User Requirements for

Cloud Computing Architecture
Roger Clarke, Xamax Consultancy, Canberra
Visiting Professor in Computer Science, ANU
and in Cyberspace Law & Policy, UNSW

2nd International Symposium on Cloud Computing
Melbourne, 17 May 2010 {.html,.ppt}



User Requirements for Cloud Computing Architecture


Precursors / Related Concepts
A Working Definition
An Architectural Framework
User Benefits
Disbenefits and Risks
• Operational
• Contingent
• Security
• Business

The Gartner Hype-Cycle for Emerging Technologies

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" ... a snapshot of the relative maturity of technologies ...
"They highlight overhyped areas against those that are high impact, estimate how
long they will take to reach maturity, and help organizations decide when to adopt"


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com/it/page.jsp?id=1124212 7 .gartner.Copyright 2010 The Gartner Hype-Cycle – 2009 http://www.

) • On the Rise • Cloud Services Governance • Cloud-Driven Prof'l IT Services. Solutions • Cloud Computing/SaaS Integration • Cloudbursting/Overdraft • Cloud Service Management Tools • Tera-architectures • Virtual Private Cloud Computing • Application Platform as a Service • Cloud Computing for the Enterprise • DBMS in the Cloud • Private Cloud Computing • Business Process Utility • Hybrid Cloud Computing • Cloud Application Development Tools • Cloud-Based E-Mail Services • Cloud-Enabled BPM Platforms • Cloud Security Concerns • Cloud Storage Copyright 2010 • • • At the Peak • Elasticity • Enterprise Portals as a Service • Cloud/Web Platforms • Compute Infrastructure Services • 'In the Cloud' Security Services • Cloud Computing • Public Cloud Computing/the Cloud Sliding Into the Trough • Real-Time Infrastructure • IT Infrastructure Utility • SaaS Climbing the Slope • SaaS Sales Force Automation • Virtualization • Cloud Advertising • Grid Computing • Integration as a Service http://www.gartner.995 (53 pp.Gartner Hype Cycle for Cloud Computing July 2009 – $US 8 .

e. Salesforce Cluster Computing – inter-connected stand-alone computers are managed as a single integrated computing resource Grid Computing – computational resources are assigned dynamically Peer-to-Peer (P2P) architectures Server-Virtualisation Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) – 2006 Platform as a Service (PaaS) – 2006 Anything as a Service *aaS / AaaS 9 .Predecessor Terms • • • • • • • • • Computing as a utility / 'computer service bureaux' / 'data centres' – 1960s.g. 1970s Application Service Providers (ASPs) – 1980s working from home / tele-work – 1980s working on the move / 'road warrior' – 1990s docking portables to corporate networks portable-to-desktop synchronisation Internet Service Providers (ISPs) – late 1980s Web Services – 2000 Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) – early-to-mid-2000s Copyright 2010 Related Concepts • • • • • • • • Software as a Service (SAAS) – late 1990s.

Cloud Computing Definitions • • "a large-scale distributed computing paradigm that is driven by economies of scale. and services are delivered on demand to external customers over the Internet" (Foster et al. rather than assigning resources to particular clients) • rapid elasticity (i. 2008. in which a pool of abstracted. using any device) • resource pooling (i.e.e. automated response by servers to direct requests by clients) • broad network access (i. resource usage is metered) Copyright 2010 10 . October 2009): • on-demand self-service (i. resources are scalable according to demand) • measured service (i.e. platforms.e.e. managed computing power. storage. at the Grid Computing Environments Workshop) five 'essential characteristics' (NIST. virtualized. dynamically-scalable. the provider allocates resources according to demand. from anywhere.

at least re the quantum used Copyright 2010 11 . i. the user has no technical need to be aware which server running on which host is delivering the service.The User Organisation Perspective A Working Definition A service that satisfies all of the following conditions: • it is delivered over a telecommunications network • users place reliance on the service for data access and/or data processing • the data is under the legal control of the user • some of the resources on which the service depends are virtualised.e. nor where the hosting device is located • the service is acquired under a relatively flexible contractual arrangement.

through resource-virtualisation • Copyright 2010 12 . through commoditisation of service levels. through SLA dependence (assuming there's an SLA. and it's negotiable) • of host location.Cloud Computing is a Form of Outsourcing How is it different from earlier forms? • • • Scalability ('there when it's needed) Flexible Contractual Arrangements ('pay per use') Opaqueness ('let someone else worry about details') • which means less user control: • of the application.

Sample Architectures QuickTime™ and a TIFF (LZW) decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (LZW) decompressor are needed to see this picture. April 2009 Youseff L. & Da Silva D. (2008) 'Toward a Unified Ontology of Cloud Computing' Proc.. Grid Computing Environments Workshop. 2008 Copyright 2010 13 . CSA (2009) 'Security Guidance for Critical Areas of Focus in Cloud Computing' Cloud Security Alliance. Butrico M.

Venugopal S.... hype.QuickTime™ and a TIFF (LZW) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Broberg J. Yeo C. (2009) 'Cloud computing and emerging IT platforms: Vision. 3 High-level market-oriented Cloud architecture Copyright 2010 Buyya R. & Brandic I. Fig.S. and reality for delivering computing as the 5th utility' Future Generation Computer Systems 25 (January 2009) 599-616 14 .

CC Architecture – The User Organisation Perspective Intermediating Infrastructure Copyright 2010 15 .

Intermediating Infrastructure Copyright 2010 A Comprehensive CC Architecture 16 .

CC's Potential Benefits • • • Copyright 2010 Enhanced Service Accessibility • Access to Services that are otherwise unavailable • Access to Services from multiple desktop devices • Access to Services from scaled-down devices • Access to Services from multiple device-types Other Technical Benefits • Professionalised backup and recovery • Scalability • Collaboration convenience • Copyright convenience Financial Benefits • Lower Investment / up-front cost • Lower Operational Costs • Lower IT Staff Costs 17 .

Downsides – The User Perspective • Operational Disbenefits and Risks Dependability on a day-to-day basis • Contingent Risks Low likelihood / Potentially highly significant • Security Risks Security in the broad • Business Disbenefits and Risks Beyond the merely technical Copyright 2010 18 .

mods Copyright 2010 19 . and customisability • Reliability – continuity of operation • Availability – hosts/server/database readiness/reachability • Accessibility – network readiness • Robustness – frequency of un/planned unavailability (97% uptime = 5 hrs/wk offline) • • Resilience – speed of resumption after outages Recoverability – service readiness after resumption • Integrity – sustained correctness of the service. and the data • Maintainability – fit. integrity after bug-fixes. reliability.Operational Disbenefits and Risks • Fit – to users' needs.

proven recovery procedures. data formats Flexibility Customisation Forward-compatibility (to migrate to new levels) Backward compatibility (to protect legacy systems) Lateral compatibility (to enable escape) Copyright 2010 20 . protocols. rights that are proof against actions by receivers • • • Data Survival – data backup/mirroring and accessibility Compatibility – software.Contingent Risks • • Major Service Interruptions Service Survival – supplier collapse or withdrawal Safeguards include software escrow. versions. escrow inspection.

but choke-points will exist Copyright 2010 21 . both in remote storage and in transit • Authentication and Authorisation How to provide clients with convenient access to data and processes in the cloud. second-party and third-party threats to any aspect of reliability or integrity • Data Security Environmental. second-party and third-party threats to content. separate servers.Security Risks • Service Security Environmental. while denying access to imposters? • Susceptibility to DDOS Multiple.

because of high switching costs High-volume data transfers (large datasets. IT services. Third-Party ('data breach'. law of confidence. Company Directors' obligations re asset protection.Business Disbenefits and Risks • Acquisition Lack of information. evidence discovery law. Storage in Data Havens (India. 'unauthorised disclosure'). risk management • Privacy Breach – Content Access. financial services regulations. Arkansas) Copyright 2010 22 . replication/synch'n) • • Service Levels to the Organisation's Customers Legal Compliance Data protection law. costs to deliver Inherent lock-in effect. business continuity. Use. Retention Second-Party (service-provider abuse). due diligence. non-negotiability of terms of contract and SLA • Ongoing Usage Loss of corporate knowledge about apps.

Some Risk Management Strategies • Risk Assessment • Contract Terms Service Level Agreement (SLA) Multi-Sourcing • Parallel in-house service • Several compatible suppliers .. • • • Copyright 2010 23 ..

Duties of the service provider 2. Change history 14. Requirements regarding availability reporting 2. On-site support 1. Identification of business-critical assets connected with the service 1. Time within which a defined level of service must be re-established 2.g. Vital Business Functions (VBFs) supported by the service 2. Types of users (user groups granted access to the service) 3. Response times from applications 3. Reaction and resolution times Copyright 2010 9. e. Reaction and resolution times 2. Availability targets 3. Rules regarding termination of the agreement 4. Maintenance slots 8. Other critical assets used within the service 2. Reliability targets (usually defined as MTBF or MTBSI ) 4. Types of infrastructure to be supported 4. IT Security aspects to be observed when using the service 12. Required types and levels of support 1. Types of infrastructure to be supported 4. Clearance information (with location and date) 1. Customer 3. Restrictions on maintenance 7. Desired outcome in terms of utility 4. Rules for penalties/ charge backs 13. Maintainability targets (usually defined as MTRS) 5. Responsibilities 1. Service and asset criticality 1. Requirements for scalability 4. Numbers and types of transactions 2. Responsibilities of service users (e. 1. Conditions under which the service is considered to be unavailable 2. with respect to IT security) 4. Business processes/ activities oncust side supported by the service 3. Contract duration 1. weekends. Costs and pricing 1. Mandated technical standards and spec of the technical service interface 11. Downtimes for maintenance 6. Availability targets and commitments 1. Business justification 2. Description/ desired customer outcome 1. Required capacity (lower/upper limit) for the service. Reference to further contracts which also apply (e. List of annexes http://wiki.php/Checklist_SLA_OLA_UC 24 . Service times 1. Time within which normal service levels must be restored Area/ locations 2. Area/ locations Service Continuity commitments 1. Remote support 1. Procedures for announcing interruptions to the service 8. Estimation of the business impact caused by a loss of service or assets 6. Hours when the service is available 2. Types of users 3. Service Level Manager 2. Exceptions (e. Requirements regarding capacity and performance reporting 3.ITILv3 SLA Checklist – Edited Down! 1. Business cycles (daily.g.g. public holidays) 3. Capacity/ performance targets and commitments 1. Start and end dates 2. Cost for the service provision 2. SLA) 7. Desired outcome in terms of warranty 5.g. Service level requirements/ targets 1. Duties of the customer (contract partner for the service) 3. Numbers and types of users 3. Service name 2. weekly) and seasonal variations 2.

terms of service and SLA (if any) But who audits and certifies? 25 .User Requirements Essential Features • • • • • Copyright 2010 Assured Data Integrity Assured Service Integrity Assured Compliance with legal requirements within jurisdictions to which the user organisation is subject Warranties and indemnities in the contract.

uncontrollable risks Copyright 2010 26 . not essential operations Trade off loss of control..Categories of Use-Profile • • • UP1: CC is completely inappropriate • 'mission-critical systems' • systems embodying the organisation's 'core competencies' • applications whose failure or extended malperformance would threaten the organisation's health or survival UP2: CC is very well-suited Uses of computing that are highly price-sensitive. uncertain reliability.. UP3: CC is applicable depending . scalability. etc. • can the risks be adequately understood and managed? • trade-offs between potential benefits vs. contingent risks against cost-advantages. and adjuncts to analysis and decision-making. convenience.

Compliance Assurance • • • • • • • Service Security Service Access Controls Data Transmission Security Data Storage Security Data Use (by service-provider) Data Disclosure (by others) Jurisdictional Location(s) of Data Storage Copyright 2010 3. Integrity Assurance • • Service Integrity Data Integrity 2. to enable: • • • • Server Privacy Policy Statement User Privacy Rqmts Statement Comparison of the two Preclusion of Usage where Requirements are not satisfied 27 . Measurement • • • • • Service Reliability Levels Service Survival Protections Data Survival Protections Service and Data Compatibility Service and Data Flexibility 4. Declaration.User Requirements for CC Infrastructure 1. Privacy Policy Enforcement Measures.

Implications for Cloud Computing Architectures • • • • • • • CCAs must be comprehensive. but also the client side and intermediating functions Security Risk Assessments and Solutions must be end-to-end rather than limited to the server side CCA designers must address the risks arising from vulnerable user devices and vulnerable clients Client authentication must be achieved through components. APIs. encompassing not only the server side. OpenID) Jurisdictional Locations of Hosts must be controlled These all depend on CCAs including specs and implementation of multiple special-purpose components and features Privacy management must go beyond 'privacy through policy' and 'privacy by design' to 'Privacy through Architecture' Copyright 2010 28 . and externally-managed identities (Shibboleth.

. p. 2008. infrastructure.Conclusion • "Past efforts at utility computing failed.. and we note that in each case one or two . applications. 5 – UC Berekeley) • CC may be just another marketing buzz-phrase that leaves corporate wreckage in its wake CC service-providers need to invest a great deal in many aspects of architecture. critical characteristics were missing" (Armbrust et al. and terms of contract and SLA • Copyright 2010 29 .

Xamax {. UNSW 2nd International Symposium on Cloud Computing Melbourne.User Requirements for Cloud Computing Architecture Roger Clarke. Canberra Visiting Professor in Computer Science. 17 May 2010 http://www.ppt} Copyright 2010 30 .. ANU and in Cyberspace Law & Policy.

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