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Special course on of AASHTO LRFD Specifications

Workshop # 4 Day 2

by,

Amit H. Varma

May 2, 2003

Michigan Department of Transportation

Conference Room

INTRODUCTION

Some examples of fatigue prone details

Component / Detail

Initial Defect or

Fatigue Category

Condition

Cover-plated beams

Weld toe

Flange gussets

Weld toe

E or E

Eyebars

Initial crack

laps

Longitudinal stiffener

Transverse weld

Large-initial crack

Coped Members

Flame-cut notch

Initial defect

Pin Plates

Frozen pins

Out-of-plane

Transverse stiffeners

Out-of-plane

Diaphragm connection

Web gaps

Out-of-plane

Lateral bracing

Out-of-plane

plates

Gusset plates

Wohler - German engineer fatigue of railroad car axles

fatigue failure in metal components or details.

Brittle fracture

fatigue crack propagation, and eventually brittle fracture of the

cracked component.

of a constant amplitude cyclic stress range vs. number of cycles

to failure (Sr - N) curve.

conducting four-point rotating bending tests according

to ASTM Standards.

cylindrical bar 0.25 in. in diameter

ENDURANCE LIMIT S

defects, which serve as initial cracks.

under cyclic fatigue loading.

notches / discontinuities

Alternating cyclic plastic strains cause fatigue crack initiation.

Fundamental constant amplitude strain range () versus number of

reversals (Nf) to crack initiation for a metal experimentally

smooth components with notches or geometric discontinuities.

Not of much use for bridge structural components and details, which

have inherent flaws or defect serving as initial cracks.

N behavior of metal.

When plastic strains dominate, the slope of the Nf curve

changes becomes more steep indicating reduced fatigue life

Usually occurs for 1 < Nf < 1000 called low cycle fatigue

notches or discontinuities

number of reversals (Nf) to

failure

and understood using fundamentals of fracture mechanics.

tip to the nominal stress, size, shape, orientation of the crack, and

material properties.

Consider the stress state in the vicinity of the crack tip in a structure

subjected to tensile stresses normal to the plane of the crack

Fatigue cracks become large cause unstable crack growth Fracture

I

accounts for the effects of stress, crack size and geometry, and structure

configurations, crack geometries, and loadings

For all cases KI = C a

KI has units of ksi in

exceeds KIc, which is the critical

stress intensity factor for the material

toughness of the material, it ability to

crack without brittle fracture

Ic

cyclic loading if KI < KIc

experimentally

da

m

A K I

dN

A and m are material constants

respect to (KI) in log-log coordinates

Material

Martensitic steels

0.66 x10-8

3.25

Ferrite-Perlite steels

3.6 x 10-10

3.0

Austenitic steels

3.0 x 10-10

3.25

The total fatigue life of a component is equal to the sum of the crack initiation

life and the crack propagation to fracture life

N=N +N

i

For bridge components and details, initial crack or defects are present in the

form of flaws or defects

Crack propagation life dominates (N = N )

f

If the initial flaw size is a i and the final flaw size at fracture is af

da

dN

Therefore

A C a

And

af

da

ai

A ( C a )m

Let A1 =

af

Therefore

ai

da

A( C a )

A1 N

m

A1

1

m

Nf

dN

Ni

FATIGUE LIFE

A1

1

m

flaw or defect ai, which cannot be estimated easily or accurately

structural components and details

for fatigue life prediction and design

()TH below which fatigue crack propagation does not occur

factored design (LRFD) philosophy

categorized as load induced fatigue or distortion-induced fatigue

produced by distortion or out-of-plane deflections that induced by

secondary members (diaphragms or lateral bracing frames)

Distortion induced fatigue qualitative only + detailing practices

FATIGUE LOADING

Fatigue loading for design consists of two parts, namely, the applied

cyclic stress range (f) and the frequency of occurrence or the number of

fatigue cycles.

The live-load stress range is used as the relevant force effect for

designing bridge details for fatigue.

Research has shown that the total stress is not relevant for welded details

Residual stresses are not considered explicitly for fatigue design

Using the stress range as the design parameter implicitly includes the effects

of residual stresses on welded details

Fatigue design load = vehicular live load (LL) due to fatigue design truck

and thecorresponding

impact factor (IM) and centrifugal force (CE)

i i Qi

Q=

The load factor of 0.75 reflects a load level representative of the truck

population with large number of repetitive cycles and fatigue effects.

Steel bridges are designed for the live-load (LL) stress range caused by the

fatigue design truck, which has a set distance of 30 ft. between the 32 kip loads,

and is slightly different than the design truck

30-0

The live load stress due to the passage of the fatigue load is approx. one-half of

the heaviest truck expected to cross the bridge in 75 years.

Only one fatigue truck is considered for design irrespective of the number of

design lanes.

Dynamic load allowance (IM). The live load stress caused by the fatigue design

truck is to be increased by the dynamic load allowance factor of 15%

FATIGUE LOADING

as the single-lane annual daily truck traffic (ADTT)SL

SL

can be estimated as

(ADTT)SL = p x ADTT

ADTT = number of trucks per day in one direction averaged over the

design life

Number of Lanes

available to Trucks

1.00

0.85

3 or more

0.80

value ofofaverage

ADTT can be estimated

Highway as the limitingFraction

trucks daily traffic

multiplied by the fraction of trucks in the traffic

Rural Interstate

0.20

0.15

Other urban

0.10

FATIGUE LOADING

Total number of fatigue cycles over the design life

SL

Span length > 40 ft.

1.0

2.0

support

1.5

2.0

1.0

2.0

Trusses

1.0

1.0

Transverse members

side of the interior support near the support

(f) (F)n

= load factor = 0.75; and

f) = maximum stress range (LL, IM, CE) due to the fatigue truck

F) = nominal fatigue resistance of the structural component or detail.

n

resistance for structural components / details

1

(F)

1

2(F)

TH

(F) is the constant amplitude fatigue threshold in ksi

SL

TH

categories A .. E

TH

FATIGUE RESISTANCE

Detail Category

A

B

B

C

C

D

E

E

M164 (A 325) bolts in

axial tension

M253 (A 490) bolts in

axial tension

Constant A x

108

250.0

120.0

61.0

44.0

44.0

22.0

11.0

3.9

17.1

(F)TH

(ksi)

24.0

16.0

12.0

10.0

12.0

7.0

4.5

2.6

31.0

31.5

38.0

FATIGUE RESISTANCE

component or detail will theoretically have infinite fatigue life.

by the previous AASHTO standard specifications for more than 2 million

cycles on a redundant load path structure

to account for the possibility of the heaviest truck in 75 years being double

the weight of the fatigue truck used in calculating stress range

Logically, this effect should be present on the load side (f) instead of the

resistance side (F)n

(F)TH (f)

or

(F)TH 2 (f)

infinite fatigue life is accounted for by multiplying the fatigue threshold

(F)TH by instead of multiplying the applied stress (f) range by 2

In the previous AASHTO standard specifications, allowable stress

ranges were specified for both redundant and non-redundant member.

The allowable for non-redundant members were arbitrarily specified as 80%

of those for redundant members due to more severe consequences of their

failure.

However, greater fracture toughness was also specified for non-redundant

members.

This double-penalty has been rectified in the LRFD specifications by

maintaining only the requirement for greater fracture toughness for nonredundant members.

The same fatigue resistance curves are applicable to both redundant and

non-redundant members.

categories according to their fatigue resistance

welded connections in built-up members without attachments

groove-welded attachments without adequate transition radius or with

unequal plate thickness

greater than 150 mm and proper grinding of welds.

BUILT-UP MEMBERS

PLAIN MEMBERS

A

Rolled surface

Painted weath.

Eyebars

E

Splice connection

Cover plates

Fastened connections

Unequal sections

Same sections

Cont. welded

Width transition

2 ft. radius

Transitions in width

or thick 1:2.5

B

B

Bolted

Riveted

Groove welded

E

E

B

C

D

E

End welds

ground smooth

ground smooth

D

E

E

ground smooth

D

Larger radius better

Longer is worse

End welds

ground smooth

Transition radius

Detail length

Longer is worse

Transition radius

Detail length

Fillet welded

D

E

Groove welded

C

D

E

C

D

E

R > 2 in. not bet.

Rad. > 6.0 not help

Larger rad.better

D

E

Fillet welded

Welds parallel to direction of stress

Welds ground smooth

not ground smooth

C at base metal

E in the weld

FATIGUE CRACK

FATIGUE CRACKING

significant secondary stresses.

longitudinal members

the compression and tension flanges of the cross-section, where

Internal or external diaphragms or cross-frames are attached

Floor-beams are attached

Corresponding connection should be designed for a force of 20 kips

for straight, non-skewed bridges

longitudinal member, otherwise

distance of at least the flange width divided by two (bf /2) from the flangeweb interface

distance of at least 6.0 in. or bf /2 from the flange-web interface

This will reduce out-of-plane distortions of the web-gap between the lateral

connection plate and the flange-web interface to a tolerable value

It will also move the connection plate closer to the neutral axis, thus

reducing the impact of weld termination on fatigue strength

plates at a minimum distance of 4.0 in. from the web or any

transverse stiffener.

plate between the web/stiffener and the lateral bracing members

connection plate, then the plate should be centered on the stiffener

irrespective of whether the plate and stiffener are the same side of web

If the lateral connection plate and the stiffeners are on the same side

stiffener should be continuous and attached to both flanges

FATIGUE CRACK

FATIGUE DETAILS

stresses due to the Strength I limit-state must satisfy supplemental

impact requirements

Charpy V-notch test at a specified temperature

temperature zones for the Charpy V-notch requirements

Michigan is zone 2

Minimum service

temperature

Temperature

zone

18 C and above

19 C to 34 C

34 C to 51 C

stress whose failure is expected to cause the collapse of the bridge

more energy without fracture than a non-fracture critical member

are given below for different plate thicknesses and temperature zones.

FCM values for absorbed energy are approximately 50% greater than for nonFCM values at the same temperature

between the steel beam and the concrete deck.

The number of shear connectors should satisfy the strength and the

fatigue limit states

n Zr I

p< V Q

sr

n = number of shear connectors in a cross-section

I = moment of inertia of the short-term composite section

Q = Ay = first moment of the transformed area of the slab about the

n.a.of the short-term composite section

Vr = shear force range under LL + IM determined for the fatigue limit

Zr = shear fatigue resistance of an individual shear connector

The c-to-c pitch of shear connectors shall not exceed 24.0 in. and

shall not be less than six stud diameters

= d2 > 2.75 d2

where = 34.5 2.28 Log N

d = diameter of stud and N = number of cycles

transverse to the longitudinal axis of the supporting member

The clear distance between the edge of the top flange and the edge of

the nearest shear connector shall not be less than 1.0 in.

The clear depth of concrete cover over the tops of the shear

connectors should not be less than 2.0 in.

Shear connectors should penetrate at least 2.0 in. into the deck

FATIGUE DESIGN

30-0

We have already designed a composite steel bridge. The span length of the bridge

is 34 ft. The roadway width is 44 ft.

The selected beam is W24 x 68 with a in. thick cover plate narrower than the

flange

Clearly the bending moment is smaller at the ends and we can curtail the coverplate to save some money. Lets see?

The cover plate can be curtailed to the point where the moment is small enough

for the steel beam alone to carry it

But, the fatigue stress range at the end of the cover plate must be OK!

FATIGUE DESIGN

Step I Estimate number of fatigue cycles

(ADTT)SL = p x ADTT

Therefore, annual daily TRUCK traffic (ADTT)= 0.20 x 20000 x 2= 8000

where p = 0.85 for 2 lanes available to trucks

(ADTT) = 0.85 x 8000 = 6800

SL

N = 186.15 x 10

xn

Therefore, N = 372.3 x 10

cycles

FATIGUE DESIGN

Step II. Estimate the fatigue strength (F)n

(F)

= A

1

3

1 (F)TH

2

Therefore, Category E detail

From the table: A = 11.0 x 10 and (F) = 4.5 ksi

Therefore, (F) = [(11.0 x 10 )/(3.723 x 10 )] = 1.43 ksi,

8

TH

1/3

The applied fatigue stress range (f) must be < 2.25 ksi

The cover-plate can be curtailed to the point where the stress range in the

steel beam alone is less than 2.25 ksi !!!!!!

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