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# Informal Training on VzW/VF LTE

Phase3 DL Metrics

Alex Anokye

## 2 | Presentation Title | Month 2006

DL Frame Structure
Picture below shows a pair of Physical Resource Blocks (PRB) (1 PRB = 0.5 ms, 2 PRB per TTI=1ms)
In frequency domain, there are 50 PRBs in a 10 MHz LTE channel
PRB in frequency domain: 12 carriers = 180 kHz
PRB in time domain: 7 OFDM symbols = 0.5 ms

## One antenna poert

R0

R0

R0

R0

R0

R0
l 6

l 6l 0

Time
R0

R0

R0

Resource element k , l

R0

R1

R0

R0

l0

R0

R0

l 0

## Two antenna poert

Frequency

In current implementation, Scheduler grants a minimum of 3 (or 2) PRBs per user (more on that later)

R1

R0

R1

R0
l 6l 0

R1

R1

R1
l6

l0

R1

## Reference symbol on this antenna port

R1
l 6l 0

l 6

OFDM overview
Lets try to have a better understanding of the physical layer parameters and
frame structure with an overview of OFDM

## 4 | Presentation Title | Month 2006

Whats OFDM?
OFDM stands for Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex
Any two carriers with an integer number of cycles during the symbol time are
orthogonal to each other
This plot illustrates OFDM baseband carriers in time domain:

Carrier #1

Carrier #2

Carrier #3

## OFDM Symbol Time

5 | Presentation Title | Month 2006

Works heet

## Whats OFDM? (cont)

Try it by yourself:
Open the attached Excel file

Change the frequency (carrier #), and play with the phase and the
amplitude of the two carriers (columns C and D)
Note that, independent of the phase and amplitude you select, the two
carriers remain orthogonal (integration of product equal to zero: in cell M3)
Since the carriers are orthogonal we can transmit information simultaneously in
the different carriers by changing their phase and/or the amplitude, and we will
be able to recover the information in the reception
The phase and amplitude are defined by the selected modulation scheme and
transmitted information bits. UMB supports up to 64QAM, which can transmit 6
bits per OFDM symbol time, so it can pump data 6 times faster than BPSK

!
BPSK
6 | Presentation Title | Month 2006

QPSK

8PSK

16QAM

64QAM

## FFT & DSPs make OFDM Practical

Fast Fourier Transform mathematical algorithms (see
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/FFT), and current state of the art in Digital
Signal Processing make OFDM practical
FFT algorithms can reduce significantly the amount of operations required to
modulate/demodulate OFDM signals
Still, for a large number of carriers (e.g. 512) a very large number of real time
computations need to be performed every OFDM symbol time (e.g. 110
microseconds). This can be accomplished with DSP integrated circuits

## Why not just modulate a single carrier?

A single carrier requires a very small symbol time in order to transmit at high speed data
rates
A small symbol time requires complex equalization and/or spreading and a rake
receivers to handle Inter Symbol Interference (ISI) caused by multi-path propagation
By using multiple carriers we can make the symbol time of each carrier large enough.
This way the individual carriers transmit at low speed data rate and so are robust to ISI,
and the aggregate of all carriers still give us a high speed data pipe
With low speed data rates in the sub-carriers, we dont need complex equalization or
Still we can not eliminate the ISI 100% (see next page)

## 8 | Presentation Title | Month 2006

ISI
Even though the individual sub-carriers transmit at relatively low symbol
rates, there is still some amount of ISI, as illustrated below

## OFDM Symbol Time. Example: 113 microseconds

Multi-path delay.
Example: 6
microseconds

Inter symbol
interference. Here,
the delayed multipath causes
interference in the

## Now there is no ISI within the OFDM symbol time

Note that, even though we can eliminate ISI with the cyclic prefix, we still have multi-path copy of the OFDM symbol within the OFDM symbol
time
Depending on its phase, a multi-path copy can interfere constructively or destructively
The net effect is that for a large number of sub-carriers (e.g. 512), a number of them will be impacted destructively by multi-path
propagation effects, however we are left with enough good carriers, and by making use of coding, interleaving and frequency hopping
schemes we can live with the fact that some sub-carriers are severely attenuated by multi-path propagation

## 10 | Presentation Title | Month 2006

Exercise
The 10 MHz LTE channel is implemented with a 1024 sample FFT. What would be the sampling rate if no cyclic prefix
was used?
The cyclic prefix in our current implementation is 80 samples in the first OFDM symbol and 72 samples in the
remaining 6 symbols of a slot. How much bandwidth penalty this represents?
A reflected signal reaches the UE antenna as shown in the picture below. Is the cyclic prefix in the first OFDM symbol
capable of canceling the ISI? How about the cyclic prefix in the remaining 6 symbols of a slot?
What could be the reason why the first OFDM symbol is protected with a larger cyclic prefix than the remaining 6
symbols of a slot?
How many OFDM sub-carriers are there in our 10 MHz implementation? For a FFT of 1024, how many zeros are padded
in the FFT?

5 km
3.5 km
UE
11 | Presentation Title | Month 2006

DL Scheduler Overview

## LTE Trial Team

March 6th, 2009

DL Scheduler Functions
DL Scheduler Functions
UE1 packets

UE2 packets

## UE1 buffer status

DL MAC Processing

## UE2 buffer status

CQI processing

Fairness
UEn buffer status

DL TBs

UE1

CQIs
DL TBs

Default Frequency
Selective Scheduler

DL RB assignment
UEn packets

CQIs

UE2
CQIs
DL TBs

DL grant formatting

DL HARQ processing
OCNS

UEn

## LA0.1 Maximum PDSCH Resource Block Utilization

47.2 Resource Blocks are available for PDSCH in LA0.1 solution
Therefore maximum utilization of 94.4%
SFs 1,2,3,4,7,8 and
9
70%

SFs 0 and 5
PDSCH/SCH sharing
SF 5 every 80 ms
reserved for
D-BCH

18.75%

PDSCH/RACH
Msg 2 sharing
10%

1.25%

## 14 | Presentation Title | Month 2006

The number of RBs per frame (10 TTIs) available for data:
41 RBs x 2 TTIs (9 RBs of Synchronization info in TTIs 0 and 5)
45 RBs x 1 TTI (5 RBs reserved for RACH message 2)
50 RBs x 7 TTIs (7 TTIs without any overhead)
Max RB Utilization = (2*41 + 1*45 + 7*50)/10 = 47.7 RBs (95%)

## Max Throughput = (2*27376 + 1*30000 + 7*33368)/10 = 31.8 Mbps

Max Throughput = 63.6 Mbps in MIMO mode
Note: actual max values are a bit lower due to overheads for TA messages and D-BCH
15 | Presentation Title | Month 2006

8 REs per RB
400 REs per TTI
CFI1

## 288 REs used for PDCCH

1 Mini-CCE = 4 REs
1 CCE = 9 mini-CCEs
288/(4*9) = 8 CCEs per TTI
20 REs per RB
1000 REs per TTI

CFI2

## 900 REs used for PDCCH

1 Mini-CCE = 4 REs
1 CCE = 9 mini-CCEs
900/(4*9) = 25 CCEs per TTI

## PDCCH Format 2 / CFI 2 (Selected for Scheduler Test Cases)

The L1/L2 DL Control Channels RE are grouped 4 by 4
into mini-CCE, themselves distributed among the
PCFICH, PHICH and PDCCH
For PDCCH, the mini-CCE are then grouped into CCE,
one CCE being composed of 9 mini-CCE, thus 1 CCE is
composed of 36 RE, themselves conveying 72 coded bits
(QPSK is used over PDCCH).
CFI2 Supports 3 DL grants and 3 UL grants per TTI
DL-1 every 80 ms due to D-BCH, UL-1 every 50 ms
due to UL PC
CFI2 supports 25 CCE
Each DCI 0/1/1A/2/3 transmission requires 4 CCEs
288 coded bits
64 DCI2 bits (Code Rate = 0.2222)
50 DCI1 bits (Code Rate = 0.1736)
40 DCI0/1A bits (Code Rate = 0.1528)
17 | Presentation Title | Month 2006

Original Rank Adaptation (RA) tunable parameters
thresholdSinrMimoNotMimo: Signal to noise ratio threshold for switching mode [7 dB]
rankAveragingCoefficient: Forgetting factor for rank switching. No MIMO if output of IIR
filter = rank 1 [13 -> 0.95]
mimoSinrSwitchAveragingCoefficient: Forgetting factor for SINR. No MIMO if output of IIR
filter is lower than thresholdSinrMimoNotMimo [13 -> 0.95]
New RA tunable parameters (added as part of MIMO optimization effort)
txdiv_sinrOffset: SINR offset applied to rank2 CQI when eNB grants rank1 while UE reports
rank2 [6 dB]
mimo_sinrOffset: SINR offset applied to rank1 CQI when eNB grants rank2 while UE
reports rank1 [-10 dB]
mimoblerth: rank 2 BLER threshold above which RA switches to rank 1 [100%]

## MCS selection is based on both, WB and NB CQI values

Default Scheduler configuration is frequency selective scheduler
The Subband CQI values are sent as a differential on the WB CQI. Differential values are
from the following set: {-2,0,1,2}

## CQI Processing Rank 2 CQI Format

CW0 and CW1 MCS selection is based on both, WB and NB CQI values

## 20 | Presentation Title | Month 2006

Sub-Band to RB Mapping
In 10 MHz bandwidth, 8 sub-bands are reported, each sub-band representing
the CQI for 6 RBs (except the last one which measures the CQI over 8 RBs).

## DL Resource Block Groups

17 addressable RBG are defined as follows:

## Note: RBG16 mapped to

only 2 PRBs. All other
RBGs mapped to 3 PRBs.

## Sample bit map RBG assignments

Single User
11111111111111111 = 50 RBs
11111110001111111 = 41 RBs (in the case of TTIs 0 or 5)

Two users
10101010101010101 = user1 (26 RBs)
01010101010101010 = user2 (24 RBs)

Three users
10010010010010010 = user1 (18 RBs)
01001001001001001 = user2 (17 RBs)
00100100100100100 = user3 (15 RBs)

## 22 | Presentation Title | Month 2006

Alpha-Fairness Scheduler
The Alpha-Fairness scheduler is an extension of the Proportional Fair scheduler:

maximize

Users

i1

w i t
ri t ,

Ri

## ri t is the instantaneous rate

R iis the average rate
w i t is a QoS weight

## is the alpha fairness factor

Test cases are based on values for of 0, 1, and 2, where
Aggressive (maximum C/I scheduler) more resources are assigned to users with
favorable RF conditions
Proportional Fair (P-F) all users are assigned equal resources regardless of RF conditions
Conservative more resources are assigned to users with unfavorable RF conditions

## 23 | Presentation Title | Month 2006

Preliminary Four User Scheduler Test Proportional-Fair (CE2, MC1, MC4, NC2)

## 24 | Presentation Title | Month 2006

Preliminary Four User Scheduler Test Proportional-Fair (CE1, MC3, MC3, NC1)
Comparative Single User Test Case:

## LGE SINR Measurement Scheme

Impact on DL Test Cases
01/09/09

## LTE Trial Team

Objective
Purpose of the presentation is to
Explain UE approach to measuring SINR
Propose methodology to ensure SINR measure and CQI reports properly

## The LGE UE measures SINR

in the 200 RS resource
elements of the first OFDM
Symbol

Serving Cell

Neighbor Cell

OFDM
Symbol 0

OFDM
Symbol 0

RS Freq.
Shift 0

RS Freq.
Shift 1

Serving Cell
RS of neighbor
cells with one
and two
frequency
shifts away do
not interfere
with RS of
serving cell

Neighbor Cell

OFDM
Symbol 0

OFDM
Symbol 0

RS Freq.
Shift 0

RS Freq.
Shift 2

Serving Cell

Neighbor Cell

OFDM
Symbol 0

OFDM
Symbol 0

RS Freq.
Shift 0

RS Freq.
Shift 3

Serving Cell
RS of neighbor
cells with three
and six
frequency
shifts away
causes full
interference on
RS of serving
cell

Neighbor Cell

OFDM
Symbol 0

OFDM
Symbol 0

RS Freq.
Shift 0

RS Freq.
Shift 6

## Non Time Aligned Neighbor Cell with 100% OCNS Load

A non time aligned neighbor
causes full interference on
RS in first OFDM symbol of
Serving
serving cell
Cell

## Note that in this case not

all REs in the first OFDM
symbol of the neighbor cell
interferes with the PDSCH
of the serving cell.
Neighbor
Cell
Even if all neighbor cells
were in this condition the
SNR error would be less
than 0.2 dB.

## Time Aligned Neighbor Cell with Same RS Frequency Shift

A time aligned neighbor cell
with same RS frequency
shift causes full
interference on RS in first
OFDM symbol of serving cell

## Proposed Approach for 100% Load Test Cases

Use same RS frequency shift in all cells
By using same RS frequency shift and 100% OCNS load in neighbor cells we can
independent of the cells time alignment

## PCFICH Resource Element Mapping

PCFICH is transmitted in 16 resource elements in the first OFDM symbol
4 groups of 4 REs
This picture illustrates mapping of a single PCFICH RE group for different RS
frequency shifts
The 4 PCFICH RE group are well separated in frequency to obtain good
diversity

Serving Cell

Neighbor Cell

OFDM
Symbol 0

OFDM
Symbol 0

RS Freq.
Shift 0

RS Freq.
Shift 1

## 38 | Presentation Title | Month 2006

Serving Cell
RBs carrying a
PCFICH RE
group in a
neighbor cell
interferes with
two RS of the
serving cell

Neighbor Cell

OFDM
Symbol 0

OFDM
Symbol 0

RS Freq.
Shift 0

RS Freq.
Shift 2

LGE SINR Reporting for Interference Generated by Time Aligned Cell with One or
Two RS Frequency Shifts Away
8 out of 200 RS in the first OFDM of the serving cell receive interference
from the PCFICH of the neighbor cell
With per RE interference level equal to signal level, and assuming PCFICH
power boosted by 3 dB in relation to RS power
LGE SINR = 10*Log(200/8) - 3 dB = 11 dB
This SNR measurement is equivalent to PDSCH SINR in unloaded system
when per RE interference level is equal to signal level see next slide

## Actual Interference from Unloaded Time Aligned Neighbor Cells

12 RS of the neighbor cell interfere with PDSCH REs of the serving cell
There are 144 PDSCH REs per resource block with CFI=1
With per RE interference level equal to signal level, PDSCH SINR =
10*Log(144/12) = 10.8 dB

## Proposed Workaround for 0% Load Test Cases

Use different RS frequency shifts in neighbor cells
Set all cells with 0% OCNS load
Since all neighbor cells are time aligned in the 0% OCNS test cases, by using
the two configurations above we can force LGE UE to report SINR/CQI

## Actual Interference from 50% loaded Neighbor Cells

Approximately half of the PDSCH REs in the
serving cell will receive interference from
OCNS of neighbor cell
Therefore actual PDSCH SINR ~ 3 dB in the
case of per RE signal level equal to
interference level

## Proposed Workaround for 50% Load Test Cases

Use different RS frequency shifts in neighbor cells
Set all neighbor cells with 50% OCNS load
Set the PCFICH to RS power ratio to 11 dB
The objective is to create a level of interference in the first OFDM symbol that
corresponds to 50% loading, i.e., which corresponds to SNR equal to 3 dB when receiving
per RE interference level equal to signal level
Result for time aligned cells:
As discussed in a previous slide, with PCFICH to RS power ratio set to 3 dB we obtained
11 dB SNR in the first OFDM symbol. Therefore, adding 8 dB to PCFICH power level
lowers the SNR to 3 dB
Result for non-time aligned cells
50% of the RS REs in the first OFDM symbol will receive interference from OCNS REs of
the neighbor cells

## 43 | Presentation Title | Month 2006

Conclusions
LGE SINR measurement only takes into account 1st OFDM symbol
need to ensure SNR measure (and associated CQI reports) properly reflect