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Experience of Nitrates Directive

implementation in Denmark and future


obligations under Nitrates Directive

Danish policy measures

Workshop on Nitrate, Bucharest 18-19th July 2007


by
Ruth Grant
National Environmental Research Institute, Denmark
National Environmental Research Institute

Content
1. Danish agriculture and nitrogen in water
whole territory approach
2. Measures of the Danish Action Programme
3. National Monitoring Programme

Danish policy measures

4. Future obligations
5. Conclusion

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Danish policy measures

1. Danish agriculture and nitrogen in


water
whole territory approach

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Danish policy measures

Development in the use of inorganic


fertiliers in Denmark 1960 - 2004

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Danish Agriculture, 2005


Intensive agriculture 60% of area

Danish policy measures

Main crops

grain
maize
rotation grass
permanent grass
set aside
other crops

57%
4%
8%
7%
8%
16%

Average livestock density - 92 kg N/ha


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Soils and climate in Denmark


Soil types

Danish policy measures

Brown colors:
clay

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Danish policy measures

Manure application

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Danish policy measures

Nitrate in water-supply wells, (GEUS, 2001)

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Danish policy measures

Total nitrogen in streams, (NERI, 2002)

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Whole territory approach


- National Action Plans
Target set up in 1987: 50% reduction in nitrate
leaching from agricultural fields

Danish policy measures

Succesion of Action Plans


NPO action Plan, 1986
Action Plan I for the Aquatic Environment, 1987
Action Plan for Sustainable agriculture, 1991, 1996

Action Plan II, 1998 2003 (ND approved)


Action Plan III, 2004
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Danish policy measures

2. Measures of the National


Action Programme

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Measures of Action Plans

Danish policy measures

Legal requirements (statutory orders)


Harmony livestock criteria
Storage capacity for liquid manure
Nitrogen quota system
Required utilisation of animal manure
Catch crops
Optional (with financial support)
Afforstation
Restoration of wetlands
Organic farming
Environmental friendly farming practises
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Danish policy measures

3. National monitoring programme


1989

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Danish policy measures

Organisation

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Ground water monitoring network


256 oxic screens

Danish policy measures

154 anoxic screens

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Danish policy measures

Stream monitoring

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Agricultural Catchment monitoring


5 small catchments 5-15 km2
Annual interviews with farmers:
crops, animals, fertilisers, manure
Measuring programme:
Danish policy measures

rootzone water,1 m
drainage water

(32 sites)
(7 sites)

upper groundwater, 1.5-5 m (100 sites)


streams

(5 sites)

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Danish policy measures

Modelled nitrate leaching based on agricultural data

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Danish policy measures

Monitoring results for nitrate in soil water and


upper ground water, 1990-2003

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Storage capacity for liquid manure

Danish policy measures

Requirement 9 months capacity

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Danish policy measures

Spreading technique for animal


manure

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Danish policy measures

Use of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilisers in


Denmark during three Action Plans, 1985-2004

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Danish policy measures

Development in crop yields, 1970-2004


- farmers reaction

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Danish policy measures

4. Future obligations

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Obligations in connection with Nitrates Directive


Action Plan III 2004-2015:
13% reduction in N-leaching (compared to 2003)
evaluation in 2008, 2011 and 2015

General reporting to EU every 4 years

Danish policy measures

Continuation of monitoring programme


Continuation of control system by the Plant Directorate

Obtained derogation until 2008


annual reporting to EU
renewed discussion with the EU starting in 2007

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Nitrates Directive combined with Water Framework


Directive
Nitrates Directive:

general regulation on use of nitrogen + individual area


assignments

Water Framework Directive:

Danish policy measures

water plans ready by 2008


individual measures in water districts

restoration of wetlands
increased buffer strips
catch crops
reduced nitrogen norms for crops

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5. Conclusion
Results

Nitrogen fertilisers could be reduced by 50% without any


significant reduction in crop production

Difficulties

Danish policy measures

Complexity of defining an efficient regulatory system,


which will allow for individual farming conditions.
Measures interfere with agricultural production and economy

Future obligations

Effective control body (Plant Directorate under the M.o.A.)


Continuous monitoring and evaluation programmes
Integrate Nitrates Directive with Water Framework Directive

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