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# Review 11-2 Reflection &

Refraction of Light
 What happens to light waves that strike an object?
 Light waves that strike objects can be absorbed, reflected, or
transmitted.
 What is the difference between refraction and reflection?
 Refraction occurs if a light wave changes speed in moving from one
material to another. Reflection occurs when light waves are returned
or thrown back from a surface.
 __________ material only absorbs and reflects light; no light
passes through.
A. Transparent
B. Translucent
C. Opaque
D. Mirage
Mirrors
 A mirror is any surface that produces a
regular reflection
 Can have 3 types
1. plane mirror – flat surface
2. concave mirrors – surface curves inward
3. convex mirrors – surface curves outward
Plane Mirrors
• Light rays from a light
source strike you.
• Every point that is struck
by the light rays reflects
these rays so they travel
outward in all directions.
• Light rays are reflected
from the mirror back to
Virtual and Real Images
• A virtual image is produced
when rays of light reach our eyes
that appear to come from a real
object, but there is in fact no
object at the apparent source of
the light.
• Image appears to be there
• Plane mirrors always
form virtual images.
• Cannot be projected
Virtual and Real Images
• If real light rays from an object pass through
the location of the image, the image is called
the real image.
• A real image is produced on a screen (or some
other detector) when all of the rays from a
single point on an object strike a single point
on the screen
• Real images are ALWAYS inverted
Virtual and Real Images
• If the surface of a mirror is curved inward, it is
called a concave mirror.

## • The image formed by a concave mirror depends

on the location of the object relative to the focal
point.
Concave Mirrors
 For a real object between f and the mirror, a
virtual image is formed behind the mirror. The
image is upright and larger than the object.
Concave Mirrors
 For a real object between C and f, a real image
is formed outside of C. The image is inverted
and larger than the object.
Concave Mirrors
 For a real object at C, the real image is formed
at C. The image is inverted and the same size
as the object.
Concave Mirrors
 For a real object close to the mirror but outside
of the center of curvature, the real image is
formed between C and f. The image is inverted
and smaller than the object.
Concave Mirrors
 What size image is formed if the real
object is placed at the focal point f?
 For a real object at f, no image is formed.
The reflected rays are parallel and never
converge.
Virtual and Real Images
• An object between one and two focal lengths
from a concave mirror is real, inverted, and
larger than the object.
• An object closer than one focal length from a
concave mirror produces a virtual image that
is upright and larger than the object.
Convex Mirrors
• A mirror that curves outward like the back
of a spoon,
• Reflected rays diverge and never meet,
so a convex mirror
forms only a
virtual image.
• The image also
is upright and
smaller than the
actual object is.
CAUTION! Objects are closer than
they appear!
Lenses
• A lens is a transparent object with at
least one curved surface that causes
light rays to refract.
• 2 types of lenses
1. Convex lens- thicker in the middle
than at the edges.
2. Concave lens- thinner in the middle
than at edgess
Convex Lenses
• Light rays are refracted toward
the center of the lens.
• All light rays
are refracted
so they pass
through a
single point,
which is the
focal point of
the lens.
• Lenses with flatter sides have longer focal
lengths.
Concave Lenses
• A concave lens is thinner in the middle
and thicker at the edges.
• Light rays that pass through a concave
lens bend away from the optical axis.
The Human Eye
• Light enters your eye through a transparent
covering on your eyeball called the cornea.
• The cornea
causes light
rays to bend
so that they
converge.
• Light then
passes through
the pupil.
The Human Eye
• Behind the pupil is a flexible convex lens.
• The retina is the inner lining of your eye,
containing
light sensitive
cells that
convert an
image into
electrical
signals.
Brightness and Intensity
• The human eye can adjust to the brightness
of the light that strikes it.
• Light intensity is the amount of light energy
that strikes a certain area each second.
• Brightness is the human perception of light
intensity.
• Eyes respond to bright light by decreasing
orrecting Vision Problems
• If you can see distant objects clearly but can’t
bring nearby objects into focus, then you are
farsighted.
orrecting Vision Problems
• The eyeball might be too short or the lens
isn’t curved enough to form a sharp image of
nearby objects on the retina.
• Image is focused behind the retina.
Nearsightedness
• Eyes cannot form a sharp image on the
retina of an object that is far away.
• The eye is too long andtThe image is formed
in front of the retina.
11-3 Review
1. A __________ mirror curves inward.
A. concave
B. convex
C. obtuse
D. Plane
1. What type of lens refracts light rays away from the optical axis?

## 3. In nearsightedness, the image forms _______ the retina and a

_______ lens can be used to correct it.
A. behind, concave
B. behind, convex
C. in front of, concave
D. in front of, convex
1. The answer is A. A concave mirror curves
inward and forms a real image. A convex mirror
curves outward and forms a virtual image.

## 2. Concave lenses are thicker at the edges and

refract light rays away from the optical axis.

## 3. The answer is C. The image forms in front of

the retina and a concave lens corrects it.
Color of Objects
• White light is a blend of all colors of visible
light.
• Black is the absence of visible light.
Colored Filters
• A filter is a transparent material that transmits
one or more colors of light but absorbs all
others.
• The color
of a filter is
the color of
the light
that it
transmits.
Seeing Color
• The retina is made up of two types of cells
that absorb light.
1. Cones - A cone enables you to distinguish
colors and detailed shapes of objects.
2. Rods - A rod is sensitive to dim light and
enables you to see at night.
Cones
• Your eyes have three types
of cones.
1. Red cones - respond to
mostly red and yellow
light.
2. Green cones respond to
mostly yellow and green.
3. Blue cones respond to
mostly blue and violet
light.
• six million in the human
eye
• Not very responsive to light
Rods
• Rods require less light to function
than cones, they are therefore the
primary source of visual
information at night.
• Rod cells do not enable you to see
colors.
• Make peripheral vision very
sensitive to movement, (i.e seeing
something vague occur out of the
corner of his or her eye)
• On average, there are
approximately 92 million rod cells
in the human retina
Color Blindness
• color blindness – condition caused by
improper function of cone cells.

## • Only certain colors may

not be distinguished.

## • The most common form

of color blindness makes
it difficult to distinguish
between red and green.
Mixing Colors
• A pigment is a colored material that is used
to change the color of other substances.
• Red, green, and blue are the primary colors
of light.
• Mixing the primary colors in different
proportions can produce the colors you see
and the primary pigments (yellow, cyan,
magenta).
Mixing
Pigments
• You can make any pigment color by mixing
different amounts of the three primary pigments—
magenta, cyan, and yellow.

## • Pigments both absorb

and reflect a range of
colors.
• The area where the colors
overlap appears to be
black b/c absorb all the
primary colors of light
Section
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Question 1
An object’s color depends on the __________
it reflects.

An object’s color depends on the wavelengths
of light it reflects. If an object absorbs all
wavelengths of visible light except green, the
object appears green.
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Question 2
What are the two types of light-detecting cells
in the eye?

The two types of light-detecting cells that
make up the retina are the rods and cones.

FL: SC.F.1.4.2
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Question 3
What is the appearance of the three primary
colors of pigment when they are mixed?

A. black
B. brown
C. gray
D. white
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