You are on page 1of 26

Mean Median Mode

and Standard
Deviation
Submitted to :
Dr Rakesh Jain
Mechanical Engg Deptt.
MNIT Jaipur

Submitted By:
Mohit Vats
2013PIE5090

CENTRAL TENDECY
Central Tendency is the middle
point of a distribution. Measure of
central tendency are also called
measure of location.
The measure of central tendency :
Mean
Median
Mode

Mean

The
Average

Median

The number or the


average
of
the
numbers
in
the
middle

Mode

The Number that


occurs most

MEAN (Average)
The mean (or average) is the most
popular and well known measure of
central tendency. Mean is the
average of a set of data. To calculate
the mean , find the sum of data and
then divide by the number of data.
sum of all data values

Mean =
number of data values

Mean for sample :

x
n

Where
x is the mean of the set of x values of sample.
n is the number of x values of sample.

Mean for population :

X
N

Where
is the mean of the sett of x values of population.
N is the number of x values of population.

STAT FAMILY ?

Sam
Sana
Age 30

Sandra

Sandy

28

11

Sara

Mean of Stat Family age


Mean =

30 + 28 + 11 + 5 + 1
5

= 15

Mean includes every value in your data set


as part of calculation.

Mean is the only measure of central


tendency where the sum of the deviation of
each value from the mean is always zero.

Mean is affected by the extreme values

MEDIAN (Middle)
Median is the middle number in a set of a
data when the data is arranged in numerical
order .
Steps to find median :
1. Arrange the numbers either in ascending
or descending order.
2. Then find the number that is in the
middle.

Susanne
Sara
Age

Sandy
Sam
11

Sandra
28

30

Arrange them in sequence

Sam
Susanne
Age
30
1

Sandra
28

Sandy
11

Sara
5

MEDIAN

Sam
Age 30

Sandra
28

Sandy
11

Sara
5

Susanne
1

Here the number of person is in odd then


Median = (N+1) th term
2
So in the stat family median will be (5+1)/2=3 term i.e. 11.

Sam
Age 30

Sandra
28

Sandy
11

Sara
9

Susanne
2

Sana
1

Here the number of person in the family is even then


Median =
( N) +1th term + (N)th term
2
2
2
. Now in the family {(N/2) + 1} and {N/2} term are 4 and 3 respectively and median will be
there average i.e.

Median

11+ 9
2

= 10

The median is less affected by the extreme


values

It is not based upon all observation.

Median can be used for qualitative


description.

Median does not include every value in your


data set as part of calculation.

MODE (Most Often)


The Mode is the Number that occurs the
most. It is the piece of data that occurs
most frequently in the data set.

A set of data can have:


One mode
More than one mode
No mode

One Mode

here a group of children there age is given


here as :
12
14 13 8 13
Age of two child is same and occurring twice
i.e.
13

More than one mode


In a group of children there age is given here as :
11 11 13 8 13
For this group of children the mode will be more
than one i.e. 11 and 13

No mode
In a another group of children there age is given
here as :
11 10 12 8 13
This group has no mode.

Mode is not unduly affected by extreme


values.

Mode can be used for qualitative data.

It can not be used where data is not


repetitive.

If the data set contain two or more modes


they are difficult to interpret and compare.

Standard Deviation
Standard Deviation shows the variation
in data. If the data is close together, the
standard deviation will be small. If the data
is spread out, the standard deviation will be
large.
Standard Deviation is often denoted by

the lowercase Greek letter sigma


.

Standard Deviation
Find the variance.
a) Find the mean of the data.
b) Subtract the mean from each value.
c) Square each deviation of the mean.
d) Find the sum of the squares.
e) Divide the total by the number of
items.
Take the square root of the variance

Standard deviation for


population
The standard deviation formula can be represented using Sigma Notation:

(x )

Notice the standard deviation formula is the square root of the variance.

Standard deviation for


sample
The standard
deviation formula can be represented using s Notation

s= (xx)2
n-1

Find the variance and standard


deviation
In a group of children there age is given here
as:
12
14 13 8 13
so there mean is :

Mean =

12
=
12 + 14 + 13 + 8 + 13
5

Find the variance and standard


deviation
Find the deviation from the mean:
Mean = 12
Deviation
12 -12 = 0
14 -12 = 2
13 -12 = 1
8 -12 = -4
13 -12 =1

Find the variance and standard


deviation
Square the deviation from the mean:
(0)2 = 0
(2)2 = 4
(1)2 = 1
(-4)2 =16
(1)2 = 1

Find the sum of the squares of the deviation


from the mean:
0+4+1+16+1=22

Find the variance and standard


deviation
Divide by the number of data items to
find the variance: 22/5 = 4.4
Find the square root of the variance:
4.4= 2.09
Thus the standard deviation of the Age
is 2.09.

As we have seen, standard


deviation measures the dispersion
of data.

The

greater the value of the


standard deviation, the further the
data tend to be dispersed from the
mean.

Thank You