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End of first life: a problem or a resource?

HTW, Materials and Environment A. Pfennig
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A. Pfennig

Textbook Chapter 4

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HTW,
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When stuff is useful, we show it respect and call it material.

When the same stuff ceases to be useful, we call it waste.

Is waste inevitable? Yes, but… What happens to waste?

landfill combustion recycling re-engineering reuse

Product Life

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Product reaches end life – no longer valued

The life expectancy is least of

Physical life Functional life Technical life Economical life Legal life Desirability life

Annual Energy Consumption

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Annual Energy Consumption HTW, Materials and Environment A. Pfennig Left expressed in Exajoules, right expressed in

Left expressed in Exajoules, right expressed in Kilowatt-hours

Annual Energy Consumption:Renewables

HTW, Materials and Environment A. Pfennig
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Annual Energy Consumption:Renewables HTW, Materials and Environment A. Pfennig

Annual Energy Consumption: Non-renewables

Annual Energy Consumption: Non-renewables HTW, Materials and Environment A. Pfennig
HTW, Materials and Environment A. Pfennig
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Annual Energy Consumption: Non-renewables HTW, Materials and Environment A. Pfennig

How energy is consumed

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How energy is consumed HTW, Materials and Environment A. Pfennig Energy Production Sources Energy Distribution/Applications

Energy Production Sources

Energy Distribution/Applications

Energy conversion

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Energy conversion HTW, Materials and Environment A. Pfennig

Energy conversion

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Energy conversion HTW, Materials and Environment A. Pfennig T = Input temperature T = Output temperature
Energy conversion HTW, Materials and Environment A. Pfennig T = Input temperature T = Output temperature

T in = Input temperature T out = Output temperature

For T out = 150C:

When T in = 150C, no gradient exists, n = 0 When T in = 650C, Tout/Tin = 0.458, n = 0.541 When T in = 1400C, Tout/Tin = 0.253, n = 0.747 • As input temperature increases, efficiency approaches 1 Power cannot be converted at a 1:1 ratio

Energy conversion question

HTW, Materials and Environment A. Pfennig
HTW,
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  • 1. Around what input temperatures did 19th steam engines operate? (Assuming 2% efficiency with T output of 150°C)

  • 2. Around what input temperatures did the first electric plant operate? (Assuming 6% efficiency with T output of 150°C)

  • 3. Around what input temperatures do modern steam-turbine planes operate? (Assuming 38% efficiency with T output of

150°C)

Energy conversion

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HTW,
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Energy conversion HTW, Materials and Environment A. Pfennig

Water Usage

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Water Usage HTW, Materials and Environment A. Pfennig
Water Usage HTW, Materials and Environment A. Pfennig

Exponential growth and doubling times

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Exponential growth and doubling times HTW, Materials and Environment A. Pfennig

Exponential growth and doubling times

HTW, Materials and Environment A. Pfennig
HTW,
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Environment
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Exponential growth and doubling times HTW, Materials and Environment A. Pfennig
Exponential growth and doubling times HTW, Materials and Environment A. Pfennig
Exponential growth and doubling times HTW, Materials and Environment A. Pfennig
Exponential growth and doubling times HTW, Materials and Environment A. Pfennig
Exponential growth and doubling times HTW, Materials and Environment A. Pfennig

Example Problem 1:

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Example Problem 1: HTW, Materials and Environment A. Pfennig

Reserves, the resource base, and resource life

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Reserves: Discovered material sources which can be currently extracted Resource Base: Entire total amount of said resource

Reserves, the resource base, and resource life HTW, Materials and Environment A. Pfennig Reserves: Discovered material

Reserves, the resource base, and resource life

HTW, Materials and Environment A. Pfennig
HTW,
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Resource Life: Amount of time until exhaustion of reserves •

Macroeconomics states supply must equal demand If Supply > Demand, price goes down, Demand > Supply, price goes up As we continue to produce materials, resources are depleted •

Static index of exhaustion: Current reserves/ Current production rate Dynamic index: (Reserves + Discovery)/(Production rate + growth)

Reserves, the resource base, and resource life HTW, Materials and Environment A. Pfennig Resource Life: Amount

Criticality

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Indicators of criticality:

  • 1. Rate of growth of discovery falls below rate of growth of production

  • 2. Production rate curve hits maxima, declines

  • 3. Minimum economic ore grade falls

  • 4. Price rises "sustainable".

Criticality HTW, Materials and Environment A. Pfennig Indicators of criticality: 1. Rate of growth of discovery

Criticality problem

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Criticality problem 19/L1 HTW, Materials and Environment A. Pfennig