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RF Coverage

NOKIA Training Center / RDM

Objectives
Objectives:

Radio coverage discusses options on how to improve existing coverage. The solutions are simple
and practical. In most cases improving the RF environment brings significant improvement compared
to fancy features.

References:

Samur Worasilpchai

NOKIA Training Center / RDM

Content
Indoor coverage
Antenna, down tilt, overshooting signal
Combiner and BTS TX power
Antenna type, down tilt and azimuth change
Antenna hopping

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Indoor Coverage
Many networks have insufficient indoor coverage due to high building penetration loss.
This includes subways, under ground facilities and tunnels.
Outdoor coverage is normally ok in urban and city area. Interference is more an issue
for outdoor users.
Micro cell and Indoor cell are good solution to improve indoor coverage and network
quality.

Indoor BTS
Indoor Panel
Antenna

Optical Fiber

Remote Unit

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Master Unit

RF Cable

Antenna
Antenna misalignment can cause coverage or quality issues.
Antenna audit should be made regularly and after a major storm.
How the antennas are installed on rooftop has also big impact on RF coverage and
interference.

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Antenna Down Tilt


Antenna down tilt is a very effective way for RF coverage optimization.
Narrow horizontal and vertical beam width antenna increase the effectiveness of
antenna down tilt but increase the accuracy requirement for antenna installation.
Quality of the antenna down tilt depends on: electrical down tilt, down tilt bracket,
antenna support e.g. pole or wall and where the antenna is installed.
Antenna down tilt can reduce interference and improve indoor coverage.
0o down tilt
2o down tilt

4o down tilt

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Overshooting Signal
Overshooting signal makes frequency planning more difficult, reduces
the effectiveness of frequency reuse and degrades network quality.
Overshooting can be identified by TA (timing advance) statistics, see
example below.
Cluster TA

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Overshooting cell

Antenna Down Tilt Improves Retainability


After antenna down tilt, retainability increase from ~96.5% to ~98.5%
Traffic is only slightly decrease.

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Combiner
EIRP = BTS TX power combiner loss feeder loss + antenna gain.
Higher EIRP can be achieved by install more feeders and antennas.
QuadPol antenna reduces number of physical antennas at site.
Check UL/DL link balance by compare UL and DL RxQual distribution and PC
parameters.
TRX

COMB
2way

TRX

COMB
2way

TRX

Antenna

Port 1

COMB
2way

TRX

DDU
(Filter)

TRX
COMB
2way

TRX

COMB
2way

TRX

Port 2

COMB
2way

TRX

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Antenna

Antenna type, tilt and azimuth change


0

65 degree Horizontal HBW is


recommended for 3 sectors site.
Electrical down tilt is
recommended.
Variable electrical down tilt is
very useful in RF coverage
optimization.
Antenna Azimuth is adjusted
according to coverage
requirement and traffic
distribution.

5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45

731DG65VTAXM
731DG90VTAXM
DB872H120-X
FR90-12-00 AL2

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Typical Antennas
Horizontal Beamwidth

Gain

Height

Vertical Beamwidth

33o

20 dBi

2.2m

8o

65o

18.5 dBi

2.5m

6.5o

65o

15.5 dBi

1.2m

13o

90o

17 dBi

2.5m

8.5o

90o

10 dBi

0.5m

36o

105o

16.5 dBi

2.5m

6.5o

360o

10.5 dBi

2.9m

7o

360o

8 dBi

1.5m

13o

Beamwidths are measured to the half power point (3db down from the
main lobe)
These antennas are for 900 MHz band, but the same principles apply for
different bands.
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Example of RF Coverage Optimization

Cluster

CSFLMIA22
CSFLMIA22
CSFLMIA22
CSFLMIA25
CSFLMIA25
CSFLMIA25
CSFLMIA25
CSFLMIA17
CSFLMIA17
CSFLMIA08
CSFLMIA08
CSFLMIA08
CSFLMIA26
CSFLMIA26
CSFLMIA26

Mech
DT

Elect
DT

Host /
Separat
e

335

FR90-12-00_AL2

90

FR90-12-05_AL2
FR90-12-00DAL2
FV1051000
FR90-12-00DAL2
DB833
DB874 H120
DB874 H120
DB844H105
DB844H105
DB844H105
DB874H105
DB874H105
DB874H105

215
335
95
215
95
95
215
335
95
215
335
95
215

3
0
0
0
5
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

5
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

S
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H

Cell Name

Original
Antenna Model

012G0787A

FR90-12-05_AL2

012G0787B
012G0787C
012G0958A
012G0958B
012G0958C
012G0765B
012G0620B
012G0620C
012G0358A
012G0358B
012G0358C
072G0939A
072G0939B
072G0939C

Rad
Center

99
99
99
137
112
125
80
80
80
126
126
126

Azimuth

HBW

90
105
90
105
120
120
90
90
90
105
105
105

VBW

12
12
12
12
14
14
15
15
15
14
14
14

New Antenna Model

New
HBW

New
Azimuth

Desired
Elec Tilt

Mech
DT

731DG65VTAXM

65

270

731DG65VTAXM

65

45

731DG65VTAXM

65

135

731DG65VTAXM
731DG65VTAXM
731DG65VTAXM
731DG65VTAXM
731DG65VTAXM
731DG90VTAXM
731DG65VTAXM
731DG65VTAXM
731DG65VTAXM
731DG65VTAXM
731DG90VTAXM
731DG65VTAXM

65
65
65
65
65
90
65
65
65
65
90
65

335
95
215
95
95
215
270
90
180
335
95
215

4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4
4

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

The purpose of this RF coverage optimization is to reduce network


interference (measured by interference matrix, IM) without degradation
of RF coverage and traffic.
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Site Traffic VS First Tier Traffic

Change Date:
765 10/05
787 10/05
788 10/06
789 10/07
939 10/09

After antennas change, no degradation on traffic (service area/coverage area).


No complain from end users.
Change antenna from wide horizontal HBW (120/90) to narrower horizontal HBW
(65) does not degrade service area and traffic.
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An Example of Network Performance before and


After Antenna Change, site 358
Good Qual UL & DL

DCR & Traffic


dcr_ 8c/TCH Call Drop Ratio (dcr_ 8c)

avg_ tch_ erlang/Average TCH Erlang (per hour)

1,4
1,2
1
0,8
0,6
0,4
0,2
0

goodulq_ 2/Good RX Qual %UL

18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0

100
98
96
94
92
90
88

SDCCH success ratio & HO failure

UL FER & Traffic


fer_ uplink25/FER Uplink Ratio (25%)

100
98
96
94
92
90
88
86
84
82
80

gooddlq_ 2/Good RX Qual %DL

avg_ tch_ erlang/Average TCH Erlang (per hour)

ssr/SDCCH Success Ratio

18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0

hfr_ 1/HO Failure %

99,6
99,5
99,4
99,3
99,2
99,1
99
98,9
98,8

Antenna change: October 7th, no degradation on performance


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10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
0

Site 358 Dominance Area Before Antenna


Change

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Site 358 Sector A Coverage Before and After


Existing Antenna
BTS Name

TDMA Sector

012G0358A FFGHA

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Antenna Model
DB844H90

Azimuth
335

New Antenna

Tilt HBW VBW Antenna Model


0

90

15 731DG65VTAXM

Azimuth
270

EDT HBW VBW MDT


4

65 -

Site 358 Sector B Coverage Before and After


Existing Antenna
BTS Name

TDMA Sector

012G0358B FFGHB

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Antenna Model
FR90-12-00_AL2

Azimuth
95

New Antenna

Tilt HBW VBW Antenna Model


0

90

15 731DG65VTAXM

Azimuth
90

EDT HBW VBW MDT


4

65 -

Site 358 Sector C Coverage Before and After

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Combine Coverage Sector A, B and C


Pre-antenna change, 90 HBW
Azimuth 335, 95, 215

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Post-antenna change, 65 HBW


Azimuth 270, 90, 180

IM
C/I < 9 dB - all (C)

C/I < 9 dB - all (I)

60%

60%

50%

50%

40%

40%

30%

Pre-antenna
change

30%

20%

Post-antenna
change

20%

10%

10%

0%

0%

Pre-antenna
change
Postantenna
change

No change in IM when antenna change sector is a carrier (C).


Clear improvement in IM when antenna change sector is an interferer (I).

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Antenna Hopping

BCCH TRX Coverage

Hopping TRX Coverage

Improve BCCH
performance DL for
slow moving mobile.
Remove BCCH and
TCH coverage gap.
Improve HO
performance

One antenna

TX 1
TX
data

Radio
Channel

Average
received
carrier power
over burst

Distance

Two antennas with DD


Distance
TX 2
Delay + PH

Radio
Channel

Two antennas with DD + PH, or AH


Distance

Speech frame duration at 3 km/h:

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Performance gain
depends on network
environment and
configuration

AH Performance trends

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H
oA

ba

e
li n
e
s

20% gain

AH Performance trends
SDCCH success rate
SDCCH traffic on BCCH
Performance is independent of
load
AH provides small, but consistent
improvement

0.25%
better

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