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and Standard

Deviation

Submitted to :

Dr Rakesh Jain

Mechanical Engg Deptt.

MNIT Jaipur

Submitted By:

Mohit Vats

2013PIE5090

CENTRAL TENDECY

Central Tendency is the middle

point of a distribution. Measure of

central tendency are also called

measure of location.

The measure of central tendency :

Mean

Median

Mode

Mean

The

Average

Median

average

of

the

numbers

in

the

middle

Mode

occurs most

MEAN (Average)

The mean (or average) is the most

popular and well known measure of

central tendency. Mean is the

average of a set of data. To calculate

the mean , find the sum of data and

then divide by the number of data.

sum of all data values

Mean =

number of data values

x

n

Where

x is the mean of the set of x values of sample.

n is the number of x values of sample.

X

N

Where

is the mean of the sett of x values of population.

N is the number of x values of population.

STAT FAMILY ?

Sam

Sana

Age 30

Sandra

Sandy

28

11

Sara

Mean =

30 + 28 + 11 + 5 + 1

5

= 15

as part of calculation.

tendency where the sum of the deviation of

each value from the mean is always zero.

MEDIAN (Middle)

Median is the middle number in a set of a

data when the data is arranged in numerical

order .

Steps to find median :

1. Arrange the numbers either in ascending

or descending order.

2. Then find the number that is in the

middle.

Susanne

Sara

Age

Sandy

Sam

11

Sandra

28

30

Sam

Susanne

Age

30

1

Sandra

28

Sandy

11

Sara

5

MEDIAN

Sam

Age 30

Sandra

28

Sandy

11

Sara

5

Susanne

1

Median = (N+1) th term

2

So in the stat family median will be (5+1)/2=3 term i.e. 11.

Sam

Age 30

Sandra

28

Sandy

11

Sara

9

Susanne

2

Sana

1

Median =

( N) +1th term + (N)th term

2

2

2

. Now in the family {(N/2) + 1} and {N/2} term are 4 and 3 respectively and median will be

there average i.e.

Median

11+ 9

2

= 10

values

description.

data set as part of calculation.

The Mode is the Number that occurs the

most. It is the piece of data that occurs

most frequently in the data set.

One mode

More than one mode

No mode

One Mode

here as :

12

14 13 8 13

Age of two child is same and occurring twice

i.e.

13

In a group of children there age is given here as :

11 11 13 8 13

For this group of children the mode will be more

than one i.e. 11 and 13

No mode

In a another group of children there age is given

here as :

11 10 12 8 13

This group has no mode.

values.

repetitive.

they are difficult to interpret and compare.

Standard Deviation

Standard Deviation shows the variation

in data. If the data is close together, the

standard deviation will be small. If the data

is spread out, the standard deviation will be

large.

Standard Deviation is often denoted by

.

Standard Deviation

Find the variance.

a) Find the mean of the data.

b) Subtract the mean from each value.

c) Square each deviation of the mean.

d) Find the sum of the squares.

e) Divide the total by the number of

items.

Take the square root of the variance

population

The standard deviation formula can be represented using Sigma Notation:

(x )

Notice the standard deviation formula is the square root of the variance.

sample

The standard

deviation formula can be represented using s Notation

s= (xx)2

n-1

deviation

In a group of children there age is given here

as:

12

14 13 8 13

so there mean is :

Mean =

12

=

12 + 14 + 13 + 8 + 13

5

deviation

Find the deviation from the mean:

Mean = 12

Deviation

12 -12 = 0

14 -12 = 2

13 -12 = 1

8 -12 = -4

13 -12 =1

deviation

Square the deviation from the mean:

(0)2 = 0

(2)2 = 4

(1)2 = 1

(-4)2 =16

(1)2 = 1

from the mean:

0+4+1+16+1=22

deviation

Divide by the number of data items to

find the variance: 22/5 = 4.4

Find the square root of the variance:

4.4= 2.09

Thus the standard deviation of the Age

is 2.09.

deviation measures the dispersion

of data.

The

standard deviation, the further the

data tend to be dispersed from the

mean.

Thank You

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