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ELASTICITY AND CREEP IN

CONCRETE
ELASTICITY

ELASTICITY
Pure elasticity is that strains
appear and disappear
immediately on application and
removal of stress.
.

Types of elastic
behaviour

There are four types of elastic


behaviour of engineering materials:

(a) linear and elastic

(b) non-linear and elastic


(c) linear and non-elastic and
(d) non-linear and non-elastic
(a) and (b) are of pure elasticity
They are shown in figure 1

Figure 1: Graph of various stressstrain response

Figure 1: Graph of various stressstrain response

MODULUS OF ELASTICITY
The slope of the relationship
between stress and strain
It applies only to the linear
types

Modulus of Elasticity of
Concrete

The magnitude of strain


and the curvature of the
stress-strain curve
depends on the rate of
loading and time.
The total component of
strain in concrete is
given as e = eel + epl +
ecr
where eel = elastic strain
epl = plastic strain

due to creep
ecr = strain

component contributed
by cracking

Derivable Relationships from


Concrete Stress-Strain Curve
Initial Tangent
Modulus
Tangent Modulus
Secant Modulus

Initial Tangent Modulus

Initial tangent modulus can be


obtained only for the initial part
of the loading curve or measure
tangent to curve at origin when
no straight portion is available.
It is defined as the slope of
stress-strain curve at the origin
of coordinates

Tangent Modulus
Tangent modulus can be
obtained at any point on the
stress-strain curve
It applies to only small change
in stress (load) above or below
the stress at which the tangent
modulus is considered.

Secant Modulus
Defined as the slope of the chord
drawn through a point on the
stress-strain curve, corresponding
to a given stress.
The given stress is about 15 to 50
per cent of the short-term strength
It depends on the level of stress
and on its rate of application, so
the stress value and time taken to
apply it must be specified.

Secant Modulus (continues)


The secant modulus is related to initial tangent
as
Esecant = vEinitial tagent
where =eel
is the ratio of elastic to total
strain in concrete.
e of the stress-strain curve on
The secant
unloading is often parallel to the initial tangent
modulus. The modulus determined by this
method is called static modulus since it is
based on stress-strain curve.
Typical range of values of 28-day static
modulus of elasticity for normal weight
concrete is given in BS 8110 part 2: 1997,
table 7.2.

Determination of the dynamic


modulus of elasticity of concrete
BS 1881: Parts: 70
The initial tangent modulus is approximately
equal to dynamic modulus.
Apparatus: Exciter, Pick-up, clamp or support
Specimen size: 150 x 150mm or 100 x 100 x
500mm
Description of the experiment
The exciter is driven by a variable-frequency
oscillator with a range of 100 to 1000 H z

Longitudinal vibrations propagated within the specimen


are received by the pick-up, are amplified, and their
magnitude is measured by an appropriate indicator
The frequency of excitation is varied until resonance is
obtained at the fundamental (i.e. lowest) frequency of
the specimen; this is indicated by the maximum
deflection of the indicator.
If this frequency is nHz, L is the length of specimen
(mm) its density, then the dynamic modulus of
elasticity, Ed is

E d 4n 2 L2 x 10 15 (3) in (GPa)

Relationship between static


modulus (Ec) and dynamic
modulus (Ed)

The general relation between Ec and Ed


given in BS 8110: Part 2: 1985 is:

E C 1.25E d 19

( 4)

The relation does not apply for concrete


with more than 500 of cement per cubic
meter of concrete or to the light weight
aggregate concrete
For lightweight aggregate concrete the Ec
1.04
E d 4.1 (5)
is relatedE to
follows:
C as

Factors affecting the modulus of


elasticity
Moisture condition of the specimen,
wet has high than dry will the
recorded varies in the opposite sense.
Properties of the aggregate although
they do not significantly affect
strength
The high the modulus of aggregate
the higher the modulation of concrete
The greater the volume of aggregate
the higher the modulus of concrete

Poissons Ratio
This is defined as ratio of the lateral
strain accompanying an axial strain to
the applied axial strain. It can be
determined from strain measurements
taken in the static modulus of elasticity
tests (BS 1881: Part 121: 183).
It can be determined by dynamic means
The velocity of a pulse of ultrasonic
waves and the fundamental resonant
frequency of longitudinal vibration of a
concrete beam specimen

Poissons Ratio (continues)


The resonant frequency is found in the
dynamic modulus test as prescribed by BS
1881: Part 5: 1970, while the pulse velocity
is obtained wing the ultrasonic pulse
apparatus prescribed by BS 4408: Part 5:
1974.
1
V
Poissons ratio
be
calculated
( 6)

can then
1 1 2
2nL
from the expression
where V is the pulse velocity (mm/s)
n is the resonant frequency (H z)
2

and

L is the length of the beam (mm)

CREEP
Definition
Creep is defined as the increase in
strain under a sustained constant stress
after taking into account other timedependent deformations not associated
with stress, viz shrinkage, swelling and
thermal deformations.
Creep is reckoned from the initial elastic
strain as given by the secant modulus
of elasticity at the age of loading.

Figure 4: Definition of creep under a constant stress , E is th

Impact of Various Components of


Strain on Creep Under Various
Conditions of Concrete

(a) Concrete Sealed from the


Environment from the Age (to)
At the age t, the measured strain (Ca) is
comprised of initial elastic strain and
creep (Ca). Hence,

C a ea O E
(1)

--------------

(b) Concrete Allowed to dry


from the Age (to)
At the age t, the component of measured
strain (eb) include
Initial elastic strain O

Creep (cb) and


E
Shrinkage (sh) and is a contraction
----------------- (2)

C b eb O
sn
E

(c) Concrete Stored in Water


from the Age (to)
At the age t, the component of measured
strain (ec) include
O

Initial elastic strain


E
Creep (cc) and
Swelling (Sw) and is an expansion

C c ec O
E
(3)

sw

-----------------

(d) Concrete Sealed from the age


to and subjected to a rise in
temperature
At the age t, the component of measured
strain (ec) are
O

Initial elastic strain


E
Creep (cd) and
Thermal expansion (ST)

C d ed O
E
(4)

sT

-----------------

Impart of Various component of


Strain on Creep (continues)
In cases (b) to (d), the values of Sh,
Sw and ST are determined on
separate (unloaded) specimens.
In equations (1) to (3) different
subscripts were used for creep
because its values is affected by
some of the stress-dependent
deformations.

CREEP UNDER CONSTANT STRAIN


This is called relaxation
Relaxation is a progressive decrease in
stress with time under a constant strain.

Instantaneous Recovery and Creep


Recovery

Instantaneous Recovery and Creep


Recovery
If a sustained load is removed after some
time, the strain decreases immediately
by a amount equal to the elastic strain.
This strain is generally smaller than the
initial elastic strain because of the
increase in the modulus of elasticity with
age.
The instantaneous recovery is followed by
a gradual decrease in strain, called creep
recovery (see figure 7).

CREEP RECOVERY (CONTINUES)


The shape of the creep recovery curve is similar
to the creep curve but recovery approaches its
maximum value much more rapidly.
The creep recovery is always smaller than the
preceding creep so that there is a residual
deformation.
Creep is therefore not a completely reversible
phenomenon, and the residual deformation can
be viewed as irreversible creep which
contributes to the hysteresis occurring in a
short-term cycle of load.
A knowledge of creep recovery is of interest in
connection with estimation stress when
relaxation occurs e.g. in pre-stressed concrete.

Factors Influencing Creep


(1) Aggregate
Creep in concrete is as a result of
hardened cement paste. The main role of
aggregate is to restrain the creep in the
cement paste and this depends on the
elastic modulus of aggregate and its
volumetric proportion.
The stiffer the aggregate the lower the
creep and the higher the volume of
aggregate the lower the creeps.

(2)

Water/Cement Ratio

Water/cement ratio influences porosity


and hence strength of concrete.
Lower w/c ratio results in a higher
strength
For a constant cement paste content, the
effect of a decrease in water/cement ratio
is to decrease creep.

(3) Relative Humidity of the Air


For a given concrete, creep is higher
the lower the relative humidity

(4) Size of Specimen


At constant relative humidity, creep is
smaller in a larger specimen
This is expressed in terms of the
volume/surface ratio of the concrete
member.
If no drying occurs, as in mass concrete,
creep is smaller and is independent of
size because there is no additional effect
of drying on creep.

(5) Temperature
The time at which the temperature of concrete rises
relative to the time at which the load is applied affects
the creep-temperature relation.
If saturated concrete is heated and loaded at the same
time, creep is greater than when concrete is heated
during the curing period, prior to application of load.
Creep is smaller when concrete is cured at a high
temperature because strength is higher than when
concrete is cured at normal temperature before heating
and heading.
At temperature below 20OC, creep decreases until
formation of ice which causes an increase in creep but
below the ice point creep again decreases.

(6) Stress
Creep is assumed to be directly proportional
to the applied stress up to abut 40% of the
short-term strength, i.e. within the range of
working or design stresses.
Specific creep is creep per unit of stress.
Above 40 to 50% of short-term strength,
micro-cracking contributes to creep so that
the creep-stress relation becomes non-linear,
creep increasing at an increasing rate.

(7) Type of Cement


Type of cement influences the strength of
the concrete at the time of application of
load.
Specific creep increases (in the order of
type of cement) as follows: high-alumina
cement, rapid-hardening (Type III) and
ordinary Portland (Type 1).

Magnitude of Creep
For practical purpose, we are usually interested in
creep after several months or years, or even in
the ultimate (or limiting) value of creep.
We know that the increase in creep beyond 20
years under load (within the range of working
stresses) is small; and as a guide, we can assume
that:
About 25% of the 20 year creep occurs in 2 weeks
About 50%

3
months
About 75%

1 year

Relationship Between Creep


and Time
Several methods of estimating creep are available, but
with unknown materials, it may be necessary to
determine creep of concrete by experiment. ASTMC 512
82 describes a test method.
Typical equations relating creep after any time under
load, ct, to creep after 28 days under load, c28 are:
For sealed or saturated concrete: Ct = C28 0.5t0.2 ----(a)
For drying concrete
-------1 / 2.64
C t C 28 6.19 2.15 log e t
(b)
where t = time under load (days) > 28 days
The above expression are sensibly independent of mix
proportion, type of aggregate, size of specimen, and age
at loading.

Prediction of Creep
This method is applicable to normal weight
concrete subjected to a constant stress and
stored under normal constant environmental
conditions.
ACI 209R 82 expresses the creep coefficient
(t, tO) as a function
of time:
0.6
t tO
t, tO
t O

0.6
--------(1)
10 t t
O

where the creep coefficient is the ratio of the


specific creep c(t, tO) at age t due to a unit stress
applied at age tO to the initial elastic strain under a
unit stress applied at the age tO; age is measured in
days.

Prediction of Creep
(continues)
Since the initial elastic strain under a unit
stress is equal to the reciprocal of the
modulus of elasticity EC (tO), we can write
t , t O t , t O EC t O
--------- (2)
From equation (1), (t tO) is the terms
since application of load and is the
ultimate
is given
t , t O 2creep
.35k 1 k 2coefficient,
k 3 k 4 k 5 kwhich
6
by

--------(3)

Determination of coefficient
k1
This coefficient allows for the influence of
curing conditions.
For ages at application of load greater than 7
days for moist curing, or greater than 1 to 3
days for steam curing, the coefficient k 1 is
estimated from:
0.118
k1 1.25 t O
for moist curing:
0.095
k1 1.13 t O
----------(4)
for steam curing:
---------- (5)

Determination of coefficient
k2
The coefficient k2 is dependent upon the
relative humidity h (%):
k 2 1.27 0.006h for h 40

--------- (6)

Determination of coefficient
k3
The coefficient k3 allows
for member size in terms
of the volume/surface
ratio, v/s, which is
defined as the ratio of
the x-sectional area to
the perimeter exposed
to drying. For values of
v/s smaller than
37.5mm, k3 is given in
table adjacent

v/s (mm)

k3

12.5 1.30 19
1.17
25 1.11
31 1.04
37.5 1.00

Determination of coefficient k3
(continues)
When v/s is between 37.5 and 95mm, k 3 is
given
t by
t O 1 year :
for
k 3 1.14 0.00364 v
s

----------- (7)
t t O 1 year :
for
k 3 1.10 0.00268 v
s

----------- (8)
v
95mm
s
When
2
0.0212

k3
1 1.13e

3
----------- (9)
V

Determination of coefficient
k4
It considers the workability of concrete in
terms of its slump value.
Coefficient k4 is given by:
k4 = 0.82 + 0.00264s
--------------(10)
where s = slump (mm) of fresh concrete

Determination of coefficient
k5
This considers the influence of fine and
coarse aggregates on creep.
Coefficient k5 depends on the fine
A
aggregate/total aggregate
,
ratio, for
A
in percent and is given by:
Af
k 5 0.88 0.0024
,

----------A
(11)
f

Determination of coefficient
k6
This considers the influence of air content
on creep.
Coefficient
k 6 0.46k6 depends
0.09a 1 on the air content
a (%):

----------- (12)

Determination of Creep
function
()
The elastic strain-plus-creep deformation under a unit

stress is termed the creep function , which is given


by:
1
( t , t
1 t, tO
EC t O

-----------(13)
Where EC (t, tO) is related to the compressive strength
1.5
0.5
6
E

43

10
where density
of test
by
C cylinders cyl

If the strength at age tO is not known, it can be found


tO
from fthe
following
relation:
f cyl
cyl t O
X Y tO

------------ (14)
where is the strength at 28 days, and X and Y are
given in Table 1 based on ACI
28

Type of cement

Curing condition

Constant X

Constant Y

Ordinary Portland (Type 1)

Moist

4.00

0.85

Steam

1.00

0.95

Moist

2.30

0.92

Steam

0.70

0.98

Rapid hardening Portland (Type III)

Table 1: Values of the constants X and Y in equation


(14) using ACI
method of predicting creep

BS 8110 Method of Predicting


Creep
BS 8110: Part 2: 1985 recommends a method of
estimating ultimate creep.
For concrete with an average, high quality
dense aggregate, the modulus of elasticity EC
(tO) is related to the compressive strength of
cubes, as follows:

f cu t O
EC t O EC 28 0.4 0.6

----------- (15)
f
cu 28

The modulus of elasticity at 28 days, EC28, is


obtained from the cube strength at 28 days f cu28
by the following expressions: in GPa:

E C28 20 0.2 f cu28


------------ (16)

BS 8110 Method continues


For lightweight aggregate concrete of density , the
modulus of elasticity given by the foregoing equations
2

in SI units
should be multiplied by

2400

The strength ratio term in eq. (15) is best estimated


by measurement; however, the values of table below
Age (t )
Strength ratio f t
may be used.
f
cu

0.70

28

1.00

90

1.17

365

1.25

cu28

BS 8110 Method continues


For very long time under load, the ultimate
creep function is given by:
1
1

EC t O
---------- (17)
Where, is the ultimate creep coefficient
which is obtained from figure 8.
Given the ambient relative humidity, age
at application of load, and volume/surface
ratio, the ultimate creep function can be
calculated from equation (17).

BS 8110 Method continues


If there is no moisture exchange, i.e. the
concrete is sealed or we are dealing with mass
concrete, creep is assumed to be equivalent to
that of concrete with a volume/surface ratio
greater than 200mm at 100% relative humidity.
An improvement in the accuracy of prediction of
creep may be obtained by undertaking shortterm test and then by extrapolation by the use
of equation (a) and (b).
This approach is also recommended when
untried aggregates or admixtures are
contemplated.