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of guidance and counseling

of psychotherapy


of guidance and counseling

Principles of guidance and counseling

Principles are written in the form of
statements and should be practiced by people.
Mohd Salleh Lebar (1993)

Principles are the basic of rationale, action,

and assumptions.
Tang Chee Yee (1987)


Pupils who are facing problems should be given the chance to

receive the guidance and counseling services without considering
their races, social status, family background and religion.


Guidance and counseling not only involves the counselor and

pupils, but also the school and pupils parents.


Guidance and counseling should be conducted according to the

correct procedures and rules. It will become effective when it
is arranged systematically.

4. Counseling is the interaction between the counselor and pupil based on

relationship and believes.

5. Guidance and counseling can only be given to pupils who are willing to
take and it cannot be done by force, including choosing the places of

6. Counseling session can only be conducted between the counselor and

his/her clients in a special room prepared.

7. Guidance and counseling should be managed with etiquettes to protect

the pupils rights. All the pupils information are secret and
confidential and can only be shared with the counselors assistant.

8. Guidance and counseling should be conducted in a situation when

there are only the counselor and pupils around. Everything
discussed will be considered as secret.
9. Follow-up actions should be planned after the guidance and
counseling process to ensure that the problems faced by the
pupils will not occur again.
10. Guidance and counseling services can only be conducted by a
counselor who is accredited or a trained teacher who is
professional and able to guide the clients to overcome their
academic or personal problems.

Concept of psychotherapy

Psychotherapy is a general term referring to a

treatment of certain mental illness through
recovery process without using medicines and

It involves the interactions between a trained

professional and a client.

Categories of therapy

Under the area of mental illness, therapy is

classified into 2 categories:
Psychology based
Biology based

Psychological Therapy

Mental disorders are caused by emotional conflict, incorrect

learning style, cognitive or behavioural problems.

Pupils who are undergoing psychological therapy are grouped

under psychotherapy..

Psychotherapy can be defined as mental recovery or self recovery,

which means curing mental treatment or mental disorders by using
psychological method.

Biological therapy

Begins with the assumption that mental

disorders are under the area of brain
pathology and nervous system. This therapy
is based on assumption that an individual
has genetic tendency that can cause mental
disorders, imbalance of nervous system,
through hormones or infection.

Importance of guidance and


An experienced and professional counselor is

important to guide pupils who have discipline


A counselor is responsible to help the normal teachers

to reduce the discipline problems in the class and
create a classroom climate which is conducive where
effective teaching and learning process can occur.

3. Dasar pendidikan inklusif which involves pupils with

special needs in school is burdening the normal teacher as
it becomes more difficult for them to control the class. For
example, pupils with mental disorders such as attention
deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) will always move
around the class and play with everything they see. Pupils
with ADHD need a skilled and professional teacher to
identify them and get to know them better so that they
can give advices to their parents to seek treatments from
ADHD experts for their children.

4. Guidance and counseling can give

opportunity for pupils to plan their future more
realistically. Counselor can give suggestions to
the pupils so that they can plan their future
wisely and strive hard to achieve their targets.


Sapora sipon, 2002. Pengantar Kaunseling.

Kuala Lumpur : Prentice Hall Sdn Bhd

Mok Soon Sang, 2011. Bimbingan dan Kaunseling

Kanak-Kanak. Puchong : Penerbitan Multimedia Sdn