbiology laboratories.

Naming and Classifying Microorganisms

1.

2.
3.
4.
5.

Linnaeus established the system of scientific nomenclature


(naming) of organisms in 1735.
Latin was the language traditionally used by scholars.
Scientific nomenclature assigns each organism two names
(Binomial):
a. The genus is the first name and is always capitalized.
b. The specific epithet (species name) follows and is not
capitalized.
Are italicized or underlined.
The genus is capitalized and the specific epithet is lower
case.
Are Latinized and used worldwide.
May be descriptive or honor a scientist.

Naming and Classifying Microorganisms


1.

Staphylococcus aureus

Describindicates spherical shape, and the golden color of the


colonies (aur-).

2.

Escherichia coli

Honors the discoverer, Theodor Escherich, and describes the


bacteriums es the clustered arrangement of the cells (staphylo),
(coccus) habitatthe large intestine or colon.

3.

After the first use, scientific names may be abbreviated with the
first letter of the genus and the specific epithet:

Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli are found in the


human body. S. aureus is on skin and E. coli in the large intestine.

Naming and Classifying BACTERIA (Sing. Bacterium)


1.

Relatively Simple, single-celled (unicelluar) organisms.

2.

Prokaryotic (their genetic material is not enclosed in nuclear membrane)

3.

Prokaryotes include the bacteria and archaea

Bacteria appear in one of several shapes:

a. Bacillus (rodlike), b. coccus (spherical),


c. spiral (corkscrew or curved),
d.

some are star-shaped or square.

4.

Individual bacteria may form pairs, chains, clusters, or other groupings.

5.

Enclosed in cell walls largely composed of peptidoglycan (carbohydrate and protein


complex).

6.

Reproduce by binary fission (division into two equal cells)

7.

For nutrition, most bacteria use organic chemicals derived from dead or living
organisms.

8.

Some bacteria produce their food by photosynthesis, and some can derive nutrition
from inorganic substances.

9.

Many bacteria can swim by using flagella (moving appendages).

1.

Types of Microorganisms
ARCHAEA
Consists of prokaryotic cells

2.

If they have cell walls, they lack peptidoglycan

3.

Archaea are not known to cause disease in humans.

4.

Live in extreme environments

5.

Are divided into three main groups:


a.

Methanogens: produce methane as waste product from respiration.

b.

Extreme halophiles: Salt loving, live in extremely salty environments


such as the Great Salt Lake and the Dead Sea.

c.

Extreme thermophiles: Heat loving, live in hot sulfurous water such as


hot springs.

Types of Microorganisms :FUNGI (S. Fungu


1.

Eukaryotic (have a distinct nucleus containing the cells genetic material


surrounded by a nuclear membrane)

2.

Organisms in kingdom Fungi may be Unicellular or multicellular

3.

Multicellular fungi, such as mushroom look like plants, but can not carry out
photosynthesis.

4.

True fungi have cell walls composed of chitin.

5.

The unicellular fungi, yeasts, are oval MOs that are larger than bacteria.

6.

The most typical fungi are molds, composed of visible masses of filaments
(hyphae) called mycelia.

7.

Use organic chemicals for energy, can not carry out photosynthesis.

8.

Fungi can reproduce sexually and asexually

9.

They obtain nutrients by absorbing solutions of organic material from


environment soil, sea water, fresh water, or animal or plant host.

10.

Organisms called slime molds have characteristics of both fungi and ameobas.

Types of Microorganisms
PROTOZOA (S. Protozoan)
1.
2.

3.
4.

5.

6.

Unicellular, eukaryotes microbes.


Protozoa move by:
a. Pseudopods: extensions of the cytoplasm like Ameoba.,
b. Flagella: long appendages for locomotion like Trypanosoma.
c. Cilia: numerous shorter appendages for locomotion like Paramecium.
Protozoa have a variety of shapes.
Live as free entities or as parasites (organisms
that derive nutrients from living hosts).
Absorb or ingest organic compounds from their
environment)
Protozoa can reproduce sexually and asexually.

Figure 1.1c

Types of Microorganisms
ALGAE (S. Alga)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

6.
7.
8.
9.

Photosynthetic eukaryotes
Have wide variety of shapes
Reproduce sexually and asexually.
Unicellular and multicelluar.
The cell walls of many algae, like those of plants,
are composed of cellulose (a carbohydrate).
Algae are abundant in fresh and salt water, in soil, and in association with
plants.
As photosynthesizers, algae need light, water, and carbon dioxide for food
production and growth.
Produce molecular oxygen and organic compounds (carbohydrates) that are
used by other organisms, including animals.
They play an important role in the balance of nature.

Types of Microorganisms
VIRUSES
1.
2.
3.

4.
5.

So small that can be seen only with electron microscope.


Acellular (not cellular).
Structurally very simple, a virus particle contains
a. a core made only of one type of nucleic acid,
either DNA or RNA.consist of DNA or RNA core
b. The core is surrounded by a protein coat.
c. Sometimes the coat is enclosed in a lipid envelope.
Viruses can reproduce only by using the cellular machinery of other
organisms.
Obligatory intracellular parasites (replicate only when they are in a living
host cell)

Multicellular Animal
Parasites
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

Multicellular animal parasites are not strictly MOs.


They are of medical importance.
They are eukaryotic organisms.
Multicellular animals
Parasitic flatworms and round worms are called helminths.
During some stages of their life cycles, helminths are microscopic in size.

Figure 12.28a

Classification of
Microorganisms
Before the existence of microbes was known, all organisms were grouped into

Before the existence of microbes was known, all organisms were grouped into

either the animal kingdom or the plant kingdom.

In 1978, Carl Woese, devised a system of classification based on the cellular


organization of organisms.

It groups all organisms in three domains as follows:


1. Bacteria (cell walls contain a protein-carbohydrate complex called
peptidoglycan)
2. Archaea (cell walls, if present, lack peptidoglycan)
3. Eukarya, which includes the following kingdoms:
a.

Protists (slime molds, protozoa, and algae)

b.

Fungi (unicellular yeasts, multicellular molds, and mushrooms)

c.

Plants (includes mosses, ferns, conifers, and flowering plants)

d.

Animals (includes sponges, worms, insects, and vertebrates).

Fermentation and
AtPasteurization
that time, many scientists believed that air converted the sugars in
beverages into alcohols.

Pasteur found instead that microbes called yeasts convert the sugars to alcohols
in the absence of air in a process called fermentation .

Fermentation is the conversion of sugar to alcohol to make beer and wine.

Souring and spoilage are caused by different MOs called bacteria.

In the presence of air, bacteria change the alcohol in the beverage into vinegar
(acetic acid).

Pasteurs solution to the spoilage problem was to heat the beer and wine just
enough to kill most of the bacteria that caused the spoilage in a process called
pasteurization.

Pasteurization is now commonly used to reduce spoilage and kill potentially


harmful bacteria in milk as well as in some alcoholic drinks.

Showing the connection between spoilage of food and MOs was a major step
towards establishing the relationship between disease and microbes.

The Germ Theory of Disease

Until relatively recently, the fact that many kinds of diseases are related to
MOs was unknown.

Before the time of Pasteur, effective treatments for many diseases were
discovered by trial and error, but the causes of the diseases were unknown.

The realization that yeasts play a crucial role in fermentation was the first link
between the activity of a MO and physical and chemical changes in organic
materials.

This discovery alerted scientists that MOs might have similar relationships with
plants and animals- specially, that MOs might cause diseases.

This idea was known as the germ theory of disease.

Many people did not accept this theory at that time, because for centuries
disease was believed to be punishment for individuals crimes and misdeeds.

Most people in Pasteurs time found it inconceivable that invisible microbes


could travel through the air to infect plants and animals, or remain on clothing
and bedding to be transmitted from one person to another.

The Germ Theory of


Disease

1835: Agostino Bassi showed that a silkworm disease was caused by a


fungus.
1865: Pasteur found that another recent silkworm disease was caused by a
protozoan.
1840s: Ignaz Semmelwise advocated hand washing to prevent transmission
of childbirth fever from one obstetrical patient to another.
1860s: Joseph Lister used a chemical disinfectant (phenol) to prevent
surgical wound infections after looking at Pasteurs work showing microbes
are in the air, can spoil food, and cause animal diseases.
1876: Robert Koch proved for the first time that a bacterium causes
anthrax and provided the experimental steps, Kochs postulates, to prove
that a specific microbe causes a specific disease.

Vaccination

1796: Edward Jenner found a way to protect people from smallpox almost 70
years before Koch established that microorganism causes anthrax.

He inoculated a healthy 8-years-old volunteer with cowpox virus. The person


was then protected from cowpox and smallpox.

The process was called Vaccination, derived from Latine word vacca for cow.

The protection from disease provided by vaccination or by recovery from the


disease itself is called immunity.

In about 1880, Pasteur discovered why vaccination work by working on cholera


vaccination.

Pasteur used the term vaccine for cultures of avirulent microorganisms used for
preventive inoculation.

Some vaccines are still produced from avirulent microbial strains, others are
made from killed virulent microbes, from isolated components of virulent MOs ,
or by genetic engineering techniques.

The Birth of Modern


Chemotherapy

Treatment of disease by using chemical substances is called chemotherapy.

Chemotherapeutic agents prepared from chemicals in the laboratory are called


synthetic drugs.

Chemotherapeutic agents produced naturally by bacteria and fungi to act against


other MOs are called antibiotics.

The success of chemotherapy is based on the fact that some chemicals are more
poisonous to MOs than to the hosts infected by the microbes.

Quinine from tree bark was long used to treat malaria.

1910: Paul Ehrlich developed the first synthetic drug, Salvarsan, to treat
syphilis. (the magic bullet!)

1930s: Several other synthetic drugs derived from dyes that could destroy MOs
were developed.

Sulfonamides (sulfa drugs) were synthesized at about the same time.

The Birth of Modern


1928: Alexander Fleming discovered the first antibiotic.
Chemotherapy

On a contaminated plate, around the mold (Penicillium) was a clear area


where bacterial growth had been inhibited.
He observed that the Penicillium mold made an antibiotic, penicillin, that
killed S. aureus.
1940s: Penicillin was tested clinically and mass produced.
Since then, thousands of antibiotics have been discovered.
Antibiotics and other chemotherapeutic drug faces many problem:
Toxicity to humans in practical use, specially
antiviral drugs (why ?)
The emergence and spread of new varieties
of MOs that are resistant to antibiotics.
(due to bacterial enzymes that inactivate antibiotics,
or prevention of Abt. From entering the microbe.)

Figure 1.5

Modern Developments in
Microbiology
Branches
of
Microbiology
Bacteriology is the study of bacteria.

Began with the van Leeuwenhoeks first examination of tooth scrapings.


New pathogenic bacteria are still discovered regularly.
Many bacteriologists, look at the roles of bacteria in food and
environment.
Mycology is the study of fungi.
Includes medical, agricultural, and ecological branches.
Fungal infections accounting for 10% of hospital acquired infections.
Parasitology is the study of protozoa and parasitic worms.
Recent advances in genomics, the study of all of an organisms genes, have
provided new tools for classifying microorganisms.
Previously these MOs were classified according to a limited number of
visible characteristics.

Modern Developments in Microbiology


Branches of Microbiology
Immunology is the study of immunity.

Vaccines and interferons are being investigated to prevent and cure viral diseases.

Vaccines are now available for numerous diseases, including measles, rubella
(German measles), mumps, chickenpox, pneumococcal pneumonia, tetanus,
tuberculosis, whooping coughs, polio, and hepatitis B.

Smallpox was eradicated due to effective vaccination and polio is expected to.

Interferons, substances produced by the bodys own


immune system, inhibit the replication of viruses and
are used to treat viral diseases and cancer.

The use of immunology to identify and classify some


bacteria according to serotypes (variants within
a species) based on certain components in the cell
walls of the bacteria, was proposed by Rebecca
Lancefield in 1933.
Figure 1.4 (3 of 3)

Modern Developments in
Microbiology
Branches
of
Microbiology
Virology is the study of viruses.
In 1892, Dimitri Iwanowski reported that the organism that
caused mosaic disease of tobacco was so small that is passed the
bacterial filters.
In 1935, Wendell Stanely demonstrated that the organism ,
called tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), was different from other
microbes, so simple, and composed of only nucleic acid core and
protein core.
In 1940s, the development of electron microscope enabled the
scientists to observe the structure and activity of viruses in
detail.

Modern Developments in
Microbiology
Recombinant
DNA Technology: of Microbiology
Branches

In the 1960s, Paul Berg inserted animal DNA into bacterial DNA and the
bacteria produced an animal protein.
Recombinant DNA is DNA made from two different sources.
Recombinant DNA technology, or genetic engineering, involves microbial
genetics and molecular biology.
Using microbes
Beadle and Tatum showed that genes encode a cells enzymes (1942).
Avery, MacLeod, and McCarty showed that DNA was the hereditary
material (1944).
Lederberg and Tatum discovered that genetic material could be
transferred from one bacterium to another by conjugation (1946).
Watson and Crick proposed a model for the structure of DNA (1953).
Jacob and Monod discovered the role of mRNA in protein synthesis (1961).

Microbes and Human


Only minority of all MOs are pathogenic.
Microbes that cause food spoilage are also a minority.
Welfare
The vast majority of microbes benefit humans, other animals, and plants in

The vast majority of microbes benefit humans, other animals, and plants in
many ways.
RECYCLING VITAL ELEMENTS
In 1880s, Beijerinck and Winogradsky showed how bacteria help recycle vital
elements between the soil and the atmosphere.
Microbial ecology: the study of the relationship between microorganisms and
their environment.
Microorganisms recycle carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and phosphorus into
forms that can be used by plants and animals.
Bacteria and fungi, return CO2 to the atmosphere when decomposing organic
wastes and dead plants and animals.
Algae, cyanobacteria, and plants use CO2 to produce carbohydrates.

Microbes
and
Human
SEWAGE TREATMENT: Using microbes to recycle water.
Recycling water and prevent the pollution of rivers and oceans
Welfare
Bacteria degrade organic matter in sewage (99% water), producing such

by-products as carbon dioxide, nitrates, phosphates, sulfates, ammonia,


hydrogen sulfide, and methane.
BIOREMEDIATION: Using microbes to clean up pollutants.
In 1988, microbes began used to clean up pollutants and
toxic wastes produced by various industrial processes.
Bacteria degrade or detoxify pollutants such as oil and
mercury.
In addition, bacterial enzymes are used in drain
cleaners to remove clogs
Such bioremedial microbes are Pseudomonas and
Bacillus, their enzymes used in household detergents.

UN 2.1

Microbes and Human


INSECT BEST CONTROL BY MOs
Welfare
Insect pest control is important for both agriculture and the prevention

of human diseases.
Bacillus thuringiensis infections are fatal for many insects but harmless
to other animals, including humans, and to plants.
The bacteria produce protein crystals that are toxic to the digestive
systems of the insects.
The toxin gene has been inserted into some plants to make them insect
resistant.
Microbes that are pathogenic to insects are alternatives to chemical
pesticides in preventing insect damage to agricultural crops, disease
transmission, and avoid harming the environment.

Microbes and Human Welfare

MODERN BIOTECHNOLOGY AND RECOMBINANT DNA TECHNOLOGY

Biotechnology, the use of microbes to produce foods and chemicals, is


centuries old.

Genetic engineering is a new technique for biotechnology. Through genetic


engineering, bacteria and fungi can produce a variety of proteins including
vaccines and enzymes.

Recombinant DNA techniques have been used to produce a number of natural


proteins, vaccines, and enzymes.

The very exciting and important outcome of recombinant DNA techniques is


Gene Therapy: inserting a missing gene or replacing a defective one in human
cells by using a harmless virus to carry the missing or new gene into certain
host cells.

Genetically modified bacteria are used to protect crops from insects, from
freezing, and to improve the appearance, flavor, and shelf life of fruits and
vegetables. (more: Drought resistance and temperature tolerance)

Microbes and Human Disease


NORMAL MICROBIOTA

We all live in a world filled with microbes, and we all have a variety of
microorganisms on and in our bodies.
Microbes normally present in and on the human body are called normal
microbiota, or flora.

Bacteria were once classified as plants giving rise to use of the term
flora for microbes.

This term has been replaced by microbiota.


The normal microbiota not only harmless, but also benefit us.
1. Some protect us against disease by preventing the over-growth of
harmful microbes.
2. Others produce useful substances such as vitamine K and B.
Unfortunately, under some circumstances normal microbiota can make us
sick or infect people we contact.

Microbes and Human Disease


INFECTIOUS DISEASES

An infectious disease is one in which pathogens invade a susceptible host,


such as a human or animal.
The pathogen carries out at least part of its life cycle inside the host, and
disease frequently results.
When a pathogen overcomes the hosts resistance, disease results.
Many mistakenly believed that infectious diseases were under control
a. Malaria would be eradicated by killing mosquitoes by DDT.
b. A vaccine would prevent diphtheria.
c. Improved sanitation measures would help prevent cholera transmission.
Recent outbreaks of such infectious diseases indicates that not only they
are not disappearing, but seem to be reemerging and increasing.
In addition, a number of new diseases -Emerging infectious diseases (EID)have cropped up in recent years

Microbes and Human Disease


EMERGING INFECTIOUS DISEASES

Emerging infectious diseases (EID): are diseases that are new or changing and are
increasing or have the potential to increase in incidence in the near future.

Some factors that have contributed to the emergence of EIDs:


a.

Evolutionary changes in existing organisms.

b.

The spread of known diseases to new geographic regions or populations by modern


transportation.

c.
1.

2.

Increased human exposure to new, unusual infectious agents.

West Nile encephalitis

Caused by West Nile virus

First diagnosed in the West Nile region of Uganda in 1937

Appeared in New York City in 1999

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy


a.

Caused by prion

b.

Also causes Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)

c.

New variant CJD in humans is related to cattle feed from infected sheep.

Emerging Infectious
Diseases
3.

Escherichia coli O57:H7

a. Toxin-producing strain of E. coli


b. First seen in 1982

c. Leading cause of diarrhea worldwide


4.

Ebola hemorrhagic fever


a. Caused by Ebola virus
b. Causes fever, hemorrhaging, and blood clotting
c. First identified near Ebola River, Congo
d. Outbreaks every few years.

5.

Invasive group A Streptococcus


a. Rapidly growing bacteria that cause extensive tissue damage
b. Increased incidence since 1995

6.

Avian influenza A (H5N1)


a. Caused by Influenza A virus (H5N1)
b. Primarily in waterfowl and poultry
c. Sustained human-to-human transmission has not occurred yet

7.

Emerging Infectious Diseases


Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
a. SARS-associated Coronavirus
b. Occurred in 2002-2003
c. Person-to-person transmission

8.

Cryptosporidiosis
a. Caused by Cryptosporidium protozoa
b. First reported in 1976
c. Causes 30% of diarrheal illness in developing countries
d. In the United States, transmitted via water

9.

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)


a. Caused by Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
b. First identified in 1981
c. Worldwide epidemic infecting 44 million people; 14,000 new infections daily
d. Sexually transmitted disease affecting males and females
e. In the United States, HIV/AIDS cases: 30% are female and 75% are African
American

Lecture 3
23 February 2013

Prokaryotic Cell
Structure & Function
From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com

Image: Prokaryotic cell diagram: M. Ruiz

Two Basic Types of Cells

_____________________

From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com

_____________________
Images: Prokaryotic cell diagram &
Eukaryotic cell diagram, M. Ruiz

Size of Living Things

1 m = 100 cm = 1,000mm = 1,000,000 m = 1,000,000,000nm


1mm = 1000 m = 1000000nm
1 m = 1000nm

From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com

Prokaryotes

_______ ________

Tell me about Prokaryotes

From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com

Images: Prokaryotic cell diagram, M.


Ruiz, Binary fission, JW Schmidt

Prokaryote Genetics

Nucleoid:

Region of cytoplasm where


prokaryotes genome is located.
Usually a singular, circular
chromosome.

Plasmid:

Small extra piece of


chromosome/genetic material.

5 - 100 genes

Not critical to everyday functions.

Can provide genetic information to


promote:

Antibiotic resistance
Virulence factors (molecules produced by pathogen that
specifically influence host's function to allow the pathogen to thrive)

Promote conjugation

(transfer of genetic material between


bacteria through cell-to-cell contact)

From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com

Image: Prokaryotic Cell Diagram: M. Ruiz,


Bacterial conjugation, Adenosine

Prokaryotes
Cytoplasm
______________

Also known as proto-plasm.


Gel-like matrix of water, enzymes
, nutrients, wastes, and gases and
contains cell structures.
Location of growth, metabolism,
and replication.

Granules

Bacterias way of storing


nutrients.
Staining of some granules aids in
identification.

Image: Prokaryotic cell diagram: M.


Ruiz, Granules, Source Unknown

From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com

Prokaryotes
Cytoskeleton

Cellular "scaffolding" or
"skeleton" within the
cytoplasm.

Major advance in
prokaryotic cell biology in
the last decade has been
discovery of the
prokaryotic cytoskeleton.

Up until recently, thought


to be a feature only of
eukaryotic cells.

From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com

Image: Prokaryotic Cell: M. Ruiz

Prokaryotes
____Ribosomes_____

Found within cytoplasm or


attached to plasma
membrane.

Click here for


animation of
ribosome building
a protein.

Composed of two subunits.


Cell may contain
thousands .

Q: What do ribosomes do?

From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com

Animation: Ribosome translating protein


,Xvazquez; Ribosome Structure, Vossman

Prokaryotes
Plasma Membrane

Separates the cell from its


environment.
Phospholipid molecules oriented
so that ___hydrophilic_______
water-loving heads directed
outward and
__hydrophobic________
water-hating tails directed
inward.
Proteins embedded in two layers
of lipids (lipid bilayer).
Membrane is semi-permeable.
Q: What does that mean?

From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com

Image: Cell Membrane diagram, Dhatfield

Prokaryotes Plasma Membrane as a Barrier


Osmosis

Is the diffusion of water


across a semi-permeable
membrane.
Environment surrounding
cells may contain amounts of
dissolved substances
(solutes) that are
- equal to
- less than
- greater than

those found within the cell.

From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com

Plasma
membra
ne

CELL
Liquid
environment
outside the
cell.

Liquid
environment
inside the
cell.

Images: Osmosis animation; Osmosis with RBCs, M. Ruiz

Prokaryotes Plasma Membrane as a Barrier


Tonicity and Osmosis

_Isotonic: equal concentration of a solute


inside and outside of cell.
Hypertonic: a higher concentration of
solute.
Hypotonic: a lower concentration of
solute.

Water will always move


toward a hypertonic
environment!!
From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com

Want Some Help?

Need to review the concepts of diffusion


& osmosis, see the
Diffusion, Osmosis & Active Transport
Lecture Main Page of the
Virtual Cell Biology Classroom on the
Science Prof Online website and the
How Osmosis Works animation.
Images: Osmosis animation; Osmosis with RBCs, M. Ruiz

Plasma Membrane as a Barrier


Active TRANSPORT

How most molecules move across the plasma membrane.

Analogous to a pump moving water uphill.

Types of active transport are classified by type of energy used to drive molecules
across membranes.
ATP Driven Active Transport

Energy from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) drives substances across the plasma membrane with
the aid of carrier molecules.

From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com

Prokaryotes Cell Wall


Peptidoglycan is a huge polymer of interlocking chains of
identical peptidoglycan monomers.
Provides rigid support while freely permeable to solutes.
Backbone of peptidoglycan molecule composed of two
derivatives of glucose:
- N-acetylglucosamine (NAG)
- N-acetlymuramic acid (NAM)

NAG / NAM strands are


connected by interpeptide bridges.

From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com

Image: Bonding structure peptidoglycan,


Mouagip; Other Image Source Unknown

Prokaryotes - Cell Wall


From the peptidoglycan inwards all bacteria are very similar. Going
further out, the bacterial world divides into two major classes (plus a
couple of odd types). These are:

Gram _Positive_

From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com

Gram _Negative

Images: Staph, Gram Stain, SPO Microbiology


Images, T. Port; E coli, Y tambe

Prokaryotes - Cell Wall


Gram-Positive & Gram-Negative

From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com

Images: Sources Unknown

Gram-positive

Peptidoglycan makes up as much as 90% of the thick, compact cell


wall.

Gram-negative

More chemically complex and thinner.


Peptidoglycan only 5 20% of the cell wall.

Peptidoglycan not outermost layer, between the plasma membrane


and the outer membrane.

Outer membrane is similar to the plasma membrane, but is less


permeable and composed of lipopolysaccharides (LPS).
LPS is a harmful substance classified as an endotoxin,

The space between the cell wall and the plasma membrane is
called the periplasm.

Prokaryotes - Cell Wall


Gram-Positive & Gram-Negative

From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com

Image: Gram-positive cell wall schematic, Wiki;

Q: Why are these differences in cell wall structure so


important?

From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com

Images: Prokaryotic Cell: M. Ruiz, Other Images, Sources Unknown

Gram-negative bacteria: fewer interpeptide bridges but


have an outer membrane made of lipopolysaccharides
LPS.

Penicillins and cephalosporins interfere with linking of


interpeptides, but cant easily get to in gram- bacteria.

Cell walls without enough of these intact cross-links are


structurally weak, and disintegrate when cells divide.
This is how penicillins and cephalosporins work.

Since the eukaryotic cells of humans do not have cell


walls, our cells are not damaged by these drugs.

Microorganisms that do not contain peptidoglycan are


not susceptible to these drugs.

Prokaryotes - Glycocalyx
Some bacteria have an additional layer outside
of the cell wall called the glycocalyx.
This additional layer can come in one of two
forms:
1.

Slime layer__________

- Glycoproteins loosely associated with the cell

wall.

- Slime layer causes bacteria to adhere to solid


surfaces and helps prevent the cell from drying
out.

- Streptococcus

The slime layer of Gram+ Streptococcus mutans allows


it to accumulate on tooth enamel (yuck mouth and one
of the causes of cavities).
Other bacteria in the mouth become trapped in the
slime and form a biofilm & eventually a buildup of
plaque.

From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com

Mannitol
Salt

Images: Slime layer, Encyclopedia Britannica; Biofilm,


PHIL # 11706, Mannitol Salt agar, T. Port

Prokaryotes - Glycocalyx
2. Capsule

Polysaccharides firmly attached to


the cell wall.
Capsules adhere to solid surfaces and
to nutrients in the environment.
Adhesive power of capsules is a
major factor in the initiation of some
bacterial diseases.
Capsule also protect bacteria from
being phagocitized by cells of the
hosts immune system.

From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com

Image: Prokaryotic Cell Diagram: M. Ruiz, Other Images Unknown Source

Prokaryotes - Endospores

Dormant, tough, non-reproductive


structure produced by small number of
bacteria.

Q: What is the function of endospores?


Allow bacteria to survive in
suspended animation when
environmental conditions are not
suitable. Kind of like a plant seed..
When conditions are right the
endospore will sprout a living
bacterium
Resistant to radiation, desiccation,
lysozyme, temperature, starvation, and
chemical disinfectants.

An endospore stained bacterial smear of


Bacillus subtilis showing endospores as
green and vegetative cells as red.

Endospores are commonly found in soil


and water, where they may survive for
very long periods of time.

From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com

Image: Bacillus subtilis, SPO Science Image Library, Endospore


stain from Dr. Ronald E. Hurlbert, Microbiology 101 lab manual

Meet the Microbe: __Clostridium_____________


(Gram+)

The members of this genus have a couple


of bacterial superpowers that make
them particularly tough pathogens.

Q: Anyone know what those superpowers


are?

Produce endospores

Produce toxins

Clostridia are known to produce a variety


of toxins, some of which are fatal.
- Clostridium tetani = agent of tetanus
- C. botulinum = agent of botulism
- C. perfringens = one of the agents of gas gangrene

- C. difficile = part of natural intestinal flora, but resistant


strains can proliferate and cause pseudomembranous colitis.

Images: Man with Tetanus, Sir Charles Bell; Clostridium


botulinum, PHIL #2107; Wet Gangrene, Wiki

From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com

Prokaryotes Surface Appendages

Flagella :Some prokaryotes have


distinct appendages that allow them
to move about or adhere to solid
surfaces.
Axial filaments :Consist of delicate
stands of proteins.
Fimbria: Long, thin extensions that
allow some bacteria to move about
freely in aqueous environments.

Pilli (endoflagella): Wind around


bacteria, causing movement in
waves.

From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com

Images: Helicobacter pylori ; Axial filament, Source unknown

Prokaryotes Surface Appendages

Fimbria:Most Gram-negative
bacteria have these short, fine
appendages surrounding the cell.
Gram+ bacteria dont have.
No role in motility. Help bacteria
adhere to solid surfaces. Major
factor in virulence.

Pili:Tubes that are longer than


fimbriae, usually shorter than
flagella.
Use for movement, like grappling
hooks, and also use conjugation pili
(singular = pilus)

to transfer plasmids.

From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com

Images: E. coli fimbriae, Manu Forero; Bacterial conjugation, Adenosine

Meet the Microbe!


Fimbiriae

Neisseria and its

Gram- diplococci, resemble coffee beans when viewed microscopically.

Neisseria gonorrhoeae causes sexually transmitted disease gonorrhoeae.

Antibiotics applied to the eyes of neonates as a preventive measure against


gonorrhoea.
One of the most communicable disease in the U.S.
125 cases per 100,000. Teens 15-19 yo 634 cases per 100,000. Young adults 2025 460 per 100,000.

N. meningitidis most common causes of bacterial meningitis in young adults.

What Makes Neisseria So Tough?

__________________ (LPS) of the cell wall of Neisseria acts as an endotoxin.


Polysaccharide _________ prevents host phagocytosis and aids in evasion of the
host immune response.
Use __________ to attach onto host cells, avirulent without. Fimbriae have
adhesion proteins (adhesins) on their tips that match, lock and key, with proteins
on host epithelial cell surface.

From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com

Image: Neisseria photo, Textbook of Bacteriology, Gram


stain of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Souce PHIL #3798

Prokaryotes Cell Shapes


Most bacteria are classifies according to shape:

1. Bacillus (pl. bacilli) = rod-shaped


2. Coccus (pl. cocci sounds like cox-eye) = spherical
3. Spiral Shaped
flagella

a. Spirillium (pl. spirilla) = spiral with rigid cell wall,

b. Spirochete (pl. spirochetes) = spiral with


flexible cell wall, axial filament

There are many more shapes beyond these basic ones.


A few examples:

Coccobacilli = elongated coccal form

Filamentous = bacilli that occur in long threads

Vibrios = short, slightly curved rods

Fusiform = bacilli with tapered ends

From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com

Images: Basic bacterial shapes, Mariana Ruiz,


Other examples of bacterial shapes, FDA, Gov.

Prokaryotes Arrangements of Cells

Bacteria sometimes occur in groups,


rather than singly.

Bacillus: divide along a single axis,


seen in pairs or chains.

Coccus: divide on one or more planes,


producing cells in:
- pairs (diplococci)
- chains (streptococci)
- packets (sarcinae)
- clusters (staphylococci).

Size, shape and arrangement of cells


often first clues in identification of a
bacterium.

Many look-alikes, so shape and


arrangement not enough for id of
genus and species.

From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com

Image: Bacterial shapes and cell


arrangements, Mariana Ruiz Villarreal

Prokaryotes Cell Shape & Arrangement


B

Images: A. Staph; B. E. coli, T. Port; C. Bacillus anthracis,


PHIL #2105; D. Streptococcus bacteria, PHIL #2110.

From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com

Confused?
Here are links to fun resources that further explain aerobic
respiration:

Cell Structure: Prokaryotes Main Page on the Virtual


Micrboiology Classroom of Science Prof Online.

Prokaryotic Cell: Structures, Functions & Diagrams, an article


from SPO.
Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic: Two Types of Biological Cells, an article
from SPO.

Got the Time music video by Anthrax.


Prokaryotic Cell interactive diagram from Cells Alive website.
How big is a interactive diagram from Cells Alive website.
Cell Structure tutorials and quizzes from Interactive Concepts in
Biochemistry.

How Osmosis Works, animation from McGrw-Hill.


Germs. Music by Weird Al Yankovic. Video by RevLucio.
Bacterial Pathogen Pronunciation Station, a webpage with links

to audio files containing the pronunciation of the bacterial names, created by


Neal R. Chamberlain, Ph.D.

Biology4Kids Cell Biology Main Page

by Raders.

(You must be in PPT slideshow view to click on links.)


From the Virtual Microbiology Classroom on ScienceProfOnline.com

What a virus is and


isnt.

A virus is not a cell.

No nucleus, cell membrane, ribosomes,


mitochondria, chloroplasts, etc.

A virus is very small.


3000 poloviruses could be contained in the
period at the end of this sentence.

A virus is not complex.


Genes: Humans (100,000), Bacteria
(1000), a Virus just 5!

Viral Structure

Nucleic Acid
DNA or RNA, but not both.

Protein Coat (capsid)


Protects the nucleic acid from its
environment.

Envelope
Only found in viruses that infect animals.
Spike-like projections that recognize
animal cells and bind to the cell surface.

Section 19-2

Tobacco Mosaic
Virus

T4 Bacteriophage
Head

DNA

Influenza
Virus

RNA

Capsid
proteins

Capsid

RNA

Tail
sheath
Tail
fiber

Surface
proteins

Membrane
envelope

Viral Replication

Viruses dont reproduce, they replicate.


Viruses cannot replicate on their own.
Host cells.
Lytic Cycle.
When the virus enters the cell it immediately
begins to replicate, rapidly killing the cell.

Lysogenic Cycle.
Viral DNA is inserted into the host cells DNA. This
DNA, called a PROPHAGE, may be reproduced
several times and eventually reactivates.

Lytic and Lysogenic Infections

Are viruses alive?

Properties of Life:

Highly organized. Yes or no?


Use energy. Yes or no?
Grow and develop. Yes or no?
Reproduce. Yes or no?
Respond and adapt. Yes or no?

Most scientists would say NO.

Figure 19-11 Viruses and Cells


Section 19-2

What are vaccinations?

The process of injecting a person


with a harmless (weakened or
dead) form of a virus to stimulate
the immune system to produce
cells and proteins that will destroy
that type of virus.

Bacterial Structure

Figure 14.10

Flagella
Cell Membrane
Ribosome
Pili
Chromosome
Cell Wall

The Structure of a Eubacterium


Section 19-1
Ribosome
Peptidoglycan

Cell
Cell
wall membrane

Flagellum

DNA

Pili

Survival/Reproduction

Binary Fission: the process by which bacteria


replicate chromosomes and the cell divides.
Power of doubling (1 penny doubled 20 times)
1048576 cents or $10,485.76
Average bacteria doubles every 15-20 minutes

Endospores
Thick-walled reproductive structures that
can resist heat, drought, and radiation,
sometimes living centuries before breaking
open.

Classifying Bacteria

Archaebacteria (ancient)

Methanogens: produce methane.


Thermophiles: heated conditions
Halophiles: salty conditions

Eubacteria
True Bacteria live in much less harsh
environments than archebacteria. Many types
and ways to classify.

Classifying Bacteria,
cont.
Shapes
Spheres (cocci), rods (bacilli), spirals
(spirilla), chains (streptococci), clusters
(staphylococci).

Cell Wall Composition


Gram-positive, Gram-negative.

Nutrition (autotroph, heterotroph)


Respiration (aerobes, anaerobes)

The Roles of Bacteria

Decomposers.
Breakdown dead material.
Convert (fix) nitrogen into usable forms
for plants.

Symbiosis.
You scratch my back Ill scratch yours.

Bacteria can be harmful.


Slides of deadly bacteria.

Section 19-3

Common Diseases Caused by Bacteria

Disease

Pathogen

Tooth decay

Streptococcus mutans

Prevention
Regular dental hygiene

Lyme disease

Borrelia burgdorferi

Protection from tick bites

Tetanus

Clostridium tetani

Current tetanus vaccination

Tuberculosis

Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Vaccination

Salmonella food poisoning

Salmonella enteritidis

Proper food-handling practices

Pneumonia

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Maintaining good health

Cholera

Vibrio cholerae

Clean water supplies

Section 19-3

Common Diseases Caused by Viruses

Type of Virus

Nucleic Acid

Oncogenic viruses

DNA

Disease
Cancer

Retrovirus

RNA

Cancer, AIDS

Adenoviruses

DNA

Respiratory infections

Herpesviruses

DNA

Chickenpox

Poxviruses

DNA

Smallpox

Protists

Common characteristic:
EUKARYOTES
Very diverse (20 new kingdoms?)
Three general categories:
Animal-Like Protists (p. 355-357)
Plantlike Protists (p. 358-361)
Funguslike Protists (p. 362-364)

Concept Map

Section 20-1

Protists

are classified by

Animallike

Plantlike

which

which

which

Take in food from


the environment

Produce food by
photosynthesis

Obtain food by
external digestion

Funguslike

which include

Decomposers

Parasites

Animallike Protists: Protozoans


Section 20-2
A.
Zooflagellates
B.
Sarcodines
C.
Ciliates
1. Internal Anatomy
2. Conjugation
D.
Sporozoans

Figure 20-4 An Amoeba


Section 20-2

Contractile vacuole
Pseudopods
Nucleus

Food vacuole

Figure 20-5 A Ciliate


Section 20-2

Lysosomes

Trichocysts

Oral groove

Gullet
Anal pore

Contractile vacuole

Micronucleus
Macronucleus

Food vacuoles

Cilia

Section Outline

Plantlike
Protists:
Unicellular
Section 20-3
Algae
A. Chlorophyll and Accessory Pigments
B. Euglenophytes
C. Chrysophytes
D. Diatoms
E. Dinoflagellates

Euglena

Section 20-3

Chloroplast

Carbohydrate
storage bodies

Gullet

Pellicle

Flagella

Eyespot

Nucleus

Contractile
vacuole

Plantlike Protists: Red, Brown, and Green


Algae
A.
Red Algae
B. Brown Algae
C. Green Algae
1. Unicellular Green Algae
2. Colonial Green Algae
3. Multicellular Green Algae

Section Outline

Funguslike Protists
A. Slime Molds
1. Cellular Slime Molds
2. Acellular Slime Molds
B. Water Molds
Section 20-5

Figure 20-23 The Life Cycle of an Slime Mold


Section 20-5

MEIOSIS
FERTILIZATION

Mature
sporangium

Spores

Zygote

Germinating
spore

Young
sporangium

Mature
plasmodium

Feeding
plasmodium

Haploid (N)

Diploid (2N)

Fungi

3 Common characteristics:
Cell wall are chitin. Same covering
as insects.
Made of individual filaments, called
hyphae. Tubes full of cytoplasm and
nuclei.
Masses of hyphae combine to form
the mycelium. This is the body of
the fungus.

Hyphae Structure
Section 21-1

Nuclei

Cell wall

Cytoplasm

Cross wall

Cytoplasm

Hyphae With Cross Walls

Nuclei

Cell wall

Hyphae Without Cross Walls

The Life Cycle of a Basidiomycete


Section 21-2
Fruiting body (N + N)
Gills lined
with basidia

Cap

Button

Gills
Stalk
Base
Basidia
(N + N)

Secondary
mycelium (N + N)

FERTILIZATION

HYPHAE FUSE
Primary mycelium (N)

Zygote (2N)

- Mating type (N)

Haploid
Diploid

+ Mating type (N)

MEIOSIS
Basidiospores (N)

How does a fungus


eat?
Heterotrophs

Diffusion: most fungi absorb small


organic nutrients from their
environment.

Saprophytic: they absorb nutrients

from dead or decaying organic matter.