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Workshop on NonDestructive Testing

Department of Mechanical Engineering

B. H. Gardi College of Engineering & Technology
Gardi Vidhyapeeth

Expert Lecture on RADIOGRAPHY

Bhavin H. Sukhadiya
Director (Technical)
I TECH Advance Inspection Services
Shapar (Rajkot)

Non-Destructive Testing
What is NDT (Non-Destructive
Testing) ?
Significance of NDT in present
Prevention of Hazard
Strong tool to Quality Assurance & Quality
Preventive Maintenance Tool
Direct & indirect benefits
and many more.

Various NDT methods

NDT exists from ancient times (Simple methods
VT & AE).
Industrial revolution during World Wars induced
requirements of strong QA/QC tools which
developed as NDT.
Visual Testing
Neutron Radiography
Liquid Penetrant
Infra Red Thermography
Magnetic Particle
Ultrasonic Testing
Radiography Testing
Acoustic Emission
Leak Testing
Eddy Current Testing

Vibration Analysis
Guided Wave Testing
Magnetic Flux Leakage
LASER methods

Radiography : Advantages &

Advantage :
Both surface and Internal discontinuities detected
Significant variations in composition detected
Has a very few material limitations.
Can be used for inspecting hidden areas
Very minimal or no part preparation is required.
Permanent test record is obtained.
Good portability especially for gamma-ray sources

Limitations :
Hazardous , Thorough trainting & Safety precautions required
It requires a two-sided access to the component
Highly directional (sensitive to flaw orientation).
Depth of discontinuity is not indicated
High degree of skill required for exposure and interpretation
Equipment & consumables relatively expensive
The process is generally slow


Principle :
Passing a very short wave electromagnetic radiation (such as X & Gamma Rays)
through test object & capture it on recording media to form an image of its
volumetric details


ty Image

Radiation passing though any

material gets attenuated (Intensity
Attenuation depends on density &
mass of material being radiographed
Thickness & density of material
controls the Optical Density
(grayscale) developed on X-ray film

Radiation Sources
X-Ray Sources
X-ray generated from Xray generator tube with
special arrangements of
electron emission, Target
material and cooling
X-ray is generated by
striking Hi-speed
electrons on a material so
that they rapidly
decelerated and energy
difference is emitted as
(Breaking) radiation
Called X-ray

Governing Factors of X-ray


Energy of X-ray photons

Energy of X-ray depends on potential difference

(Voltage difference)
between filament & target
Measured in Kilovolt (KeV)
Decides penetration ability & exposure time

Beam strength of X-ray

Photon flux coming out from X-ray tube

Controlled by current flow in filament
Measured in Mili Ampere (mA)
Decides Image Quality & exposure time

Thickness range : X-ray machine ranges from 150Kev to

So thickness range varies from few mm to 50-60mm approx. of
(for constant potential tube)

Hi energy X-ray Sources

Linear Accelerator (LINAC) & Betatron

Electrons from filament accelerated by some means
Energy ranging from 1MeV to 30 MeV achieved.
Thickness penetrated : upto 500mm steel
Very large & stationary setup

Gamma Ray Sources

Gamma Ray emitted by an Isotope (instable form of an element) due
to a nuclear
phenomenon called Radioactive Decay
Such Radioactive material is obtained naturally or made artificially by
neutrons on it
Isotope have same Atomic No. but Different Mass No.(due to addition
Gamma Rays have same property as X-ray but have different energy
Each Radioactive sources emits photons of specific energies & have a
specific Half life.
Radio Isotope used for radiography :

Radiography Device : (Camera)

Industrial Gamma Radiography Exposure Device (IGRED) is
a remotely operated
shielded container for safe handling, transport & RT
exposure process
Shielding material hi-density materials: Lead, Tungsten and
Depleted Uranium (DU)
Safe, Robust, Portable, Mechanically & remotely operated,
self locking

Only the Institution & operators trained & licensed
by a regulatory authority of the nation (for us BARC)
can operate radiation devices
Has to follow strict established rules & safe working
Use of radiation safety equipments
Safe limits : Public & Radiation Worker
ALARA (As Low As Reasonably Achievable)
Radiation used in Radiography is IONIZING
RADIATION, destroys chemical bonds & generates ion
pairs (free radicals).
TDS ( Time , Distance , Shielding)
Safety equipments : Radiation Survey meters,
Gamma Zone
Monitors, Dosimeters, TLD badges

Radiation Safety Equipment


Depends on
Type of Source
Source Strength (Ci) / KeV
Source to Film Distance
Type of material to be
Type of film (Film Speed)

Geometrical Unsharpness

Industrial X-ray Films

Film Speed : Sensitivity to Light
or Radiation
Grain Size : Size of Ag-Br crystals
Relations :
Grain size : Increase , Speed :
Image sensitivity : Decrease
Grain size : Decrease , Speed :
Image sensitivity : Increase
Above Parameters established by
According to such std. Films

Intensifying Screen
X-ray film is loaded in to Light tight
cover between Screens (Lead,
Copper etc)
Available in different thickness &
Chosen based on radiation energy
Intensify Radiation energy by
Photoelectric effect, reduce Exposure
time considerably
Reduce effects of scattered radiation


Processing done in darkroom in Red visible SAFE light

least affect the film
Developer : Alkaline Solution (20 Deg. Temp.
Convert Latent image to visible form
Stop bath : Water with slight Acetic acid Stops
Fixer : Acidic Solution Make visible image permanent
by converting
AgBr into Solid Black Silver Harden the
Gelatin layer
Running water : Wash away fixer and dirt
Soap solution : Decrease surface tension of stuck

Film interpretation
Film Viewed on illuminator after drying
Following parameters checked,
Optical Density (Degree of blackness) by
If film is free from dirt, processing artifacts,
mechanical damage, false image due to bad
surface preparation
Image quality (Sensitivity)
Notice discontinuities (Each discontinuity is
Acceptability of Discontinuity
Report preparation
Defect Marking

Film parameters
Film Density
Degree of blackness of X-ray
A factor(unit less) = Ratio of
transmitted light intensity to
received light intensity at
other end
Generally kept 2.0 to 4.0 or
1.5 to 4.0 as per prevailing
codes and standards
Range decided to ensure
proper detection of defect on
Measured with an electronic
equipment called Transmission
Optical Densitometer

Image Quality (Sensitivity)

Indicates how minor discontinuities would
be detected on X-ray film
Image quality quantified on film by some
means called Image Quality Indicator (IQI)
IQI placed on test specimen so that its
image overlaps over specimen image or put
on identical thickness & material block
Proper & sharp image of IQI indicates, film
have recorded finest detail of specimen

Types of IQI
Based on Standards
: 1) ASTM Type 2) DIN / EN Type 3)
AFNOR type
Based on Construction : 1) Wire Type
2) Hole Type

Image Quality requirements

Varies from standard by standard or as per
purchasers requirements
General requirements
2% ; means 2% of specimen thickness
2T hole should be visible (it meets 2% req.)

Above 2% matches with nearest wire dia.

In wire type IQI or 2T value
Eventually above dimension of 2% or 2T
straightly indicates minimum discontinuity
dimension that can be surely detected

Film Artifacts
Unwanted disturbance to image recorded on
X-ray film is called Film artifacts
This includes mechanical damage such as
scratches & pressure mark, light fog, dirt
mark, chemical marks during processing,
finger marks, etc.
Such artifacts should be avoided by good
housekeeping and skilled practices or
reshoot should be taken to avoid

Advance Methods in Radiography

Advance Methods in Radiography

Advance Methods in Radiography

ASME Boiler & Pressure Vessel Code Section V (Procedure & other things
related to NDT)
ASME BPVC code Sec. VIII Div 1 & 2 (Rules for construction of pressure
ASME B31.1 (Power Piping)
ASME B31.3 (Process Piping)
ASTM E-446 Reference Radiographs for Steel Castings upto 51mm
ASTM E-186 Reference Radiographs for Steel castings from 51mm to 114
ASTM E-192 Reference Radiographs for Castings used for Aerospace
ASTM E-155 Refrerence Radiographs for Aluminum & Magnesium Castings
DIN EN 12681
DIN EN 1690 Part 2 / Part 10
DIN EN 444
DIN EN 462-1/2/3
..many more

Welding Defects

Welding Defects

Casting Defects

Casting Defects

Casting Defects

Casting Defects

Thank You

Questions ???.........