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DESIGN

ELEMENTS &
PRINCIPLES
VISUAL LIERACY

BALANCE

Balance.
Design Principles - Balance
Balance is a psychological sense of equilibrium.

Balance.
As a design principle, balance places the parts of a
visual in an aesthetically pleasing arrangement.

Balance.
In visual images, balance is formal when both sides are symmetrical
in terms of arrangement.

Balance is informal when sides are not exactly symmetrical, but the
resulting image is still balanced.

Informal

Balance
Informal balance is more dynamic than formal balance and
normally keeps the learner's attention focused on the visual
message.

Types.
There are three main types of balance,
horizontal balance,

vertical balance,

Radial balance,

Design Elements - Shape


A shape is defined as an area that stands out from the space next to
or around it due to a defined or implied boundary, or because of
differences of value, color, or texture.

A shape is formed when a line encloses an area.

Shapes can vary endlessly and can suggest physical form and direct
eye movement.

Simple shapes are remembered and understood more easily


than complex shapes.

Shapes define figure/ground relationships. Shapes serve many


purposes in visual images. Value, texture, and color help us see
different shapes

Design Elements - Value


Value is the relative degree of lightness and darkness in a design
element.

Value
Line, color, texture, and shape all need value
contrast in order to be seen.

Value is used to describe objects, shapes, and space.

Dark areas tend to denote


gloom
mystery
drama
menace

Light areas tend to denote

happiness
fun
gaiety
warmth
closeness

Design Elements - Texture


Texture is defined as the surface characteristics of a
material that can be experienced through the sense of
touch or the illusion of touch.
In visual images, actual textures can be used, such as
cloth, boxes, small objects, and natural items.
This billboard in Indianapolis, Indiana, is made of
discarded materials normally found in a junkyard.

Texture can be used to accent an area so that it becomes


more dominant than another.

Which box is more dominant? What makes one box stand


out from the others?

Design Elements - Color

Color is the part of light that is reflected by the


object we see.

The primary colors are red, yellow, and blue. They are called
primary because they are not mixtures of other colors.

Colour
Mixing any two primary colors results in a secondary
color.

Colour
The color wheel is created when the primary and secondary colors
are placed in a circle.

Colour.
Colors directly across from each other on the color wheel
are called complementary colors.
Orange and blue are complementary colors

Complementary colors used together provide extreme contrast.

Colour.
When complementary colors are used together the resulting image
is difficult to look at for any length of time.

Colour
Less contrast is achieved by using every other color on the
color wheel, such as
blue, red, and yellow
orange, green, and violet.

Colour.
More harmonious effects can be achieved by using colors that are
close together on the color wheel.

Colour
Another way to organize color is by color "temperature." Colors are
either "warm" or "cool."

Red, orange, and yellow are considered warm colors.

Colour
Blue, green, and violet are considered cool colors.

Element of Design -Typography


Perhaps the single most important part of graphic and web design
is typography.
Like color, texture, and shapes, the fonts you use tell readers youre
a serious online news magazine, a playful food blog or a vintage tea
tins shop.
Words are important, but the style of the words is equally essential