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Chapter 3:

Harmonic Response

ANSYS Mechanical
Dynamics

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Harmonic Analysis

Harmonic Analysis

Training Manual

A. Define harmonic analysis and its purpose.


B. Learn basic terminology and concepts underlying harmonic
analysis.
C. Learn how to do a harmonic analysis in Workbench.
D. Work on a harmonic analysis exercise.

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Harmonic Analysis

A. Definition & Purpose

Training Manual

What is harmonic analysis?


A technique to determine the steady state response of a structure to
sinusoidal (harmonic) loads of known frequency.
Input:
Harmonic loads (forces, pressures, and imposed displacements) of
known magnitude and frequency.
May be multiple loads all at the same frequency. Forces and
displacements can be in-phase or out-of phase. Body loads can only be
specified with a phase angle of zero.

Output:
Harmonic displacements at each DOF, usually out of phase with the
applied loads.
Other derived quantities, such as stresses and strains.

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Harmonic Analysis

Definition & Purpose

Training Manual

Harmonic analysis is used in the design of:


Supports, fixtures, and components of rotating equipment such as
compressors, engines, pumps, and turbomachinery.
Structures subjected to vortex shedding (swirling motion of fluids)
such as turbine blades, airplane wings, bridges, and towers.

Why should you do a harmonic analysis?


To make sure that a given design can withstand sinusoidal loads at
different frequencies (e.g, an engine running at different speeds).
To detect resonant response and avoid it if necessary (by using
dampers, for example).

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Harmonic Analysis

B. Terminology & Concepts

Training Manual

Topics covered:
Assumptions and Restrictions
Equation of motion
Nature of harmonic loads
Complex displacements
Solution methods

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Theory

Assumptions & Restrictions

Training Manual

The entire structure has constant or frequency-dependent stiffness,


damping, and mass effects.
All loads and displacements vary sinusoidally at the same known
frequency (although not necessarily in phase).
Acceleration, bearing, and moment loads are assumed to be real (inphase) only.

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Theory

Development

Training Manual

Start with the linear general equation of motion:

M u C u K u F
Assume [F] and {u} are harmonic with frequency :

F Fmax ei eit
u umax ei eit
Fmax cos i sin e i t
umax cos i sin e i t
F1 i F2 e i t
u 1 i u2 e i t
Note: The symbols an differentiate the input from the output:
= input (a.k.a. imposed) circular frequency
= output (a.k.a. natural) circular frequency
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Theory

Development

Training Manual

Take two time derivatives:

u
u
u

i
2

u 1 i u2 eit
u 1 i u2 eit
u 1 i u2 eit

Substitute and simplify:

M u C u K u F
2 M u 1 i u2 ei t
i C u 1 i u2 ei t
K u 1 i u2 ei t F 1 i F2 e i t
2 M i C K u 1 iu2 F 1 i F2
This can then be solved using one of two methods.
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Theory

Development

Training Manual

The full method solves the system of simultaneous equations directly


using a static solver designed for complex arithmetic:
c denotes a complex matrix or vector

K c uc
Fc
2 M i C K u 1 i u2 F 1 i F2

K c uc Fc

The mode-superposition method expresses the displacements as a


linear combination of mode shapes (see Theory Reference for
details).

M i C K u iu F i F
2


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i 2 j j 2j y jc f jc
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Theory

Solution Methods

Training Manual

FULL

MSUP

Exact solution.

Approximate solution; accuracy depends in


part on whether an adequate number of
modes have been extracted to represent
the harmonic response.

Generally slower than MSUP.

Generally faster than FULL.

Supports all types of loads and boundary


conditions.

Does not support nonzero imposed


harmonic displacements.

Solution points must be equally distributed


across the frequency domain.

Solution points may be either equally


distributed across the frequency domain or
clustered about the natural frequencies of
the structure.

Solves the full system of simultaneous


Solves an uncoupled system of equations
equations using the Sparse matrix solver for
by performing a linear combination of
complex arithmetic.
orthogonal vectors (mode shapes).

Prestressing is not available in either method in ANSYS Workbench 12.0.


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Theory

Nature of Harmonic Loads

Training Manual

Multiple loads and boundary


conditions may be input, each with
different amplitude and phase
angles (interpreted as lag angle).

xi X i sin t i
where X amplitude

freqency
phase angle

All loads and displacements, both


input and output, are assumed to
occur at the same frequency.
Calculated displacements will be
complex if
damping is specified or
applied load is complex.
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Remarks & Comments

Resonance

Training Manual

When the imposed frequency


approaches a natural frequency in
the direction of excitation, a
phenomenon known as resonance
occurs.
This can be seen in the figures on
the right for a 1-DOF system
subjected to a harmonic force for
various amounts of damping.

The following will be observed:


an increase in damping decreases
the amplitude of the response for all
imposed frequencies,
a small change in damping has a
large effect on the response near
resonance, and
the phase angle always passes
through 90 at resonance for any
amount of damping.
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Remarks & Comments

Contact Regions

Training Manual

Contact regions are available in harmonic analysis; however, since


this is a purely linear analysis, contact behavior will differ for the
nonlinear contact types, as shown below:
Linear Dynamic Analysis
Contact Type

Static Analysis

Bonded

Initially Touching

Inside Pinball Region

Outside Pinball
Region

Bonded

Bonded

Bonded

Free

No Separation

No Separation

No Separation

No Separation

Free

Rough

Rough

Bonded

Free

Free

Frictionless

Frictionless

No Separation

Free

Free

Frictional

Frictional

Free

Free

= 0, No Separation
> 0, Bonded

Contact behavior will reduce to its linear counterparts.


It is generally recommended, however, not to use a nonlinear contact
type in a linear-dynamic analysis
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Remarks & Comments

Mode Superposition

Training Manual

The Mode Superposition method will automatically perform a modal


analysis first
The number of modes necessary for an accurate solution will be
estimated if a frequency range is not supplied.
the default range is from zero to twice the ending frequency

The harmonic analysis portion is very quick and efficient, hence, the
Mode Superposition method is usually much faster overall than the Full
method

Since a free vibration analysis is performed, Mechanical knows what


the natural frequencies of the structure are and can cluster the
harmonic results near them (see next slide)

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Remarks & Comments

Solution Methods - Mode Superposition

Training Manual

Cluster option captures the peak response better than evenly-spaced


intervals.

Evenly spaced
frequency points

Clustered frequency
points

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Procedure:
Harmonic Response

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Harmonic Analysis

C. Procedure

Training Manual

Four main steps:


Build the model
Choose analysis type and options
Apply harmonic loads and solve
Review results

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure

Build the Model

Training Manual

Model
Nonlinearities are not allowed.
See also Modeling Considerations in Module 1.

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure

Choose Analysis Type & Options

Training Manual

Build the model


Choose analysis type and options
Enter Solution and choose
harmonic analysis.
Main analysis option is solution
method - discussed next.
Specify damping - discussed
next.

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure

Choose Analysis Type & Options


Analysis options
Solution method - full or mode
superposition.
For large models (>1 million
DOF), set Store Results at All
Frequencies to No.

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Training Manual

Damping
Choose from beta damping and
damping ratio (constant
damping ratio is most
commonly used).

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure

Apply Harmonic Loads and Solve

Training Manual

Build the model


Choose analysis type and options

Apply harmonic loads and solve


Structural loads and supports may also be used in harmonic
analyses with the following exceptions:
Loads Not Supported:

Gravity Loads
Thermal Loads
Rotational Velocity
Pretension Bolt Load
Compression Only Support (if present, it behaves similar to a Frictionless
Support)

Remember that all structural loads will vary sinusoidally at the same
excitation frequency

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure

Apply Harmonic Loads and Solve

Training Manual

A list of supported loads are shown below:

Not all available loads support phase input. Accelerations, Bearing Load,
and Moment Load will have a phase angle of 0.
If other loads are present, shift the phase angle of other loads, such that the
Acceleration, Bearing, and Moment Loads will remain at a phase angle of 0.

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure

Apply Harmonic Loads and Solve

Training Manual

Specifying harmonic loads requires:


Amplitude and phase angle
Frequency

Amplitude and phase angle


The load value (magnitude) represents
the amplitude Fmax.
Phase angle is the phase shift
between two or more harmonic loads.
Not required if only one load is present.
Non-zero valid for force,
displacement, and pressure harmonic
loads.

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Imaginary

Loads are applied all at once in the first


solution interval (stepped).
F2max

Real

F1max

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure

Apply Harmonic Loads and Solve

Training Manual

Amplitude and phase angle (continued)

Imaginary

Mechanical allows direct input of amplitude and phase angle into the
Details window.

F2max

Real

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F1max

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure

Apply Harmonic Loads and Solve

Training Manual

Frequency of harmonic load:


Specified in cycles per second
(Hertz) by a frequency range and
number of substeps within that
range.
For example, a range of 0-50 Hz
with 10 solution intervals gives
solutions at frequencies of 5, 10,
15, , 45, and 50 Hz. Same
range with 1 substep gives one
solution at 50 Hz.

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure

Review Results

Training Manual

Build the model


Choose analysis type and options
Apply harmonic loads and solve

Review results
Three steps:
Plot displacement vs. frequency at specific points in the structure.
Identify critical frequencies and corresponding phase angles.
Review displacements and stresses over entire structure at the
critical frequencies and phase angles.

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure

Review Results

Training Manual

Displacement vs. frequency plots


Pick nodes that might deform the
most, then choose the DOF
direction.
Then graph the desired frequency
response.

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure

Review Results

Training Manual

Identify critical frequencies and phase angles


Bode plot shows frequency at which highest amplitude occurs.
The amplitude and phase angle at which the peak amplitude occurs
are shown in the Worksheet tab.

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure

Review Results

Training Manual

Next step is to review displacements and stresses over the entire


model at that frequency and phase angle.
The frequency and phase angle must be manually entered into the
Details window.

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Harmonic Analysis Procedure

Review Results

Training Manual

A harmonic analysis produces a real and imaginary solution as


separate sets of results.
Plot deformed shape, stress contours, and other desired results at
a specified frequency and phase angle.

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Workshop

Harmonic Analysis

Training Manual

In this workshop, you will examine the harmonic response of a


fixed-fixed beam to harmonic forces caused by rotating
machinery mounted on the beam.
See your Dynamics Workshop supplement for details
WS3: Harmonic Analysis - Fixed-Fixed Beam

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