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WHAT IS

PSYCHOLOGY?
Psychology as a Science

Laymen Understanding
Magic
Reading Mind
Hypnotism
Supernatural Events
Astrology
Numerology
Palmistry
Gemology
Tarot Cards
Crystal Gazing

What is Psychology?

The term psychology comes from the


Greek roots psyche meaning soul or mind
and logos meaning word or study.

Definition of Psychology

Systematic and scientific study of human


and animal behavior
- Morgan and King (1986)

Why do we study behaviour and not


mind/thoughts or feelings?
Because behaviour is:
Observable
Recordable
Unlike mind/thoughts/feelings behaviour
can be seen or heard.

E.g. of behaviour
The person smoking/drinking.
Children playing or fighting among
themselves
Students wishing their teachers.

Monkey asking to eat in zoo.


Dog barking to strangers but not to
family members.
Birds flocking together.

Certain

Crucial

questions

answered in psychology are-

Why an individual behaves in a


particular way?
Why

there

are

individual

differences in the behaviour?

How can I understand ones behaviour?


Can we predict an individuals behaviour?
Can we control an individuals behaviour?

Description
Understanding
Prediction &
Control of Behaviour
(4 goals)

History

As old as man on this earth


Western

history

dates

to

Greek

civilization
Aristotles book Peri-psyche.
Psyche means soul

History
Soul is seen as non-physical entity.
Hints that soul moves across people,
birth and things
Psychology (Psyche: soul; Logos:
Study)

History
Modern era: 17th century philosopher
Rene Descartes
Distinguished mind and matter or
physical and mental

History.
He regarded that physical science
should matter (physical substance or
material) and mental sciences should
reflect on study of mind.
Psychology recognized as study of
mind

18th

History
century: EB Titchner & William

James
Describe psychology as Study of
consciousness. Means sense of

awareness about oneself about


oneself and about things around.
Structuralism
Study of structure of consciousness

StructuralismWilhelm
Wundt
Definition: School of Psychology that
stresses the basic units of experience
and combinations in which they
occur.
Wilhelm Wundt:
Physiologist and Philosopher
Founded the first experimental
psychology laboratory in 1879
Leipzig Lab.
Argued that the mind must be
studied objectively and scientifically.
Main concern was with techniques
used for uncovering natural laws of
the human mindHE WAS IN SEARCH

Structuralism--Titchener
Student of the Leipzig lab
Viewed that human conscious experience
could be understood by breaking it down into
components:
Physical sensations (lights & sounds)
Affections of feelings
Images (memory and dreams)
Psychologys role is to identify these elements
and show how they are combined within the
conscious mind.

Problems with
Structuralism
This group of Psychologists used
a technique called Introspection
which was a process of selfexamination where the person
described and analyzed thoughts
as they occurred.

Think on your own


What are some potential
problems with this type of
Psychology?

Structuralismthe first step


The focus of study was way too narrow
They studied people only like
themselves- very wealthy white males.
No valid research was produced

This school of thought was a great


start, but no longer exists.

The Next Evolution


Functionalism is the second perspective to
emerge, founded by William James.
They studied how and why the mind
functions.
This perspective broadened the scope of
psychology and applied psychology to
practical settings.
This perspective still focused on
consciousness but began to examine overt

FunctionalismWilliam
James
Definition: Theory of mental life and
behavior that is concerned with how an
organism uses its perceptual abilities to
function in its environment.
William James:
oThe first American-born psychologist
oStudied chemistry, physiology,
anatomy, biology and medicine.
oCombined his studies of physiology and
philosophy to create psychology.

The Next Evolution


PsychoanalysisSigmund Freud

Medical Doctor/Neurologist
Studied hypnosis and found the
unconscious
Published The Interpretation of
Dreams
Believed that much of our
behavior is governed by hidden
motives and unconscious desires.
Maintained that many unconscious
desires and conflicts are sexual.
Believed that childhood

PsychoanalysisNeo-Freudians

Carl Jung
Alfred Adler
Erik Erikson
Karen Horney

Believed in the basics of


psychoanalysis, but strayed from
some of Freuds ideas on sexual
desires

The Next Evolution.

Behaviorism: JB Watson
Science of Behavior
Behaviors

are

observable

measurable actions

and

BehaviorismJohn Watson
Definition: School of psychology that
studies only observable and measurable
behavior.
John Watson:
You cannot define conscious any more than you can
define a soul.
You cannot locate or measure consciousness, and
therefore it cannot be the object of scientific study.
Studies observable, measurable behavior and nothing
more.
Ivan Pavlovs Classical Conditioning
Watsons Experiment with Little Albert and the white
rats (happy 11 month old conditioned to be afraid of
white rats)
Mary Cover Jones (1924) eliminating fears through

BehaviorialB.F. Skinner
Agreed with Watson that psychology
should be only observable and
measurable behavior
BIG DIFFERENCE: He used reinforcement
Reinforcement: anything that follows a
response and makes that response more
likely to occur.

Example:
Behavior: you get an A on the first
Psych test
Reinforcer: Your parents give you
$100
Result: You strive to get an A on all
other Psych tests, hoping for the

Woodworths Quote.

First psychology lost its soul, then it


lost its mind, much later it lost its
consciousness, and it is now left with
a behavior of a kind

Definition of Psychology

Systematic and scientific study of


human and animal behavior
- Morgan and King
(1986)

Why do we have so
many types of
psychologists?

Psychologists have
different ways of looking at
the same problem, which
is why there are so many
sub-fields of psychology

Psychological Perspectives
Psychologists have different ways of
looking at behavior
Psychoanalytic perspective
Behaviorist perspective
Humanistic perspective
Cognitive perspective
Biopsychology perspective
Social psychological perspective

See p. 12

Who hasnt heard of Freud?


This is one of the most well-known

psychological perspectives in history


developed by Sigmund Freud.
Freud believed that emotional problems

are due to anxiety from unresolved


conflicts that reside in unconscious

Psychoanalytic Theory
Freud was an early pioneer in treating
emotional disorders and was the first to
provide counseling and therapy to
patients.
Free association and
dream interpretation were developed
technique to explore the unconscious
processes

Psychoanalytic Theory
Freud was one of the first to treat
emotional disorders.
Freuds theories were the first to suggest
that our childhood experiences impact
our adult behaviors
The first to provide therapy for patients.
Developed dream interpretation and free
association

Think on your own


Do childhood
experiences affect adult life?

What are some childhood


experiences that you feel have
shaped who you are now as an
adult?

Behaviorismthe opposite of
Psychoanalysis
Behaviorism was founded by John Watson in

direct opposition to Psychoanalytic Theory.

Behaviorism focused on behavior that can


be measured and observable. This returned
the scientific approach to psychology.

We can describe, predict, and control that


behavior.

Behaviorismthe opposite of
Psychoanalysis
Behaviorists believe people are controlled by their

environment.
Behaviorism focuses on observable behavior

We are the result of what we have learned from our

environment.

Humanistic perspective
Humanistic psychologyis a
psychological perspective which rose
to prominence in the mid-20th
century in response to the limitations
ofSigmund Freud's psychoanalytic theory
and B. F. Skinner's behaviorism

It helps the client gain the belief that all people are inherently
good.[2]It adopts aholisticapproach to human existence and
pays special attention to such phenomena as creativity, free
will, and positive human potential. It encourages viewing
ourselves as a "whole person" greater than the sum of our parts
and encourages self exploration rather than the study of
behavior in other people. Humanistic psychology acknowledges
spiritual aspiration as an integral part of the human psyche. It is
linked to the emerging field oftranspersonal psychology.[3][4]
Primarily, this type of therapy encourages a self-awareness and
mindfulness that helps the client change their state of mind and
behaviour from one of reactions to a healthier one with more
productive self-awareness and thoughtful actions. Essentially,
this approach allows the merging of mindfulness and
behavioural therapy, with positive social support.

Cognitive Psychology
Cognitive psychology believes that behaviors
are performed because of ideas and
thoughts.
The cognitive perspective focuses on such

processes as perception, memory, and


thinking

Thats what this area of psychology believes

and Cognitive psychology currently exerts a


strong influence in psychology.

Biopsychology Perspective
How biological factors affect mental

processes and how the brain effects


behavior.

Behavior and biology interact in important

ways, and we will discuss the impact of


this field when examining
psychopharmacology, development and
genetics.

Scope of Psychology.

General Psychology
Abnormal Psychology
Child/Developmental
Psychology
Educational Psychology

Social Psychology
Industrial/Organizational
Psychology
Physiological Psychology
Animal Psychology