Sie sind auf Seite 1von 35

20

Introducing
New Market Offerings

Marketing Management
A South Asian Perspective, 13th ed

Chapter Questions
What challenges does a company face
in developing new products and
services?
What organizational structures and
processes do managers use to manage
new-product development?
What are the main stages in developing
new products and services?
Copyright 2009 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.

20-2

Chapter Questions (cont.)


What is the best way to manage the
new-product development process?
What factors affect the rate of diffusion
and consumer adoption of newly
launched products and services?

Copyright 2009 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.

20-3

Johnson & Johnson Emphasizes


New Product Development

Copyright 2009 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.

20-4

Categories of New Products


New-to-the-world
New product lines
Additions
Improvements
Repositionings
Cost reductions
Copyright 2009 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.

20-5

Moser Baer has moved from


making optical storage media to
selling home entertainment

Copyright 2009 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.

20-6

The Worlds
Most Innovative Companies

Apple
Google
Toyota
General Electric
Microsoft
Procter & Gamble
3M
Walt Disney

Copyright 2009 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.

IBM
Sony
Wal-Mart
Honda
Starbucks
Target
BMW
Samsung
20-7

Seven Notions of Innovation


See the future through the eyes of your
customer
Intellectual property and brand power are key
assets
Use digital technology to create tools for
customers
Build a championship team
Innovation is a state of mind
Speed is critical, so push your organization
Partner up if youre not the best
Copyright 2009 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.

20-8

Factors That Limit


New Product Development

Shortage of ideas
Fragmented markets
Social and governmental constraints
Cost of development
Capital shortages
Faster required development time
Shorter product life cycles

Copyright 2009 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.

20-9

What is a Venture Team?


A venture team is a cross-functional
group charged with developing a
specific product or business;
intrapreneurs are relieved of other
duties and provided a
budget and time frame.

Copyright 2009 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.


10

20-

Criteria for Staffing Venture Teams


Desired team leadership style
Desired level of leader
expertise
Team member skills and
expertise
Level of interest in concept
Potential for personal reward
Diversity of team members

Copyright 2009 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.


11

20-

Figure 20.2 The New Product


Development Decision Process

Copyright 2009 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.


12

20-

Mahindra and Mahindra followed a


thorough product development
process for Scorpio

Copyright 2009 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.


13

20-

Ways to Find Great New Ideas


Run informal sessions with customers
Allow time off for technical people to
putter on pet projects
Make customer brainstorming a part of
plant tours
Survey your customers
Undertake fly on the wall research to
customers
Copyright 2009 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.
14

20-

More Ways to Find Great Ideas


Use iterative rounds with customers
Set up a keyword search to scan trade
publications
Treat trade shows as intelligence
missions
Have employees visit supplier labs
Set up an idea vault
Copyright 2009 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.
15

20-

Drawing Ideas from Customers


Observe customers using product
Ask customers about problems with
products
Ask customers about their dream
products
Use a customer advisory board or a
brand community of enthusiasts to
discuss product
Copyright 2009 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.
16

20-

Idea Generation: Creativity Techniques


Attribute listing
Forced relationships
Morphological
analysis
Reverse assumption
analysis
New contexts
Mind mapping
Copyright 2009 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.
17

20-

Lateral Mapping

Copyright 2009 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.


18

Gas stations + food


Cafeteria + Internet
Cereal + snacking
Candy + toy
Audio + portable

20-

Variations on Failure
Absolute product failure
Partial product failure
Relative product failure

Copyright 2009 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.


19

20-

Concepts in Concept Development

Product idea
Product concept
Category concept
Brand concept
Concept testing

Copyright 2009 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.


20

20-

Concept Testing

Communicability and believability


Need level
Gap level
Perceived value
Purchase intention
User targets, purchase occasions,
purchasing frequency

Copyright 2009 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.


21

20-

Figure 20.6 Utility Functions Based on


Conjoint Analysis

Copyright 2009 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.


22

20-

Marketing Strategy
Target markets size, structure, and
behavior
Planned price, distribution, and
promotion for year one
Long-run sales and profit goals and
marketing-mix strategy over time

Copyright 2009 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.


23

20-

Figure 20.7 Product Life Cycle Sales


for Three Product Types

Copyright 2009 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.


24

20-

Prototype Testing
Alpha testing
Beta testing
Rank-order method
Paired-comparison method
Monadic-rating method

Market testing

Copyright 2009 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.


25

20-

Consumer Goods Market Testing

Sales-Wave Research
Simulated Test Marketing
Controlled Test Marketing
Test Markets

Copyright 2009 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.


26

20-

Test Market Decisions

How many test cities?


Which cities?
Length of test?
What information to collect?
What action to take?

Copyright 2009 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.


27

20-

Timing of Market Entry


First entry
Parallel entry
Late entry

Copyright 2009 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.


28

20-

Criteria for
Choosing Rollout Markets

Market potential
Companys local reputation
Cost of filling pipeline
Cost of communication media

Copyright 2009 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.


29

20-

What is Adoption?
Adoption is an individuals decision to become
a regular user of a product.

Copyright 2009 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.


30

20-

Stages in the Adoption Process


Awareness
Interest
Evaluation
Trial
Adoption
Copyright 2009 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.
31

20-

Figure 20.8 Adopter


Categorization

Copyright 2009 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.


32

20-

Characteristics of an Innovation

Relative advantage
Compatibility
Complexity
Divisibility
Communicability

Copyright 2009 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.


33

20-

Marketing Debate
Who should you target with new products?
Take a position:
1. Consumer research is critical to new-product
development.
or
2. Consumer research may not be all that
helpful in new-product development.
Copyright 2009 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.
34

20-

Marketing Discussion

Think about the last new product


you bought.
How do you think its success will be
affected by the five characteristics
of an innovation?

Copyright 2009 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd.


35

20-