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Visual Aids

Airport markings
Airport area is marked in a simple manner so
that the pilots can easily spot and recognize the
various airport elements
Airport markings are
Runway marking
Taxiway marking
Runway and taxiway shoulder marking
Apron marking
Wind direction indicator
Landing direction indicator

Runway markings
Markings on the runway are
1. Runway threshold marking
2. Runway touch down zone marking
3. Runway edge strip marking
4. Runway Centre line marking
5. Runway number
6. If there are two or more number of parallel
runways, they are marked at the threshold as
a) Two parallel runways; L,R
b) Three parallel runways; L,C,R
c) Four parallel runways ; L,LC,RC,R

Runway threshold is indicated by a series of

parallel lines starting from a distance of 6m from
runway end.
Runway touch down area is indicated by series of
strips marked parallel to the centre line of
runway. No: of strips decreases gradually in the
direction of landing.
Runway edge strip is long continuous strip of 0.9
m width and placed near the edges of runway.

All the markings of runway are in white paint.

Taxiway markings
All taxiway markings are in yellow colour paint.
The centre line is marked with a single stip
having 15 cm width. This centre line terminates
at runway edge
At taxiway intersections the centre lines
continue through the intersection area.
Holding position marker at least 30m from the
edge of runway should be painted on the
intersection of taxiways with runways

Runway and Taxiway shoulder marking

It is with yellow paint
Marked with diagonal lines having width of 0.90
Taxiway and holding apron shoulders are
marked with lines perpendicular to the direction
of travel of aircraft.
Blast pad at the end of runway is marked with a
chevron pattern

Apron marking
Guide lines are painted on the apron to help the
pilot to manoeuvre with yellow paint
Guidelines are painted to indicate the path of the
nose gear of most critical aircraft

Wind direction indicator

Wind cone, usually placed at the centre of the
segmented circle (airport).
This helps to locate the airport and the wind
direction indicator.
The panels forming the segmented circle
markers are gable roof shaped. This enhances
the visibility of the segmented circle and the
pilot will be able to detect it from a considerable
distance ahead.

The panels are painted white so as to obtain a

distinctive colour contrast between the marker
and its surroundings and to protect them against
As per ICOA the segmented circle should have
an inside diameter of 30 m and the panel width
varying from 0.90 m to 2.40m.

Wind direction indicator is generally in the form of a

truncated cone
ICAO recommends that the length should not be less
than 3.6m and the diameter at the larger end should not
be less than 0.90m.
It must be placed at distinct place away from the
It should be visible from a height of 300m.
To achieve a good colour contrast with respect to its
background, it may be painted with bands of two
colours (red and white, orange and white)

Landing direction indicator

In the form of T or Tetrahedron and is placed at
the centre of a segmented circle.
Purpose is to indicate the direction of active
runway of the airport.
It is lighted during night time.

Airport lighting
1. Rotating beacon
2. Code beacon
3. Boundary lighting
4. Approach lighting
5. Threshold lighting
6. Runway lighting
7. Taxiway lighting
8. Apron and hangar lighting
9. Lighting of wind direction indicator
10. Lighting of landing direction indicator

Rotating beacon
The beam of rotating beacon is visible from long
distance, which indicates the approximate location
of the airfield which is equipped for night
Mounted higher than any surrounding
obstruction, usually over top of terminal building
or hangar or over a separate tower
Rotated at six revolutions per minute
One beam emits a green light and other a clear

Code beacon
Mounted high enough to clear all obstructions
Provided with 500 watts bulb with a green
colour screen
It designates the airpot.

Boundary lights
The entire landing area of the airport is outlined
by boundary lights spaced approximately 90m
It should be placed 3m inside the boundary
Mounted approximately 0.75 m above the
Red marker light are used where boundary lights
represent the hazardous approach

Approach lighting
Guidance to the pilot
Transverse bars 4.2 m wide and
located at 30 m interval along the extended centre line of
runway gives information about angle of roll.
The outermost 600m length of light provides guidence to
the pilot regarding the alignment, height and roll
At 300m from the threshold a cross bar 30m wide is
provided which serves as a distance marker provide
horizon references.
Approach lights are normally mounted on pedestals of
varying height.

Threshold lighting
The identification of runway threshold has an important
bearing on pilots decision whether to land or not
Therefore the area near the runway threshold is given
special lighting consideration.
Terminating bar of red lights, placed 60 m ahead of the
runway threshold, indicates the end of approach lighting
Threshold wing bars placed 30 m ahead of the runway
serves as distance marker
Threshold itself is lighted with a continuous line of green
light extending across the entire width of runway

Runway lighting
Runway lighting should be so planned that it imparts
to the pilot the required guidance on alignment,
lateral displacement, roll and height and distance.
Precise design narrow gauge pattern
Groups of high intensity lights are placed 18m apart
on the either side of runway.
Continue upto 1140m from threshold
After that closely spaced lights are placed along the
centre line of the runway upto the other end.
Lights on runway edges are elevated type and those
inside runway are flush type(not protrude more than
1 cm above the surface.)

Taxiway lighting
On tangent portion the lights are placed not more than 60m
apart, at a distance of 3m from either edge along the taxiway.
Spacing reduced on curves and intersection to falcilitate
their clear identification
All taxiway side lights are coloured blue and usually project
not more than 0.32 m from the surface.
On exit taxiway to clearly identify the point of turning lights
are placed along the centre line of exit taxiways.
The centre line light is green in colour and placed at 6 to
7.5m distance along the straight length and 3 to 3.6m along
the curves.

Apron and hangar lighting

These areas are flood lit.
Light source is so mounted that it does not cause
glare to the pilots, service personnel, or
Flood lights should be mounted 12m above the

Lighting of wind direction indicator

Illumination is done by four 200 watts angle
reflectors placed 1.8m above the top of the cone

Lighting of landing direction indicator

Same as that of wind direction indicator