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ELEMENTS OF URBAN

DESIGN

SUBMITTED BY-
ANAMIKA 2K6/ARCH/604
NEHA 2K6/ARCH/620
SHOBHIKA 2K6/ARCH/626
CONTENTS
•W h a t Is U rb a n D e sig n ??

•V a lu e O f U rb a n D e sig n

•U rb a n D e sig n Issu e s

•K e y E le m e n ts O f U rb a n D e sig n
P la n

•E le m e n ts O f D e sig n

•U rb a n D e sig n O f D e lh i

1. What is Urban Design?
U
R
Urban design is the making of better places B
for people. A
N
It is usually done at a scale larger than a
building, and usually with multiple groups D
E
involved. S
It is an overlapping specialty within I
G
architecture, landscape architecture, and N
planning.
It tries to balance many considerations:
physical form, functional needs, social
issues, economic issues, community
values, environmental sustainability.
Urban Design in Minneapolis
U
R
In Minneapolis, urban design can create B
long-term value, livability, and efficiency A
N
by coordinating investments in areas such
as: D
E
•• Districts around new transit lines S
I
•• Commercial corridors G
N
•• Community corridors
•• Neighborhood centers
The Value of Urban Design
U
R
B
A
N

D
E
S
I
G
N

In an era of crowded freeways, placeless


development, and environmental
problems, urban design offers the
possibility of creating places that are more
attractive, satisfying, efficient, and
environmentally sound.
Urban Design Issues
U
R
Urban designers must consider a wide B
variety of issues that affect A
N
the built environment:
D
Physical form E
S
Functional needs I
G
Human issues N
Social equity
Community values
Physical Form
U
R
B
A
N

D
E
S
I
G
N

• The arrangement of physical elements


in a place and their aesthetic character
(proportion, scale, surfaces,
organization) are the most visible
aspect of urban design.
Functional Needs
U
R
B
A
N

D
E
S
I
G
N

• Basic functions such as transportation,


economic development, and ecology must
be understood and incorporated in urban
design.
Human Issues U
R
B
A
N

D
E
S
I
G
N

• Urban design is also concerned with how


the built Environment supports its users,
such as its fit with human needs, sense of
vitality, meaning, and history.
Social Equity U
R
B
A
N

D
E
S
I
G
N

• Social vitality and equal access to


opportunities can be encouraged through
urban design.
Community Values
U
R
B
A
N

D
E
S
I
G
N

• Urban design can help express shared


priorities of the community, such as
efficiency, fairness, and respect for nature.
KEY ELEMENTS OF URBAN DESIGN PLAN
U
R
It includes
• B
A
1.Plan N

2.The preparation of design guidelines for D


E
buildings S
I
3.The design of the public realm - the open G
space, streets, sidewalks, and plazas N

between and around buildings and the


public interest issues of buildings.
4.These include massing, placement, sun,
shadow, and wind issues.
Urban design plans are prepared for
various areas :-
U
R
B
A
N

D
E
S
I
G
N
URBAN DESIGN PLAN
Issues to be considered
U
R
B
A
N
Existing development
D
Proposed development E
S
Utility infrastructure I
G
Streets framework N
And sustainable development
principles.
URBAN DESIGN PLANS REQUIRE INTERDISCIPLINARY
COLLABORATION AMONG
U
R
B
A
N

D
E
S
I
G
N
E
L
E
M
E
N
T
S

O
F

U
R
B
A
N

D
E
S
I
G
N

An example of mixed use development, with clearly defined pedestrian


areas, landscaping, and signage.
E
L
ELEMENTS OF URBAN DESIGN E
M
E
N

T
S
Urban Design involves the design and

coordination of all that makes up cities and O


towns: F

U
R
1.Buildings B
2.Public space A
N
3.Streets
4.Transport D
E
5.Landscape S
I
G
N
E
L
E
BUILDINGS M
E
N
Buildings are the T
S
most pronounced
O
elements of urban F
design - they shape U
and articulate R
B
space by forming A
the street walls of N
the city.  D
E
Well designed S
I
buildings and groups G
of buildings work N
together to create a
sense of place.
E
L
E
PUBLIC SPACES M
E
N
 Great public spaces are the T
S
living room of the city - the
place where people come O
together to enjoy the city F
and each other.
  Public spaces make high U
quality life in the city R
possible - they form the B
stage and backdrop to the A
drama of life.  N

D
E
Public spaces range from S
I
grand central plazas and G
squares, to small, local N
neighborhood parks.
E
L
STREETS E
M
E
N
 Streets are the connections between T
spaces and places, as well as S
being spaces themselves. 
 They are defined by their physical O
dimension and character as well F
as the size, scale, and character
of the buildings that line them.  U
• R
B
A
N

D
E
S
I
G
N
The pattern of the street
network is part of what
defines a city and what
makes each city unique.
E
L
TRANSPORT E
M
E
N
 Transport systems connect T
the parts of cities and help S
shape them, and enable
movement throughout the O
city.  They include road, F
rail, bicycle, and
pedestrian networks, and U
together form the total R
movement system of a B
city.  A
N

The balance of these various transport D


systems is what helps define the E
quality and character of cities, and S
makes them either friendly or hostile I
to pedestrians.  G
The best cities are the ones that N
elevate the experience of the
pedestrian while minimizing the
dominance of the private automobile.
E
L
LANDSCAPE E
M
E
• N
The landscape is the T
S
green part of the city
that weaves throughout O
- in the form of urban F
parks, street trees,
U
plants, flowers, and R
water in many forms. B
• A
N

D
E
The landscape helps define S
the character and beauty of I
a city and creates soft, G
N
contrasting spaces and
elements. 
E
L
ADDITIONAL ELEMENTS ADDRESSED BY URBAN DESIGN E
M
E
N
T
o Signage S

o Lighting O
F
o Parking
o Landscaping U
R
o Service areas B
A
o Fencing N
o Building materials D
E
o Building S
articulation I
G
o Transportation N
E
L
E
M
E
N
T
S

O
F

U
R
B
A
N

D
E
S
I
G
N
Neighborhood scene with pedestrian ways,
building articulation & landscaping
E
Signage L
E
M
E
N
T
S
W h e n ch o o sin g a sig n o n e m u st
co n sid e r se ve ra la sp e cts su ch a s O
th e d e sire d size , typ e a n d F
p la ce m e n t o f a sig n . U
H o w m u ch sp a ce d o yo u h a ve to R
co n stru ct a sig n ? B
A
N
• If you have limited space you should consider constructing a D
wall, canopy or awning sign. If the site is large enough to E
construct a monument sign you should do so in addition to S
wall, canopy or awning signs. I
G
• N
• Architecturally integrate all signs with their surroundings in
terms of size, shape, color, texture and lighting so that they
are complementary to the overall design of the building and
are not in visual competition with other signs in the area.
E
L
E
Lighting M
E
N
Lighting is an important T
element in Urban Design. S
When considering a O
lighting design, one must F
take into account the
type of light needed for U
the specific purpose of R
the site. B
A
N

D
E
•Is the light designed to enhance security to the S
I
property, provide ambiance, aid drivers by G
N
increasing visibility on roadways, or used
simply to illuminate a sign?
•Consult the UDC to determine the proper lighting

for your structure or site.


E
L
E
Parking M
E
N
T
S
Pa rkin g is a n
e sse n tia l e le m e n t O
F
in re g a rd s to u rb a n
d e sig n a n d tra ffic U
R
circu la tio n . B
A
N

D
 A parking plan should be developed for each site E
prior to development (consult the UDC). The type S
I
and number of parking spaces should reflect the G
desired uses of each site. N
 Landscaping of parking areas is also recommended
to provide shade, enhance the beauty of a site,
and allow for a reduction in storm-water runoff.
E
Service Areas L
E
M
E
N
T
S

O
F

U
R
B
A
N
When considering the placement of service
D
areas one should remember the old maxim, E
“out of sight, out of mind.” Service areas S
should be oriented towards the rear of the I
G
building to minimize visual eyesores. N
In addition service areas should be screened
from public view, and the best way to do this
is to build a solid fence around the service
area in the same style as the building to
E
Fencing L
E
M
E
N
It is to e ve ryo n e ’ s T
a d va n ta g e to co n stru ct, S
a n d m a in ta in g o o d so lid O
fe n ce s b e tw e e n tw o F
a b u ttin g p ro p e rtie s,
U
e sp e cia lly w h e n th e R
a b u ttin g p ro p e rtie s a re n o t B
u n d e r th e sa m e zo n in g A
cla ssifica tio n . N

D
E
 Chain-link and barbed- S
wire fences are I
discouraged as building G
materials in many N
areas of Baton Rouge.
Wood and masonry
fences are preferred.
E
Building Materials L
E
M
E
N
Fa ça d e tre a tm e n t a n d T
th e a rch ite ctu ra l d e ta il S
o f b u ild in g s co n trib u te O
sig n ifica n tly to th e w a y F
a b u ild in g ‘ re a d s’ fro m U
th e stre e t a n d to th e R
B
ch a ra cte r a n d co n tin u ity A
o f th e stre e tsca p e . N

D
The composition and detailing of the building E
S
façade also has an impact on the apparent I
bulk and scale of a building. G
It is important when considering the design of N
new development that the predominant
patterns, compositions and articulation of
facades reinforces the character and
E
L
E
M
E
N
Design consideration is to be given to the T
S
underlying building materials that O
contribute to the character of a building. F

Such things include roof shape, pitch and U


R
overhangs; entry porches, verandas, B
A
balconies and terraces; materials, finishes, N
fixtures, patterns, fenestrations, colors D
E
and detailing; the location and proportion S
of windows and doors. I
G
 N
E
L
E
Building Articulation M
E
N
B u ild in g a rticu la tio n re fe rs to T
th e th re e d im e n sio n a l S
m o d e lin g o f a b u ild in g a n d its O
su rfa ce s, g ivin g e m p h a sis to F
a rch ite ctu ra le le m e n ts
U
( windows , balconies , porches , R
e n trie s, e tc .) th a t cre a te a B
co m p le m e n ta ry p a tte rn o r A
rh yth m , d ivid in g la rg e N
b u ild in g s in to sm a lle r D
id e n tifia b le p ie ce s. E
S
 Building articulation establishes the building’s street I
address, its response to the local context and G
environmental conditions and the degree of continuity N
between indoor and outdoor rooms.
 Use existing lot structure to influence the design of
building articulation when development on
amalgamated sites is required to respond to the
URBAN DESIGN OF DELHI
• ELEMENTS OF URBAN DESIGN
q A city is an assemblage of buildings and
streets, system of communication and
utilities, places of work, transportation,
leisure and meeting places.
q The process of arranging these elements
both functionally and beautifully is the
essence of Urban Design.
q Delhi had a traditional Urban Design which is
reflected in the glory of 17th century
Shahajahanabad and New Delhi.
q In the course of time Delhi is becoming
amorphous aggregate of masses and voids.
T h e W a lle d C ity o f S h a h ja h a n a b a d
h a s ce rta in u rb a n fo rm
ch a ra cte ristics.

T h e Ja m a M a sjid is a d o m in a tin g
fe a tu re lo ca te d o n h ill to p a n d is
d iffe re n t, b o th in fo rm a n d sca le
fro m th e o th e r d e ve lo p m e n ts o f
th e city.

T h e b o u le va rd o f C h a n d n iC h o w k
w a s its co m m e rcia lce n te rp ie ce ,
w ith ce rta in visu a lch a ra cte r
te rm in a tin g a t tw o la n d m a rks viz.
R e d Fo rt a n d Fa te h Pu riM o sq u e
a s its tw o e n d s.
In th e p la n n in g o f N e w D e lh i in
1 9 1 6 , th e C e n tra l V ista w a s
co n ce ive d a s a la n d sca p e d
stre tch to fo rm co n tin u ity
b e tw e e n th e rid g e a n d th e rive r
Ya m u n a .

T h e stre tch w ith th e R a sh tra p a ti


B h a w a n a n d th e In d ia G a te a t tw o
e n d s h a s tre m e n d o u s visu a lq u a lity
a n d is o n e o f th e fin e st exa m p le s o f
U rb a n D e sig n a n d m o n u m e n ta lity in
p la n n in g in th e w o rld .
The following aspects need to be con­sidered to
arrive at the basis for policies affect­ing the
urban fab­ric:

1.Areas of significance in built environment.


2.Visual integration of the city.
3.Policy for tall buildings.
4.Policy on unhindered access move­ment,
parking and pedestrian realm.
5.Policy on Hoardings, Street furniture and
Signage.
6.Urban Design Scheme.
7.Policy for design of ped­es­trian realm.
8.City struc­ture plan and Urban Design
objective.

1 Significant areas of built environment
.
METROPOLITAN CITY CENTRE
1 . C o n n a u g h t P la ce a n d E xte n sio n s
I) D e ta ile d U rb a n D e sig n a n d La n d ­
sca p e S ch e m e s a re to b e p re p a re d to
in te g ra te M R T S sta tio n s, sa fe
p e d e stria n w a lkw a ys, p a rkin g a re a s,
re cre a tio n a la n d cu ltu ra l a re a s, e tc .

ii) T h e in te rm e d ia te p u b lic tra n sp o rt


su ch a s m o n o ­ra il, b a tte ry o p e ra te d /
h ig h ca p a city b u se s, sky b u se s to b e
in tro d u ce d to in cre a se th e m o b ility
w ith in th e C ity C e n tre

iii) A ctivitie s su ch a s vie w in g g a lle ry ,


o p e n -a ir th e a tre s, a m u se m e n t p a rks,
m in i-g o lf co u rse s/ sp o rts a ctivitie s,
fo o d p la za s e tc . to b e in tro d u ce d to
m a ke th e m m o re a ttra ctive e ve n
v ) C o n tin u ity o f th e sid e ­w a lks sh o u ld
b e m a in ta in e d , in te rm s o f th e w id th ,
su rfa ce tre a tm e n t, cu rb cu ts, tre e a n d
stre e t fu rn itu re lo ca tio n s, fo r
re n d e rin g it sa fe fo r th e p e d e stria n s
a n d d isa b le d .

vi) U se o f a lte rn a tive re n e w a b le


so u rce s o f e n e rg y sh o u ld b e
e n co u ra g e d fo r n e w b u ild in g s
( especially those of commercial or
in stitu tio n a l n a tu re ), tra ffic sig n a ls,
p u b lic sig n a g e 's, e tc . E n co u ra g e th e
co n ce p t o f ra in ­w a te r h a rve stin g a n d
re m o d e lin g th e sto rm w a te r d ra in a g e
to re ch a rg e th e g ro u n d w a te r a s p e r
th e n o rm s.
2. Walled City And Exten­sions

I) C o n se rva tio n a p p ro a ch to re ta in th e iii) M a n y a re a s in S h a h ja h a n a b a d


o ve ra lltra d itio n a l ch a ra cte r o f th e co u ld b e p e d e stria n ise d a n d m a d e
W a lle d C ity. co m p le te ly fre e o f ve h icu la r tra ffic so
a s to re sto re th e h u m a n sca le a n d
co n ve n ie n t livin g . Fo r exa m p le
p e d e stria n isa tio n o f C h a n d n iC h o w k
to im p a rt g ra n d e u r to th e
m o n u m e n ts.

ii) V isu a lin te g ra tio n o f m a jo r


la n d m a rks to re vita lize th e p a st g lo ry.
E n h a n ce th e existin g visu a l lin k
b e tw e e n th e th re e m a jo r la n d ­m a rks
iv ) Ju d icio u s u se o f existin g sp a ce s fo
n a m e ly R e d Fo rt, Ja m a M a sjid a n d
d e ve lo p m e n t o f o p e n re cre a tio n a l
Fa te h p u riM o sq u e a s p e r o rig in a l
u se s.
viii) E n viro n m e n ta l u p -g ra d a tio n
re q u ire d to re d u ce d e g e n e ra tive
e ffe cts o f tra ffic co n g e stio n .

vi) In tro d u ctio n


o f a ctivitie s
v ) M R T S sta tio n a re a s
su ch a s
a re to b e d e a lt a s p e r
tra d itio n a l/ cra ft
sp e cific U rb a n D e sig n
b a za a r,
sch e m e s a n d b e
h e rita g e
d e cla re d a s p e d e stria n
w a lk / rid e s to
zo n e s.
a ttra ct to u rists.

ix) Rejuvenation
and conservation
through
management
option, financing
incentives,
vii) G e n e ra tio n o f u rb a n innovative
cu ltu re a t n e ig h b o rh o o d development
le ve lsu ch a s fe stiva ls/ fa irs,
controls
considering built to
kite flyin g e tc . edge typology.
DISTRICT CENTRES
•A District Centre has been
envisaged as a focal point of a
district with the population of
about 5 – 6 lakhs.
•The components like retail, office,
cultural complex and residential
could be more easily integrated in
the same building space or area
through landscape and circulation.

•The district park adjoining to the


district centre proposed in the master
plan / zonal plan should be properly
integrated with the district centre.
•A district centre should be accessible
from the surrounding residential areas
through the pedestrian approach or by
sub­ways etc.
•Planned district centers in city can be
best utilized for creating public spaces.
OTHER AREAS
Historical Monuments
and Gardens

Central Vista and


the areas in its
North and South
Designed
environment
like Exhibition Republic day parade rou
grounds , Zoo
etc .

• Road and
nt settlements Areas along entry routes Rail , MRTS
and other important corridors ,
routes in Delhi entries , and
terminals .
2. Visual Integration
 Delhi has a tremendous diversity of built form, color, scale
and texture with a heterogeneous end product from
aesthetic point of view.
 The important mass movement corridors i.e., Ring road/Outer
ring road and major radials are used by city dwellers for
internal city commuting.
 These movement corridors along with newly introduced MRTS
corridors have potential to acquire an additional dimension
of visual quality and integration.
 Other important elements for the integration of different parts
of the city, planned at different times are
(i) Flora i.e. tree plantation continuance of ‘New Delhi
character’ to other parts of the metropolis and linking open
space
(ii) Harmonious treatment for major ecological features i.e.
the Ridge and the River Yamuna.

3. TALL BUILDINGS

 Present policy regarding tall buildings is based on


height restriction for buildings in different use
zones, which is not amenable to deliberate urban
form.
 The height of buildings (above and below the
ground) needs to be seen in the light of modern
technology with due consideration for natural
disasters like earth­quakes, floods etc.
 However, restrictions on tall buildings would be
necessary in important areas, namely Walled
City, the Lutyen’s Bungalow Zone, Civil Lines and
North Delhi University campus.
 No new tall building should be allowed in any area
without an Urban Design scheme.
4 URBAN CORRIDORS

D e lh iw ith h u g e in tra city trip le n g th s a n d in cre a sin g n u m b e r o f p e rso n a lize d


ve h icle s, fe w im p e ra tive s ca n n o t b e ig n o re d fo r its su sta in a b le a n d h e a lth y
g ro w th . S u ch a s m o re d e p e n d e n cy o n e fficie n t, co n ve n ie n t a n d sa fe m o d e s o f
p u b lic tra n sp o rt, lin kin g la rg e n u m b e r o f w o rk ce n te rs w ith re sid e n tia la re a s
a n d o ve r­a lld isin ce n tive s fo r p riva te ve h icle o w n e rsh ip .
CITY GATEWAYS
Road:

 Preferably locate non-residential public buildings with pleasing


appearances on entry corridors.
 Attractive landscape to be developed in accordance with the
highway landscape norms.
 Segregation of goods and passenger vehicles at the entry point
through separate lanes and improving the visual environment.

R a il:
• E n h a n cin g visu a l exp e rie n ce fo r co m m u te rs th ro u g h a p p ro p ria te
la n d sca p e a lo n g ra ilw a y tra cks.
• R e co n stru ctio n / re d e ve lo p m e n t o f existin g sta tio n s to b e
u n d e rta ke n th ro u g h co m p re h e n sive U rb a n D e sig n sch e m e s.
• A ttra ctive d e sig n s m a y b e e vo lve d fo r n e w sta tio n s.

A ir:
• N a tu ra l & b u ilt e n viro n m e n t to b e re vita lize d to g ive a n im p re ssio n
o f g lo b a lcity.
• T h e o ve r­a ll g re e n co ve r in th is zo n e sh o u ld b e e n h a n ce d a n d
p ro te cte d .
MRTS CORRIDOR


In prior master plans, city structure was thought in terms of
hierarchies with CBD, District Center and Community
Centers in descending order of importance. But with due
course of  development and introduction of MRTS, need is
felt to connect these scattered districts with more
imaginable components. These components with enhanced
built up areas and activities form a network by which the
experience of various district and commercial centers
becomes a part of continued experience.
5 SERVICES

•T h e o rg a n iza tio n o f se rvice s m a ke s th e city to w o rk


a lo n g w ith th e b u ild in g s a n d th e o p e n sp a ce s.

•S e rvice s a n d p u b lic a m e n itie s sh o u ld , th e re fo re , b e


p ro vid e d in a co o rd in a te d w a y , co n fo rm in g to th e
N a tio n a l B u ild in g C o d e , w h e re ve r a p p lica b le .
PUBLIC AMENITIES PARKING
Access to the parking should
be well defined and conducive
to its usage, whether it is at
the surface or under­ground.
Basement parking lots need to
be structured legibly and
access to vertical cores
clearly defined. Surface
parking should be located in a
manner that it does not
diminish or hinder the
continuity and homogeneity of
the spatial and pedestrian
movement.

 The clean, litter free public spaces add


to the pleasant built environment.
Thus the design, location and
maintenance of public amenities such
as public toilets, garbage bins, bus
stops, etc. determine the quality of
HOARDINGS, STREET FURNITURE &
SIGNAGES

H o a rd in g s, sig n b o a rd s, d ire ctio n a l b o a rd s, b ill b o a rd s, n e o n sig n b a rd s,


b a llo o n s, b a n n e rs e tc . h a ve b e co m e sym b o ls o f p re se n t d a y u rb a n ca p e a n d
im p o rta n t in stru m e n ts o f o u t­d o o r p u b licity a n d p u b lic in fo rm a tio n T h e se , if
lo ca te d p ro p e rly a n d a e sth e tica lly , to fit in to th e to ta l sch e m e o f U rb a n
D e sig n , m a y e n h a n ce th e visu a l q u a lity o f th e city.
O th e r­w ise , th e se m a y ca u se h a za rd s, o b stru ctio n a n d visu a lp o llu tio n e tc .
STREET FURNITURE & SIGNAGES ROAD SIGNAGES & SAFETY

•Provision of adequate
pedestrian facilities.
•Removal of encroachments
from footpaths.
•Improvement in accident
handling and reporting.

Public art is an important part of the


urban spatial experience, which can be
incorporated, in the form of functional
objects such as street furniture and
paving designs. Street furniture and
signage's should be designed sensitively
considering the land use, intensity of
activity and other identified design
districts. Their design must also reflect
respect to pedestrians and physically
challenged people.
7 PEDESTRIAN FRIENDLY CITY

 Major work centers, where large number of pedestrian


networks emerge and culminate should have
enhanced facilities for the pedestrians. Pedestrian
networks affect spaces in a very distinctive way.
Establishment of pedestrian networks in any area
reveals its vitality. They provide richness in terms of
spatial experience and community inter­action etc.
8 URBAN DESIGN SCHEME

•In case of development / redevelopment of


an area of around 4 ha.
•An Urban Design scheme

shall be prepared for approval by the


competent authority.