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Chemical & Biochemical

Reactions
Robert John Casauay
Rabin Nonescan

What is a chemical reaction?


Achemical reactionis the change of a substance into a new one
that has a different chemical identity.
chemical reactions encompass changes that only involve the
positions ofelectronsin the forming and breaking ofchemical
bondsbetweenatoms, with no change to the nuclei (no change to
the elements present), and can often be described by achemical
equation.

Biochemical reaction
A biochemical reaction is the transformation of one molecule to a
different molecule inside a cell. Biochemical reactions are
mediated by enzymes, which are biological catalysts that can alter
the rate and specificity of chemical reactions inside cells.

How can I tell if a chemical reaction is


occurring?
A chemical reaction is usually accompanied by easily observed
physical effects, such as the emission of heat and light, the
formation of a precipitate, the evolution of gas, or a color
change.Absolute confirmation of a chemical change can only be
validated by chemical analysis of the products!

Types of chemical reaction

Synthesis Reaction (Combination Reaction)


Single-Replacement Reaction
Double-Replacement Reaction
Decomposition Reaction
Combustion Reaction

Synthesis
where two or more compounds unite to form a more complex
product
Example:
Aluminum and Bromine = Aluminum Bromide
Sodium and Chlorine = Sodium Chloride

Single-Replacement Reaction

In a single-replacement reaction (displacement reaction) one


element replaces a similar element in the compound.
Example:
Silver Nitrate and Copper= Formation of Silver Crystals
Tin (II) Chloride and Zinc=Formation of Tin Crystals

Double-Replacement Reaction

In a double replacement reaction, the ions of two compounds


exchange places in aqueous solution to form two new compounds.
Example:
Calcium carbonate and Sulfurous Acid
This marble statue has been eroded by acid rain. Marble is a
material having CaCO3as its primary component. Acids react with
and dissolve the marble.The acid comes from sulfur dioxide in
the atmosphere combining with water to form sulfurous acid.

Decomposition Reaction
In a decomposition reaction, single compound undergoes a reaction that produces
two or more simpler substances.
Example:
Water into Hydrogen and Oxygen
Electrolysis of Water:When a direct current is passed through water it
decomposes to form oxygen and hydrogen. The volume of hydrogen gas produced at
the negative electrode is twice the volume of the oxygen gas formed at the positive
electrode. This indicates that water contains twice as many hydrogen atoms as
oxygen atoms, which is an illustration of the law of constant composition.

Combustion Reaction
In a combustion reaction, a substance combines with oxygen,
releasing a large amount of energy in the form of light and heat. For
organic compounds, such as hyrdocarbons, the products of the
combustion reaction are carbon dioxide and water.
Example:
Phosphorous and Oxygen
The combustion of yellow phosphorus occurs in an oxygen atmosphere.
The main product of this reaction is phosphorus pentoxide.

Example of chemical reaction that affects


the environment
Combustion
- A combustion reaction is which when oxygen combines with another
compound to form water and carbon dioxide. These reactions
produce heat

-Nitrogen Dioxide comes from fuel combustion and wood burning


-Carbon Monoxide comes from fuel combustion of vehicles and engines

Effects on human
Short-term effectsinclude irritation to the eyes, nose and throat,
and upper respiratory infections such as bronchitis and pneumonia.
Others include headaches, nausea, and allergic reactions. Shortterm air pollution can aggravate the medical conditions of
individuals with asthma and emphysema.
Long-term health effectscan include chronic respiratory
disease,lung cancer, heart disease, and even damage to the
brain, nerves, liver, or kidneys. Continual exposure to air pollution
affects the lungs of growing children and may aggravate or
complicate medical conditions in the elderly.