User Requirements for

Cloud Computing Architecture
Roger Clarke, Xamax Consultancy, Canberra
Visiting Professor in Computer Science, ANU
and in Cyberspace Law & Policy, UNSW

2nd International Symposium on Cloud Computing
Melbourne, 17 May 2010 {.html,.ppt}



User Requirements for Cloud Computing Architecture


Precursors / Related Concepts
A Working Definition
An Architectural Framework
User Benefits
Disbenefits and Risks
• Operational
• Contingent
• Security
• Business

The Gartner Hype-Cycle for Emerging Technologies

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" ... a snapshot of the relative maturity of technologies ...
"They highlight overhyped areas against those that are high impact, estimate how
long they will take to reach maturity, and help organizations decide when to adopt"


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Copyright 2010 The Gartner Hype-Cycle – 2009 http://www.jsp?id=1124212 7

Gartner Hype Cycle for Cloud Computing July 2009 – $US 1. Solutions • Cloud Computing/SaaS Integration • Cloudbursting/Overdraft • Cloud Service Management Tools • Tera-architectures • Virtual Private Cloud Computing • Application Platform as a Service • Cloud Computing for the Enterprise • DBMS in the Cloud • Private Cloud Computing • Business Process Utility • Hybrid Cloud Computing • Cloud Application Development Tools • Cloud-Based E-Mail Services • Cloud-Enabled BPM Platforms • Cloud Security Concerns • Cloud Storage Copyright 2010 • • • At the Peak • Elasticity • Enterprise Portals as a Service • Cloud/Web Platforms • Compute Infrastructure Services • 'In the Cloud' Security Services • Cloud Computing • Public Cloud Computing/the Cloud Sliding Into the Trough • Real-Time Infrastructure • IT Infrastructure Utility • SaaS Climbing the Slope • SaaS Sales Force Automation • Virtualization • Cloud Advertising • Grid Computing • Integration as a Service http://www.gartner.995 (53 8 .) • On the Rise • Cloud Services Governance • Cloud-Driven Prof'l IT Services.

e.Predecessor Terms • • • • • • • • • Computing as a utility / 'computer service bureaux' / 'data centres' – 1960s. 1970s Application Service Providers (ASPs) – 1980s working from home / tele-work – 1980s working on the move / 'road warrior' – 1990s docking portables to corporate networks portable-to-desktop synchronisation Internet Service Providers (ISPs) – late 1980s Web Services – 2000 Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) – early-to-mid-2000s Copyright 2010 Related Concepts • • • • • • • • Software as a Service (SAAS) – late 1990s.g. Salesforce Cluster Computing – inter-connected stand-alone computers are managed as a single integrated computing resource Grid Computing – computational resources are assigned dynamically Peer-to-Peer (P2P) architectures Server-Virtualisation Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) – 2006 Platform as a Service (PaaS) – 2006 Anything as a Service *aaS / AaaS 9 .

storage. resources are scalable according to demand) • measured service (i. automated response by servers to direct requests by clients) • broad network access (i.e. in which a pool of abstracted.e. and services are delivered on demand to external customers over the Internet" (Foster et al. dynamically-scalable.e. the provider allocates resources according to demand. managed computing power. platforms. from anywhere. 2008. using any device) • resource pooling (i.e. at the Grid Computing Environments Workshop) five 'essential characteristics' (NIST. rather than assigning resources to particular clients) • rapid elasticity (i. October 2009): • on-demand self-service (i.e.Cloud Computing Definitions • • "a large-scale distributed computing paradigm that is driven by economies of scale. virtualized. resource usage is metered) Copyright 2010 10 .

The User Organisation Perspective A Working Definition A service that satisfies all of the following conditions: • it is delivered over a telecommunications network • users place reliance on the service for data access and/or data processing • the data is under the legal control of the user • some of the resources on which the service depends are virtualised.e. nor where the hosting device is located • the service is acquired under a relatively flexible contractual arrangement. at least re the quantum used Copyright 2010 11 . i. the user has no technical need to be aware which server running on which host is delivering the service.

and it's negotiable) • of host location. through resource-virtualisation • Copyright 2010 12 .Cloud Computing is a Form of Outsourcing How is it different from earlier forms? • • • Scalability ('there when it's needed) Flexible Contractual Arrangements ('pay per use') Opaqueness ('let someone else worry about details') • which means less user control: • of the application. through commoditisation of service levels. through SLA dependence (assuming there's an SLA.

Sample Architectures QuickTime™ and a TIFF (LZW) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Butrico M. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (LZW) decompressor are needed to see this picture. April 2009 Youseff L. CSA (2009) 'Security Guidance for Critical Areas of Focus in Cloud Computing' Cloud Security Alliance. 2008 Copyright 2010 13 . & Da Silva D. Grid Computing Environments Workshop.. (2008) 'Toward a Unified Ontology of Cloud Computing' Proc.

3 High-level market-oriented Cloud architecture Copyright 2010 Buyya R... Fig. & Brandic I. Yeo C.. and reality for delivering computing as the 5th utility' Future Generation Computer Systems 25 (January 2009) 599-616 14 . (2009) 'Cloud computing and emerging IT platforms: Vision.QuickTime™ and a TIFF (LZW) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Venugopal S. Broberg J. hype.S.

CC Architecture – The User Organisation Perspective Intermediating Infrastructure Copyright 2010 15 .

Intermediating Infrastructure Copyright 2010 A Comprehensive CC Architecture 16 .

CC's Potential Benefits • • • Copyright 2010 Enhanced Service Accessibility • Access to Services that are otherwise unavailable • Access to Services from multiple desktop devices • Access to Services from scaled-down devices • Access to Services from multiple device-types Other Technical Benefits • Professionalised backup and recovery • Scalability • Collaboration convenience • Copyright convenience Financial Benefits • Lower Investment / up-front cost • Lower Operational Costs • Lower IT Staff Costs 17 .

Downsides – The User Perspective • Operational Disbenefits and Risks Dependability on a day-to-day basis • Contingent Risks Low likelihood / Potentially highly significant • Security Risks Security in the broad • Business Disbenefits and Risks Beyond the merely technical Copyright 2010 18 .

and customisability • Reliability – continuity of operation • Availability – hosts/server/database readiness/reachability • Accessibility – network readiness • Robustness – frequency of un/planned unavailability (97% uptime = 5 hrs/wk offline) • • Resilience – speed of resumption after outages Recoverability – service readiness after resumption • Integrity – sustained correctness of the service. mods Copyright 2010 19 . and the data • Maintainability – fit.Operational Disbenefits and Risks • Fit – to users' needs. integrity after bug-fixes. reliability.

versions.Contingent Risks • • Major Service Interruptions Service Survival – supplier collapse or withdrawal Safeguards include software escrow. rights that are proof against actions by receivers • • • Data Survival – data backup/mirroring and accessibility Compatibility – software. protocols. escrow inspection. data formats Flexibility Customisation Forward-compatibility (to migrate to new levels) Backward compatibility (to protect legacy systems) Lateral compatibility (to enable escape) Copyright 2010 20 . proven recovery procedures.

separate servers. second-party and third-party threats to content. while denying access to imposters? • Susceptibility to DDOS Multiple. both in remote storage and in transit • Authentication and Authorisation How to provide clients with convenient access to data and processes in the cloud. but choke-points will exist Copyright 2010 21 .Security Risks • Service Security Environmental. second-party and third-party threats to any aspect of reliability or integrity • Data Security Environmental.

costs to deliver Inherent lock-in effect. 'unauthorised disclosure'). evidence discovery law. IT services. because of high switching costs High-volume data transfers (large datasets. Third-Party ('data breach'. Arkansas) Copyright 2010 22 . law of confidence. business continuity.Business Disbenefits and Risks • Acquisition Lack of information. Storage in Data Havens (India. risk management • Privacy Breach – Content Access. due diligence. financial services regulations. non-negotiability of terms of contract and SLA • Ongoing Usage Loss of corporate knowledge about apps. replication/synch'n) • • Service Levels to the Organisation's Customers Legal Compliance Data protection law. Use. Company Directors' obligations re asset protection. Retention Second-Party (service-provider abuse).

. • • • Copyright 2010 23 ..Some Risk Management Strategies • Risk Assessment • Contract Terms Service Level Agreement (SLA) Multi-Sourcing • Parallel in-house service • Several compatible suppliers .

Remote support 1. Requirements for scalability 4. Start and end dates 2. Time within which normal service levels must be restored 10. Customer 3. Costs and pricing 1. Business cycles (daily. Conditions under which the service is considered to be unavailable 2.g. Required types and levels of support 1. Clearance information (with location and date) 1.ITILv3 SLA Checklist – Edited Down! 1. IT Security aspects to be observed when using the service 12. Types of users (user groups granted access to the service) 3. Responsibilities of service users (e. Numbers and types of users 3. Response times from applications 3. Duties of the service provider 2. Procedures for announcing interruptions to the service 8. Description/ desired customer outcome 1. Types of infrastructure to be supported 4. Area/ locations 2. Maintainability targets (usually defined as MTRS) 5. Service Continuity commitments 1.php/Checklist_SLA_OLA_UC 24 . e. Exceptions (e. Mandated technical standards and spec of the technical service interface 11.g. Requirements regarding capacity and performance reporting 3. Hours when the service is available 2. Reaction and resolution times Copyright 2010 Identification of business-critical assets connected with the service 1. Desired outcome in terms of warranty 5. Requirements regarding availability reporting 2. SLA) 7. Reference to further contracts which also apply (e. Service Level Manager 2. Maintenance slots 8. Service and asset criticality 1. Reaction and resolution times 2. Availability targets and commitments 1.g. Rules regarding termination of the agreement Restrictions on maintenance 7. Responsibilities 1. public holidays) 3.en. weekly) and seasonal variations 2. On-site support 1. Service name 2. Numbers and types of transactions 2. Capacity/ performance targets and commitments 1. Area/ locations 2. Types of infrastructure to be supported 4. Contract duration 1. Cost for the service provision 2. Required capacity (lower/upper limit) for the service. Vital Business Functions (VBFs) supported by the service 2. Reliability targets (usually defined as MTBF or MTBSI ) 4. with respect to IT security) 4. Time within which a defined level of service must be re-established 2. 1. Estimation of the business impact caused by a loss of service or assets 6. Business processes/ activities oncust side supported by the service 3. Rules for penalties/ charge backs 13. Desired outcome in terms of utility 4. Duties of the customer (contract partner for the service) 3. weekends. List of annexes http://wiki. Types of users 3. Availability targets 3. Business justification 2.g. Other critical assets used within the service 2. Service times 1. Change history 14. Service level requirements/ targets 1. Downtimes for maintenance 6.

terms of service and SLA (if any) But who audits and certifies? 25 .User Requirements Essential Features • • • • • Copyright 2010 Assured Data Integrity Assured Service Integrity Assured Compliance with legal requirements within jurisdictions to which the user organisation is subject Warranties and indemnities in the contract.

• can the risks be adequately understood and managed? • trade-offs between potential benefits vs. uncertain reliability. UP3: CC is applicable depending . contingent risks against cost-advantages. uncontrollable risks Copyright 2010 26 .Categories of Use-Profile • • • UP1: CC is completely inappropriate • 'mission-critical systems' • systems embodying the organisation's 'core competencies' • applications whose failure or extended malperformance would threaten the organisation's health or survival UP2: CC is very well-suited Uses of computing that are highly price-sensitive... and adjuncts to analysis and decision-making. etc. convenience. not essential operations Trade off loss of control. scalability.

Integrity Assurance • • Service Integrity Data Integrity 2. Compliance Assurance • • • • • • • Service Security Service Access Controls Data Transmission Security Data Storage Security Data Use (by service-provider) Data Disclosure (by others) Jurisdictional Location(s) of Data Storage Copyright 2010 3. Privacy Policy Enforcement Measures. to enable: • • • • Server Privacy Policy Statement User Privacy Rqmts Statement Comparison of the two Preclusion of Usage where Requirements are not satisfied 27 . Declaration. Measurement • • • • • Service Reliability Levels Service Survival Protections Data Survival Protections Service and Data Compatibility Service and Data Flexibility 4.User Requirements for CC Infrastructure 1.

APIs. encompassing not only the server side. but also the client side and intermediating functions Security Risk Assessments and Solutions must be end-to-end rather than limited to the server side CCA designers must address the risks arising from vulnerable user devices and vulnerable clients Client authentication must be achieved through components. OpenID) Jurisdictional Locations of Hosts must be controlled These all depend on CCAs including specs and implementation of multiple special-purpose components and features Privacy management must go beyond 'privacy through policy' and 'privacy by design' to 'Privacy through Architecture' Copyright 2010 28 .Implications for Cloud Computing Architectures • • • • • • • CCAs must be comprehensive. and externally-managed identities (Shibboleth.

2008.. critical characteristics were missing" (Armbrust et al. p. 5 – UC Berekeley) • CC may be just another marketing buzz-phrase that leaves corporate wreckage in its wake CC service-providers need to invest a great deal in many aspects of architecture. and terms of contract and SLA • Copyright 2010 29 . applications.. infrastructure. and we note that in each case one or two .Conclusion • "Past efforts at utility computing failed.

User Requirements for Cloud Computing Architecture Roger Clarke.html. Canberra Visiting Professor in Computer Science. Xamax {.. 17 May 2010 http://www. UNSW 2nd International Symposium on Cloud Computing Melbourne.ppt} Copyright 2010 30 . ANU and in Cyberspace Law & Policy.rogerclarke.

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