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OCTAHEDRAL

STRESS
THEORY
M. Muneeb Ali
Malik Hamza
Iftikhar Ahmed

Octahedral Stress Theory


Octahedral Stress Theory

Material
Structural
Static
Fatigue
Ductile
Brittle

Octahedral Stress Theory


Theories of failure provide a relationship
between the strength of material subjected to
complex state of stress with the material
properties obtained from simple test (Tensile)
Strength of material
subjected to complex
state of stress

Strength of material
subjected to uniaxial
state of stress

Failure is assumed to occur whenever the


octahedral shear stress for any stress state
equals or exceeds the octahedral shear
stress for the simple tension-test specimen
at failure.

Octahedral Stress Theory


Criteria used to predict the failure of ductile materials
are usually calledyieldcriteria.
Failure is due to bulk yielding causing permanent
deformations that are objectionable.
Yielding is a shear stress phenomenon. That means
materials yield because the shear stresses on some
planes causes the lattice crystals to slide like a deck
of cards.
In pure tension or compression, maximum shear
stresses occur on 45-degree planes these stresses
are responsible for yielding and not the larger normal
stresses.

Octahedral Stress Theory


Octahedral stresses we call
the normal and shear stresses
that are acting on some
specific planes inside the
stressed body, the octahedral
planes. If we consider the
principal directions as the
coordinate axes, then the
plane whose normal vector
forms equal angles with the
coordinate system is called
octahedral plane. There are
eight such planes forming an
octahedron as it is illustrated.

Octahedral Stress Theory


Octahedral normal stresses are normal to the
octahedral surfaces, and are equal to the
average of the principal stresses.
Octahedral shear stresses lie on the octahedral
surfaces.

Octahedral Stress Theory


For plastic deformation (i.e., yielding) of a
material, shear stress in octahedral planes play
a crucial role and it is only possible to distort a
material whenever that shear stress (now, we
call it as octahedral shear stress) reaches a
critical value. This is precisely the idea of failure
criterion of octahedral stress theory.

octahedral
shear stress

critical
value

Octahedral Stress Theory


We can determine the octahedral shear stress as
follow:
Let us consider the stress state on any of the
octahedral plane, such as ABC as shown in fig

Octahedral Stress Theory


We define the area of any one of the octahedral
planes ABC, as A. If normal vector to this plane is
define as en
then

So,

Octahedral Stress Theory


Therefore , the total resultant force acting on
triangular faces (i.e., OAB, OBC and OCA) can be
written as:

To fine octahedral shear stress, we use

Octahedral Stress Theory


We use

So,

Octahedral Stress Theory


Distortional
energy
density
Octahedral shear stress

Comparing both equation, we have

Octahedral Stress Theory


Distortional Energy Density in terms of
Octahedral Shear Stress

Octahedral Stress Theory


For a tension test specimen at yielding
OR
uniaxial stress state (failure state)

Octahedral Shear Stress becomes

Octahedral Stress Theory


Whenever

Octahedral shear stress becomes


limiting for the onset of yielding.

Octahedral Stress Theory


According to the theory of Octahedral shear stress,
failure by yielding will begins when

Whenever principle stresses satisfy the above


relation, yielding is said to be initiate.

Octahedral Stress Theory


Octahedral Stress Theory
Introducing a design factor,

Expressing as factor of safety,

*Here

is Yield Stress

Thank You.
Questions?