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CELL AS A UNIT OF LIFE

about this chapter


Cell theory
Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic
cells
Microscopic structure of plant
and animal cells
Cells as basic units of living
organisms are grouped into
tissue and organs

3.1 Early Discoveries

Mid
1600s

Robert Hooke observed and


described cells in cork

Late
1600s

Antony van Leeuwenhoek


observed sperm, microorganisms

1820s

Robert Brown observed and


named nucleus in plant cells

Developing Cell Theory


Schlieden

Plant

growth, he stated in 1837,


came about through the
production of new cells,
which, he speculated, were
propagated from the nuclei
of old cells, i.e., all plants
are composed of cells.

Rudolf Virchow

Theodor
Matthias Schleiden

Schwann

CELL THEORY

Living things are made


up of cells
The cell is the basic unit
of structure
Cells come only from

Cell
Smallest unit
of life

Can survive on
its own or has
potential to do
so

Senses and
responds to
environment

Is highly
organized for
metabolism

Has potential
to reproduce

Two types of cells :


Prokaryotic cells
No true nucleus or organelles
e.g : Eubacteria and cyanobacteria

Eukaryotic cells
Nucleus and organelles that
surrounded by a membrane
e.g: protozoa, algae, fungi, plants
and animals

Microscopes
Create detailed images of something
that is otherwise too small to see
Light microscopes
Simple or compound

Electron microscopes
Transmission EM or Scanning EM

Limitations of Light
Microscopy
Wavelengths of light are 400-750 nm
If a structure is less than one-half of a
wavelength long, it will not be visible
Light microscopes can resolve objects
down to about 200 nm in size

Electron Microscopy
Uses streams of accelerated
electrons rather than light
Electrons are focused by magnets
rather than glass lenses
Can resolve structures down to
0.5 nm

PROKARYOTIC CELLS
&
EUKARYOTIC CELLS

The prokaryotic cell is much simpler in structure, lacking a nucleus


and the other membrane-enclosed organelles of the eukaryotic cell.

prokaryotes vs eukaryotes
1. Organisms
2. Cell size
3. Cell division
4. Cell walls
5. Organelles
6. Genetic material
7. Flagella
8. Respiration
9. Photosynthesis
10.Nitrogen fixation
* refer handout

MICROSCOPIC
STRUCTURE OF PLANT
AND ANIMAL CELLS

animal cells

plant cells

CELLS AS BASIC UNITS


OF LIVING ORGANISMS
ARE GROUPED INTO
TISSUE AND ORGANS

CELLS ARE GROUPED


INTO TISSUE AND
ORGANS

THE PLANT

Plant
Plant
Gymnosperm- seed-bearing plant
Angiosperm-flower-producing plant

TISSUES
Cells

in plants and animals are


grouped together in tissues.

tissue is a group of similar cells


that are organised to do a specific
job

Angiosperm Body
Plan EPIDERMIS
Ground tissue
system

VASCULAR TISSUES

Vascular tissue
system

GROUND TISSUES
SHOOT SYSTEM

Dermal tissue
system

ROOT SYSTEM

shoot tip
(terminal bud)
lateral (axillary) bud

Overview of
the plant body

flower
node
internode
node

EPIDERMIS
leaf

VASCULAR TISSUES
seeds
(inside fruit)
GROUND TISSUES
SHOOT SYSTEM

withered
cotyledon

ROOT SYSTEM
primary root
lateral root

root hairs
root tip
root cap

Ground tissue
Vascular tissue

Meristems
Regions where cell divisions produce
plant growth
Consist of unspecialised, dividing
cells.
Apical meristems
Lengthen stems and roots
Responsible for primary growth

Lateral meristems
Increase width of stems
Responsible for secondary growth

activity at
meristems

Shoot apical meristem

Root apical meristem

new cells
elongate
and start to
differentiate
into primary
tissues

new cells
elongate
and start to
differentiate
into primary
tissues
activity at
meristems
Figure 29.4
Page 507

activity at
meristems

SHOOT APICAL MERISTEM


Source of primary growth (lengthening)

new cells
THREE PRIMARY MERISTEMS
elongate
Protoderm
epidermis
and start to Ground meristem
ground tissue
differentiate Procambium
primary vascular tissues
into primary
tissues

Apical
Meristems

new cells
ROOT APICAL MERISTEM
elongate
Apical meristem near all root tips gives rise to
and start to protoderm, ground meristem, and procambium
differentiate
into primary These give rise to the roots primary tissue
tissues
systems: epidermis, ground tissues, and
activity at
vascular tissues
meristems
Figure 29.4
Page 507

LATERAL MERISTEMS
vascular cambium

secondary
phloem

cork cambium

secondary
xylem

thickening
LATERAL MERISTEMS
Two lateral meristems in older stems and roots of woody
plants produce secondary growth (increases in diameter):
Vascular cambium
Cork cambium

secondary vascular tissues


periderm (replaces epidermis)
Figure 29.4
Page 507

Three Plant Tissue system


Ground
tissue
system
-serves

basic
functions:
Food and
water
storage

Vascular
tissue
system
-distributes
water and
solutes

Dermal
tissue
system
Covers and
protect
plant
surfaces

GROUND TISSUE SYSTEM


Predominantly

cells in the leaf, stem,


roots and storage organs

e.g., potato tuber

e.g., celery stem e.g., cherry seed

VASCULAR TISSUE SYSTEM


The

xylem and
phloem made up
the plant
vascular tissue
system
Food, water, and
other
substances are
transported and
is continuous
throughout the
plant.

DERMAL TISSUE SYSTEM (OR


EPIDERMIS)

Single layer of tightly


packed cells covering
and protecting the
young parts of plant

E.g., the waxy cuticle


that help plant retain
water in leaves and
stems

Tissue Differentiation
Protoderm
Ground meristem
Procambium

Epidermis
Ground tissue
Primary vascular
tissue

Simple Tissues
Made up of only one
type of cell

Parenchyma
Collenchyma
Sclerenchyma

Parenchyma: A Simple
Tissue
Most of a plants soft primary
growth
Pliable, thin walled, many sided
cells
Cells remain alive at maturity and
retain capacity to divide
Mesophyll is a type that contains
chloroplasts
Ground tissue for fruits, stems and

Collenchyma: A Simple
Tissue
Specialized for support for primary
tissues
Makes stems strong but pliable
Cells are elongated
Walls thickened with pectin
Alive at maturity

Scelerenchyma : A Simple
Tissue

Supports mature plant parts


Protects many seeds
Thick, lignified walls
Dead at maturity
Two types:
Fibers: Long, tapered cells
Sclereids: Stubbier cells

Complex Tissues
Composed of a mix of cell types
Xylem
Phloem
Epidermis

Xylem
Conducts water
and dissolved
minerals
Conducting cells
are dead and
hollow at
maturity
tracheids

vessel
member

Phloem:
A Complex Vascular Tissue
Transports sugars
Main conducting
cells are sieve-tube
members
Companion cells
sieve-tube
assist in the
member
loading of sugars companion
cell

sieve plate

Epidermis:
A Complex Plant Tissue
Covers and protects plant
surfaces
Secretes a waxy, waterproof
cuticle
In plants with secondary
growth, periderm replaces
epidermis

Monocots and Dicots:


1 cotyledon

4 or 5 floral
parts

3 floral
parts

Parallel veins
1 pore

Vascular
bundles
in ring

2 cotyledons

Netlike veins
3 pores

Vascular
bundles
dispersed

immature leaf
shoot apical meristem

Shoot
Development

procambium

protoderm
procambium
ground meristem

epidermis
cortex
primary phloem
procambium
primary xylem

pith

Figure 29.11
Page 510

Internal Structure of a Dicot Stem

Outermost layer is epidermis


Cortex lies beneath epidermis
Ring of vascular bundles separates the
cortex from the pith
The pith lies in the center of the stem

Internal
Structure of a
Monocot Stem

The vascular bundles


are distributed
throughout the ground
tissue
No division of ground
tissue into cortex and
pith

Internal structure of Stems


Dicot

Ring of vascular bundles


dividing ground tissue
into cortex and pith

Monocot

Vascular bundles distributed


throughout ground tissue

Common Leaf Forms

DICOT

MONOCOT
petiole

axillary
bud
node

blade

blade

sheath

node

Adapted for Photosynthesis

Leaves are usually thin

High surface area-to-volume ratio


Promotes diffusion of carbon dioxide in,
oxygen out

Leaves are arranged to capture


sunlight
Are held perpendicular to rays of sun
Arranged so they dont shade one another

Leaf Structure
UPPER
EPIDERMIS

cuticle

PALISADE
MESOPHYLL
xylem

SPONGY
MESOPHYLL

phloem

LOWER
EPIDERMIS

O2

CO2

one stoma

Root Systems

Taproot system of
a California poppy

Fibrous root system


of a grass plant

Figure 29.17
Page 514

Root
Structure

VASCULAR CYLINDER:
endodermis
pericycle
xylem
phloem
cortex
epidermis

Root cap
covers tip
Apical
meristem
produces the
cap
Vessels have matured; root
Cell divisions hairs and vascular cylinder
about to form
at the apical
meristem
Cells elongate; sieve tubes form
and mature; vessel members
cause the root
start to form
to lengthen
Farther up, Most cells have stopped
dividing
cells
differentiate Cells are dividing rapidly at apical
and mature and primary meristems
quiescent center
root cap

fully grown
root hair

Animal
Cell specialization
ANIMAL TISSUES AND ORGAN SYSTEMS

Animal tissue

HOMEOSTASIS
Stable

operating conditions in the


internal environment

Brought

about by coordinated
activities of cells, tissues, organs,
and organ systems

TISSUE
A

group of cells and intercellular

substances that interact in one or more


tasks
Four

types Epithelial tissue

Muscle tissue
Connective tissue
Nervous tissue

ORGANS
Group

of tissues organized to perform


a task or tasks

Heart

is an organ that pumps blood


through body

Heart

consists of muscle tissue, nervous


tissue, connective tissue, and epithelial
tissue

ORGAN SYSTEMS

Organs interact physically, chemically, or both


to perform a common task

Circulatory system includes the heart, the


arteries, and other vessels that transport
blood through the body

EPITHELIAL TISSUE
Lines

the bodys surface, cavities,

ducts, and tubes


One

free surface faces a body

fluid or the environment

basement
membrane

simple
squamous
epithelium
connective tissue

SIMPLE EPITHELIUM
Consists
Lines
Cell

of a single layer of cells

body ducts, cavities, and tubes

shapes:

Squamous

Cuboidal

Columnar

STRATIFIED EPITHELIUM
Two

or more layers thick

Functions
Cells

in protection, as in skin

in the layers may be squamous,

columnar, or cuboidal

Glands

Secretory organs
derived from
epithelium

Section through the glandular epithelium of a frog.

Exocrine glands
have ducts or tubes
(secrete mucus,
saliva, earwax)

Endocrine glands
are ductless
Product-hormone

pore that opens at skin surface

mucous
gland

poison
gland

pigmented
gland

CELL JUNCTIONS
a type of structure that exists within the tissue of a
multicellular organism. They consist of protein
complexes and provide contact between neighbouring
cells, between a cell and the extracellular matrix, or

Tight junctions prevent


leaks

Gap junctions connect


abutting cytoplasms

Adhering junctions cement


cells together
Tight
Junction

Adhering
Junction

Gap
Junction

CONNECTIVE TISSUE
Most

abundant tissue in the body

Cells

are scattered in an extracellular


matrix

Matrix

is collagen and/or elastin


fibers in a polysaccharide ground
substance

SPECIALIZED CONNECTIVE TISSUES

SOFT CONNECTIVE TISSUES

Bone
compact
bone tissue
blood vessel
bone cell
(osteocyte)
Cartilage
ground substance
with collagen fibers

Dense, regular
connective tissue
collagenous
fibers
fibroblast
Loose connective
tissue
collagenous fiber
fibroblast

cartilage cell
(chondrocyte)

Adipose tissue (fat storage)


nucleus
cell bulging with
fat droplet

elastic fiber
Dense, irregular
connective tissue
collagenous
fibers

location of
cartilage on
knobby end of a
long bone

bone tissue

Figure 33.6
Page 571

Blood

Classified as a connective tissue because blood


cells arise in bone

Serves as the bodys transport medium

Red cells, white cells, and platelets are


dispersed in a fluid medium called plasma

MUSCLE TISSUE
Composed

of cells that contract when

stimulated
Helps
Tpes

move the body and specific body parts

of tissue- Skeletal, cardiac, smooth

SKELETAL MUSCLE

Located in muscles that attach to


bones

Long, cylindrical cells are


striated

Cells are bundled closely together


in parallel arrays

Figure 33.8,
page 572

SMOOTH MUSCLE

In walls of many internal organs


(stomach, lungs etc) and
some blood vessels

Cells are not striped and taper


at the ends

Figure 33.8,
page 572

one muscle cell

one whole muscle,


a biceps

one bundle of muscle


cells in its own sheath

outer connective tissue sheath


around one muscle

Figure 33.9
Page 572

CARDIAC MUSCLE

Present only in the heart

Cells are striated and


branching

Ends of cells are joined by


communication junctions

nucleus

NERVOUS TISSUE

Detects stimuli, integrates information, and


relays commands for response

Consists of excitable neurons and supporting


neuroglial cells

NEUROGLIA

Constitute

more than half of the nervous

tissue
Protect

and support the neurons, both

structurally and metabolically

Major Organ Systems

Integumentary
Muscular
Skeletal
Nervous
Endocrine

Lymphatic
Respiratory
Urinary
Circulatory
Reproductive

Integumentary
System

Muscular
System

Skeletal
System

Nervous
System

Endocrine
System

Circulatory
System
Fig. 33.11(1)
Page 574

Lymphatic
System

Respiratory
System

Digestive
System

Urinary
System

Reproduction
System
Fig. 33.11(2)
Page 575

Organ systems carry out the major body


functions of most animals.
Each organ system consists of several organs and has
specific functions.

Thank you for your


attention

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