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CELL STRUCTURE

AND
FUNCTION OF
ORGANELLES

IN THIS TOPIC

Structure and functions :


Cell wall
Cell membrane
Organelles

Movement of
molecules/substances in and
out of the cell

CELL WALL

Outside the cell membrane

In plant cell, prokaryotes, some protista


and fungi only.

Components :
middle lamella
primary wall
secondary wall
Plasmodesmata

Land plants :
Cellulose
Lignin
Suberin

Waxy
Waterproof (some tissue)

Functions :
Cell shape
Support and mechanical strength
Prevent haemolysis
skin
Carbohydrate store

CELL MEMBRANE

Both in animal and plant cell

Selective permeable

Composed of :
Proteins
Glycoprotein
Glycolipids
Phospholipid
Cholesterol and lipoprotein (a few)

Fluid mosaic model


Lipid

bilayer
Phospholipid
Hydrophilic head (polar)
Hydrophobic tail (non-polar)

Embedded

protein
Embedded between layer
Integral protein
Peripheral protein (not embedded)
Free movement within layer
As carrier and channel protein

Cholesterol
Make

phospholipid stay in position

Fluid
protein

and lipid molecules able to shift and move laterally

Mosaic
the

protein molecules form mosaic-like patterns when viewed from the


top.

Functions of cell membrane


Barrier
Maintain internal environment of
cell
Communication between cell
Markers to foreign materials
Transportation

(Text book page 29)

ORGANELLES

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Nucleus
Endoplasmic reticulum
Golgi apparatus
Mitochondria
Lysosomes
Ribosomes
Chloroplasts
Centrioles
Vesicles

Nucleus

Nucleus

The Control Centre

Available in all eukaryotes


excepts ;
Sieve tube of phloem
R_ _ _ _ oo _ _ _ l l

Components of nucleus

nuclear envelope
nucleoplasm
nucleolus
chromatin

Nuclear envelope

Two outer membranes (lipid bilayers)

Innermost surface has DNA attachment


sites
Nuclear porebilayer facing cytoplasm

bilayer
facing
nucleoplasm

Nuclear envelope

Nucleolus

dark spot
in the middle of the nucleus
produce ribosomes

Functions :
Store genetics material and information
Site of cell division
Produce RNA & DNA

Endoplasmic reticulum

In animal cells, continuous with


nuclear membrane

Extends throughout cytoplasm

Two regions - rough and smooth


Rough ER

Smooth ER

Functions
ROUGH ER

SMOOTH

ER

Prominent in cells that


manufacture protein for export ;
digestive enzymes, hormones,
structural protein or antibodies

Necessary for steroid


synthesis, metabolism and
detoxification of substances in
liver, phospholipid synthesis
and excitation-contraction
coupling in skeletal muscle

With ribosome

Without ribosome

Golgi body

Puts finishing touches on proteins


and lipids that arrive from ER

Packages finished material for


shipment to final destinations

Material arrives and leaves in


vesicles

Mitochondria

ATP-producing
powerhouses
(aerobic
respiration)

Membranes
form two
distinct
compartments

ATP-making
machinery
embedded in
inner
mitochondrial
membrane

repeated foldings
of inner membrane
(cristae)

outer
compartment
inner
compartment

outer membrane

inner membrane

Lysosomes

a vesicle
with enzymes
digest biological macromolecules
ER to Golgi body
Autophagy
Autolysis

Ribosomes

Function as the site of mRNA


translation during protein synthesis

Free-wheeling in cytoplasm / attached


to ER

TWO subunits ; small and large

Chloroplasts

Site of photosynthesis

Centrioles

Type of cytoskeleton (network of fiber)


In mitosis; source of mitotic spindle
Functions ;
Organise the formation of spindle fiber
Organise the formation of cilia and flagella
(9+2 / 9+3)

vesicles

a sac
In cytoplasm
Types ;
Lysosome
Peroxisome
Shuttle vesicles
Secretory vesicles
Endocytosis vesicles
Storage vesicles

Take 5

MOVEMENT OF
MOLECULES/SUBSTANCES
IN AND OUT OF THE CELL

The movement of molecules are based on


concentration gradient

Concentration gradient ;

Means the number of molecules or ions in one


region is different than the number in another region

In the absence of other forces, a substance moves


from a region where it is more concentrated to
one where its less concentrated - down
gradient

Passive transport
Active transport
Endocytosis
Exocytosis

PASSIVE TRANSPORT

Does not require ATP


High to low of concentration gradient

Types ;

Diffusion
Osmosis
Facilitated diffusion

Diffusion

movement of molecules or ions


down a concentration gradient

the molecules move using a


natural kinetic energy

what determines the rate of diffusion?

Steepness of concentration gradient


Steeper gradient, faster diffusion

Molecular size
Smaller molecules, faster diffusion

Temperature
Higher temperature, faster diffusion

Surface area
Higher surface area, faster diffusion

Molecules that diffuse through cell


membranes
Oxygen Non-polar so
diffuses very quickly.
Carbon dioxide Polar
but very small so
diffuses quickly.
Water Polar but also
very small so diffuses
quickly.

Simple Diffusion
Polar molecules
(ex. Glucose, water)

small, nonpolar
molecules

ions
(ex. H+, Na+, K+)

(ex. O2, CO2)

LIPID-SOLUBLE

LIPID-SOLUBLE

WATER-SOLUBLE

Facilitated diffusion

movement of molecules or ions


down a concentration gradient
with the help of transport protein

Types of transport protein ;

Carrier protein
Channel protein

[ concn] of
glucose outside
cell > inside

glucose transporter
solute (glucose)

low

Glucose is exposed to fluid on the


other side of the membrane,
detaches, leaves channel

Glucose
binds

Protein change
shape

Osmosis

Water movement
across a partially permeable
membrane
from an area of high
water potential (low solute
concentration) to an area of low
water potential (high solute
concentration)

Hypotonic
Solution

Hypertonic
Solution

membrane permeable to
water but not to solutes

Tonicity

2% sucrose
solution

distilled water

10%
sucrose
solution

2%
sucrose
solution

Hypotonic
Conditions

Hypertonic
Conditions

Isotonic
Conditions

Isotonic solution

Hypotonic solution
H2O

H2O

H2O

Hypertonic solution
H2O

Animal
cell

(2) Lysed

(1) Normal
H2O

H2O

(3) Shriveled
Plasma
membrane

H2O

H2O

Plant
cell

(4) Flaccid

(5) Turgid

(6) Shriveled
(plasmolyzed)

ACTIVE TRANSPORT

Transport of molecule

Low to high of concentration gradient

require ATP

Involves carrier protein

higher calcium
concentration

lower calcium concentration

Shape
returns o its
resting
position

Calcium
pump

Pi

Shape
change Ca
release

ADP

ATP
transfer a
phosphate
group

ATP

Calcium
enter
tunnel

ENDOCYTOSIS

Transport of macromolecules

Involves formation of vesicle

Into the cell

Two types;
Phagocytosis
Pinocytosis

amoeba

edible
bacterium

phagocytic
vesicle

Phagocytosis

Phagocytosis; cellular eating.

In phagocytosis, the cell engulfs a particle


by extending pseudopodia around it and
packaging it in a large vacuole.

The contents of the vacuole are digested


when the vacuole fuses with a lysosome.

In pinocytosis; cellular drinking

a cell creates a vesicle around a droplet of


extracellular fluid.

EXOCYTOSIS

Transport of molecules
Out of a cell
Enclosed in vesicle
Move to cell surface membrane
Fuse
release

Both diffusion and facilitated diffusion are forms of passive transport of


molecules down their concentration gradient, while active transport
requires an investment of energy to move molecules against their
concentration gradient.

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