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SOLID WASTE

AND ITS
MANAGEMENT

WASTE
It is defined as:
Waste (also known as rubbish, trash, refuse,
garbage, junk) is any unwanted or useless materials.
OR
Any materials unused and rejected as worthless
or unwanted and A useless or profitless activity;
using or expending or consuming thoughtlessly or
carelessly

INTRODUCTION
Since the beginning, Human kind has been
generating waste.
It could be in the form of:
Bones
Other parts of animals they slaughter
Wood
With the progress of civilization the waste generated
became of a more complex nature.

At the end of 19th century (Industrial


revolution) there was rise in the world of
consumers.
The increase in population and
urbanization was also largely responsible
for the increase in solid waste

TYPES OF WASTE

Solid Waste
Liquid Waste
Gaseous Wastes
Animal by-products
Biodegradable waste
Biomedical waste
Business waste

Chemical waste
Clinical waste
Coffee wastewater
Commercial waste
Construction and demolition waste (C&D
waste)
Consumable waste
Composite

SOLID WASTE
It is defined as:
Non-liquid, non-soluble materials ranging
from municipal garbage to industrial wastes
that contain complex and sometimes
hazardous substances

Solid wastes also include:


Sewage sludge
Agricultural refuse
Demolition wastes
Mining residues

TYPES OF SOLID WASTE

Broadly there are 3 types of waste which are as


follows:
1. Household waste is generally classified as
Municipal waste
2. Industrial waste as Hazardous waste
3. Biomedical waste or Hospital waste as
Infectious waste

MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE

Municipal solid waste consists of:


Household waste
Construction and demolition debris
Sanitation residue
Waste from streets.

With rising urbanization and change in lifestyle and


food habits, the amount of municipal solid waste has
been increasing rapidly and its composition changing.
The existing landfills are neither well equipped or
well managed and are not lined properly to protect
against contamination of soil and groundwater.

The type of litter we generate and the approximate time it


takes to degenerate
Type of litter

Approximate time it takes to


degenerate the litter

Organic waste such as vegetable and fruit


peels, leftover foodstuff, etc

A week or two.

Paper

1030 days

Cotton cloth

25 months

Wood

1015 years

Woolen items

1 year

Tin, aluminum, and other metal items such as


cans

100500 years

Plastic bags

one million years

Glass bottles

undetermined

HAZARDOUS WASTE
Industrial and hospital waste is considered
hazardous as they may contain toxic
substances.
Hazardous wastes could be highly toxic to
humans, animals, and plants. They are
Corrosive
Highly inflammable, or explosive
React when exposed to certain things e.g.
gases

Household wastes that can be categorized


as hazardous waste include:
old batteries
shoe polish
paint tins
old medicines
medicine bottles.

Hospital waste contaminated by chemicals


used in hospitals is considered hazardous.
These chemicals include formaldehyde and
phenols, which are used as disinfectants.

In the industrial sector, the major generators of


hazardous waste are the metal, chemical, paper,
pesticide, dye, refining, and rubber goods
industries.
Direct exposure to chemicals in hazardous
waste such as mercury and cyanide can be fatal.

HOSPITAL WASTE
Hospital waste is generated during the diagnosis,
treatment, or immunization of human beings or
animals
It may include wastes like

Sharps

Soiled waste

Disposables

Anatomical waste

Cultures

Discarded medicines

Chemical wastes

These are in the form of disposable syringes, swabs,


bandages, body fluids, human excreta, etc.
This waste is highly infectious and can be a serious
threat to human health if not managed in a scientific
and discriminate manner
It has been roughly estimated that of the 4 kg of
waste generated in a hospital at least 1 kg would be
infected

SOURCES AND OTHER TYPES OF WASTE


Source

1:Residential

Typical Waste
Generators
Single
and
dwellings

Types of solid
wastes

multifamily

Food wastes
Paper
Cardboard
Plastics
Textiles
Leather
Yard wastes
Wood
Glass
Metals
Ashes
Special wastes

(e.g bulky items, consumer


electronics,
white
goods,
batteries, oil, tires), and
household hazardous wastes.)

2: Industrial

3:Commercial

4: Institutional

Light and heavy


manufacturing, fabrication,
construction sites, power and
chemical plants.

Housekeeping wastes
Packaging
Food wastes
Construction and
demolition materials
Hazardous wastes
Ashes
Special wastes.

Stores, hotels, restaurants,

markets, office buildings, etc.

Schools, hospitals,
government centers.

Paper
cardboard
plastics
wood
food wastes
glass
metals
special wastes
hazardous wastes

prisons, Same as commercial.

5:Construction and demolition

6:Municipal services

7:Process (manufacturing etc.)

8:Agriculture

Wood
New construction sites, road
steel
repair,
renovation
sites,
concrete
demolition of buildings
dirt etc.
Street sweepings
Street cleaning, landscaping,
landscape
and
tree
parks,
beaches,
other
trimmings
recreational areas, water and
General wastes from parks
wastewater treatment plants.
Beaches
Recreational areas; sludge.
Industrial process wastes
Heavy
and
light
Scrap materials
manufacturing,
refineries,
Off-specification products.
chemical plants, power plants,
mineral
extraction
and
processing.
Spoiled food wastes
Agricultural wastes
Crops, orchards, vineyards,
Hazardous wastes (e.g.,
dairies, feedlots, farms.
pesticides).


CAUSES OF SOLID WASTE

The main sources for solid wastes are domestic,


commercial, industrial, municipal, and agricultural
wastes.
The composition of a city waste is as follows:
Paper, wood, cardboard 53 %
Garbage 22 %
Ceramics, glass, crockery 10 %
Metals 8 %
Rubber, plastics, discarded textiles 7 %

The increase in the quantity of solid waste is


due to
Overpopulation,
Affluence (material comfort)
Technological advancement

EFFECTS OF SOLID WASTE


a) Health Hazard
If solid wastes are not collected and allowed to
accumulate, they may create unsanitary conditions.
This may lead to epidemic outbreaks.
Many diseases like cholera, diarrhea, dysentery, plague,
jaundice, or gastro-intestinal diseases may spread and
cause loss of human lives.
In addition, improper handling of the solid wastes is a
health hazard for the workers who come in direct
contact with the waste

b) Environmental Impact

If the solid wastes are not treated properly,


decomposition and putrefaction (decay) may take
place.
The organic solid waste during decomposition may
generate obnoxious (intolerable) odors.

TYPICAL SWM SYSTEM:FUNCTIONAL


ELEMENTS

WASTE MANAGEMENT
4 Rs CONCEPT
Four Rs (Refuse, Reuse, Recycle and Reduce)
to be followed for waste management.

REFUSE

Instead of buying new containers from


the market, use the ones that are in the
house. Refuse to buy new items though
you may think they are prettier than the
ones you already have.

REUSE
Do not throw away
the soft drink cans or
the bottles; cover
them with homemade
paper or paint on
them and use them as
pencil stands or small
vases.

RECYCLE

Use shopping
bags made of
cloth or jute,
which can be
used over and
over again.

RECYCLE

REDUCE
Reduce the

generation of
unnecessary
waste, e.g. carry
your own
shopping bag
when you go to
the market and
put all your
purchases
directly into it.

CONTROL MEASURES
The main purpose of solid waste management
is to minimize the adverse effects on the
environment. The steps involved are:
Collection of solid wastes
Disposal of solid wastes
Utilization of wastes

COLLECTION OF SOLID WASTES


Collection of waste includes gathering the
waste, transporting it to a centralized
location, and then moving it to the site of
disposal.
The collected waste is then separated into
Hazardous
Non-hazardous materials.

DISPOSAL OF SOLID WASTES


Before the final disposal of the solid wastes, it is
processed to recover the usable resources and to
improve the efficiency of the solid waste disposal
system.
The main processing technologies are
compaction
Incineration
Manual separation.

The appropriate solid waste disposal method has


to be selected, keeping in view the following
objectives:
1. Should be economically viable
2. Should not create a health hazard
3. Should not cause adverse environmental effects
4. Should not result in unpleasant sight, odor, and
noise

UTILIZATION OF WASTES
The solid wastes can be properly utilized to
gather the benefits such as:
Conservation of natural resources
Economic development
Generate many useful products
Employment opportunities
Control of air pollution

SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT


Waste management is the collection, transport,
processing, recycling or disposal, and monitoring of
waste materials.
The term usually relates to materials produced by
human activity, and is generally undertaken to reduce
their effect on health, the environment or aesthetics.
Management is also carried out to recover resources
from it. Waste management can involve solid, liquid,
gaseous or radioactive substances

Waste management practices differ for developed and


developing nations, for urban and rural areas, and for
residential and industrial producers.
Management for non-hazardous waste residential and
institutional waste in metropolitan areas is usually the
responsibility of local government authorities.
Management for non-hazardous commercial and
industrial waste is usually the responsibility of the
generator.

METHODS OF DISPOSAL
Disposing of waste in a landfill involves burying the
waste, and this remains a common practice in most
countries.
Landfills were often established in
Abandoned or unused quarries,
Mining voids
Borrow pits

A properly designed and well-managed landfill can be a hygienic and relatively


inexpensive method of disposing of waste materials

INCENERATION
Incineration is a disposal method in which solid
organic wastes are subjected to combustion so as to
convert them into residue and gaseous products.
This process reduces the volumes of solid waste to 20
to 30 percent of the original volume.
Incineration and other high temperature waste
treatment systems are sometimes described as "
thermal treatment".

BIOLOGICAL PROCESSING
Waste materials that are organic in nature, such as
plant material
food scraps
paper products
Can be recycled using biological composting and
digestion processes to decompose the organic matter

RECYCLING
Recycling refers to the collection and reuse of waste
materials such as empty beverage containers.
The materials from which the items are made can be
reprocessed into new products.
Material for recycling may be collected separately
from general waste using dedicated bins and
collection vehicles, or sorted directly from mixed
waste streams.

The most common consumer products recycled


include:
Aluminum such as beverage cans
Copper such as wire
Steel food and aerosol cans
Old steel furnishings or equipment
Polyethylene and PET bottles
Glass bottles and jars
Paperboard cartons
Newspapers, magazines and light paper
Corrugated fiberboard boxes.

SUSTANIBILTY
The management of waste is a key component in a
business ability to maintaining ISO 14001 official
approval.
Companies are encouraged to improve their
environmental efficiencies each year.
One way to do this is by improving a companys
waste management with a new recycling service.
(such as recycling: glass, food waste, paper and
cardboard, plastic bottles etc.)

The resulting organic material is then recycled


as mulch or compost for agricultural or
landscaping purposes.
In addition, waste gas from the process (such
as methane) can be captured and used for
generating electricity and heat
(CHP/cogeneration) maximizing efficiencies

ENERGY RECOVERY
The energy content of waste products can be
harnessed directly by using them as a
Direct combustion fuel
Indirectly by processing them into another
Type of fuel
There are 2 types of Thermal Treatment
Pyrolysis
Gasification

AVOIDANCE AND REDUCTION


METHOD
An important method of waste management is the
prevention of waste material being created, also
known as waste reduction.
Methods of avoidance includes:
Reuse of second-hand products
Repairing broken items instead of buying new

Designing products to be refillable or reusable (such


as cotton instead of plastic shopping bags)
Encouraging consumers to avoid using disposable
products (such as disposable cutlery)
Removing any food/liquid remains from cans
Packaging
Designing products that use less material to achieve
the same purpose (for example, light weighting of
beverage cans).

WASTE HANDLING AND TRANSPORT


Waste collection methods vary widely among
different countries and regions.
Domestic waste collection services are often provided
by local government authorities, or by private
companies in the industry.

TECHNOLOGIES
The waste management industry has been slow
to adopt new technologies such as:
RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) tags,
GPS
Integrated software packages

WASTE MANAGEMENT CONCEPT


There are a number of
concepts about waste management which vary in
their usage between countries or regions.

Waste hierarchy The waste hierarchy refers to the


"3 Rs" reduce, reuse and recycle, which classify
waste management strategies according to their
desirability in terms of waste minimization.

Polluter pays principle - the Polluter Pays Principle is


a principle where the polluting party pays for the
impact caused to the environment. With respect to
waste management, this generally refers to the
requirement for a waste generator to pay for
appropriate disposal of the waste.

EDUCATION AND AWARENESS


Education and awareness in the area of waste and waste
management is increasingly important from a global
perspective of resource management. The
Talloires Declaration is a declaration for sustainability
concerned about the unprecedented scale and speed of
environmental pollution and degradation, and the depletion of
natural resources. Local, regional, and global air pollution;
accumulation and distribution of toxic wastes; destruction and
depletion of forests, soil, and water; depletion of the
ozone layer and emission of "green house" gases threaten the
survival of humans and thousands of other living species.

SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN PAKISTAN

Solid waste collection by government owned and


operated services in Pakistan's cities currently
averages only 50 percent of waste quantities
generated; however, for cities to be relatively clean, at
least 75 percent of these quantities should be
collected.
Unfortunately, none of the cities in Pakistan has a
proper solid waste management system right from
collection of solid waste up to its proper disposal.

CONCLUSION
The overall conclusion of the study on present status of
solid waste management in India as follows:
1.There is a limited focus on control mechanisms which
is adversely effecting on safety, health and the
environment.
2.Regulations are inadequately enforced and SWM does
not seem to be a priority.
3.None of the cities has an integrated solid waste
management system

Collection rate 5 1-69 % of total waste


generated.
Hospital and industrial wastes are treated as
ordinary waste
A lot of potential for recycling and
involvement of private sector which is
overlooked
No disposal facilities

Open burning of waste or open disposal is most


common practice.
No weighing facilities are installed at any disposal
sites
Open burning of non-degradable components like
plastic bags are adding to air pollution
Much of the uncollected waste poses serious health
hazards

RECOMMENDATIONS
Following recommendations are proposed for
sustainable SWM:
1.The involvement of people and private sector through
NGOs could improve the efficiency of SWM.
2.Public awareness should be created especially at
primary school.
3.Littering of SW should be prohibited in cities, towns
and urban areas.
4.Moreover, house-to-house collection of SW should be
organized

The collection bins must have a large enough


capacity to accommodate 20% more than the
expected waste generation in the area.
Municipal authorities should maintain the storage
facilities to avoid unhygienic and unsanitary
conditions.
Proper segregation would lead to better options and
opportunities for scientific disposal of waste.

An open dump or an uncontrolled waste disposal area


should be rehabilitated. It is advisable to move from
open dumping to sanitary land filling in a phased
manner.
Land filling should be restricted to nonbiodegradable, inert waste and other waste that are
not suitable either for recycling or for biological
processing