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What is BURN?

Injury to tissues caused by the


contact with heat, flame,
chemicals, electricity, or
radiation.

Causes
Dry heat
This is the most common type of
burn and includes burns caused by
hot objects such as exhausts or by
cigarettes or lighters.

Causes
Wet Heat
Also known as a scald, wet heat
usually refers to hot water or
steam but it can also include other
hot liquids such as oil or fat.

Causes
Friction
When two objects rub together
very quickly friction generates
heat, causing another kind of dry
burn.

Causes
Chemical burns
Industrial and household chemicals
can cause serious burns.

Causes
Electrical burns
These can be caused by the
everyday low voltage currents
found in switches, wires, and
appliances around the home or
from the high voltage cables
scattered. In rarer cases it van be
caused by lightning strikes.

Causes
Radiation burns
More commonly known as sunburn.

Signs and Symptoms


Blisters
Pain (How much pain you have is
unrelated to the level of burn. The
most serious burns can be painless.)
Peeling skin
Shock (Watch for pale and clammy
skin, weakness, blue lips and
fingernails, and a drop in alertness)
Swelling
Red, white or charred skin

Signs and Symptoms


If you have burned your airways, you
may have:
Burns on the head, face, neck,
eyebrows, or nose hairs
Burned lips and mouth
Coughing
Difficulty breathing
Dark, black-stained mucus
Voice changes
Wheezing

Burn
Classification

First Degree

Includes only the outer layer of skin, the epidermis


Skin is usually red and very painful
Equivalent to superficial sunburn without blisters
Dry in appearance
Healing occurs in 3-5 days, injured epithelium peels
away from the healthy skin
Hospitalization is for pain control and maybe fluid
imbalance

Second Degree
Can be classified as partial or full thickness
Partial thickness
Blisters can be present
Involve the entire epidermis and upper
layers of the dermis
Wound will be pink, red in color, painful
and wet appearing
Wound will blanch when pressure is
applied
Should heal in several weeks (10-21 days)
without grafting, scarring is usually minimal

Second Degree
Can be classified as partial or full thickness
Full thickness
Can be red or white in appearance, but will
appear dry.
Involves the destruction of the entire
epidermis and most of the dermis
Sensation can be present, but diminished
Blanching is sluggish or absent
Full thickness will most likely need excision &
skin grafting to heal

Third Degree:

All layers of the skin is destroyed


Extend into the subcutaneous tissues
Areas can appear, black or white and will be dry
Can appear leathery in texture
Will not blanch when pressure is applied
No pain

Treatment
1. Monitor the victims airway and
breathing. This is particularly
important if the victim has burns to
the mouth and airway. Be prepared
to resuscitate if necessary.

Treatment
2. If possible lay the victim on the
ground to help reduce the effects
of shock.

Treatment
3. Douse the burned
area with cool liquid
for 10-20 minutes.
Cooling the burn will
reduce the pain,
swelling, and risk of
scarring.

Treatment
4. Once the pain has
eased, cover the
wound to prevent
infection. Tie the
sterile bandage very
loosely over the
burned area.
5. If possible, elevate
the injured part to
reduce swelling.

DO NOT
Do NOT apply ointment, butter, ice, medications,
cream, oil spray, or any household remedy to a
severe burn.
Do NOT breathe, blow, or cough on the burn.
Do NOT disturb blistered or dead skin.
Do NOT remove clothing that is stuck to the skin.
Do NOT give the person anything by mouth, if
there is a severe burn.
Do NOT place a severe burn in cold water. This
can cause shock.
Do NOT place a pillow under the person's head if
there is an airways burn. This can close the
airways.