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Chapter 6

Asphalt Pavements and


Materials

Asphalt Pavements and


Materials
Asphalt or bituminous materials
Combined with aggregates make
common pavement choices
Multiple layers for highways
Thin dust control layers rural roads

6-1 Asphalt Paving Materials


Bitiuminous materials defined as
hydrocarbons that are soluble in carbon
disulphate
Usually hard at normal temp
Soften when heated

Bitumens used in paving


Native asphalts obtained from asphalt lakes
Rock asphalts rock deposits containing
bituminous materials
Tars distillation of coal
Petroleum asphalts distillation of crude oil

6-1.3 Viscosity
Grades and temperatures at which they are used
depend on viscosity
Viscosity of asphalt varies with temperature
Ranging from solid to thin liquid

Viscosity decreases (material becomes more fluid) as


temp increases
Absolute viscosity is measured in Pa . s (Si units ) and
poises (tradition units ) 1 poise = 0.1 Pa.s
Kinematic viscosity measured in cm2 and stokes or
centistokes 1 stoke = 100 centistokes = 1 cm2/s
Kinematic viscosity equals absolute viscosity divided
by density

6-1.3 Viscosity
Figure 6-2 (temperature viscosity relationships
Ac 10 is harder then AC5
reduce viscosity to 1.5cm2/s asphalt A must be heated to
167 C and sphalt B only to 163 c

Temperature limits corresponding to viscosities


of 1.5 to 3.0 cm2/s are sometimes used
Asphalt A would require the plant to operated at
temperatures between 153 c and 167 c

Minimum temperature for spraying


2.0cm2/s
Asphalt B would be 156 C

6-1.4 Paving Products


Asphalt cements
Primary asphalt products produced by
distillation of crude oil
Various viscosity grades
Most common being AC 2.5, AC 5, AC 10,
AC 20, AC 40
Viscosity grades indicate the viscosity in
hundreds of poises + - 20% measured at 60 C .
Example AC 2.5 has a viscosity of 250 + - 50 AC
has a viscosity of 4000 poises + - 800

6-1.4 Paving Products


Liquid Asphalts (cutback asphalts)
Mixed with solvent to reduce viscosity
Commonly heated and then sprayed on
aggregates
Solvent evaporates
Types of grade based on solvent
Rc rapid curing gasoline
Mc medium curing kerosene
Sc slow curing diesel fuel

Solvent contents between 15% to 40%

6-1.4 Paving Products


Asphalt emulsions
Mixtures of asphalt cement and water and
emulsifying agent
Emulsifying agent breaks up the asphalt cement
and disperses it - in the form of very fine droplets
Emulsion contains 55 -75% asphalt and 3%
emulsifying agent
Grades
Rapid setting rs or crs
Medium setting ms or cms
Slow setting ss or css

6-1.5 Quality Control Tests


Viscosity
Penetration values - measuring depth of penetration of a standard
needle into asphalt cement
Ductility asphalt sample is cast in a mold consisting of two jaws
then placed in a water bath. One jaw is moved away from the
other at a standard rate distance it moves before the thread
between the two breaks is the ductility in centimeters
Thin film oven test asphalt paving materials in use are found as
extremely thin layers joining aggregate particles . A thin sample is
heated in an oven for a period of time and the properties of the
sample afterward are obtained as an indication of the rate of
aging or hardening of the asphalt
Solubility the purity of the asphalt can be checked
Flashpoint determines the temperature to which asphalt
materials may safely be heated.

6-2 Superpave Asphalt


Binders
SHRP strategic highway research program
Developed superpave standards
Widely used in North America

Research in fail or crack due to the following


Permanent deformation or rutting occurring at high
temperatures as the asphalt softens and the mix
loses elasticity
Fatigue cracking due to high volume of load
applications and aging of the asphalt
Low temperature cracking as asphalt becomes brittle
and the pavement shrinks in cold weather

6-2 Superpave Asphalt


Binders
Superpave bases specifications on high and low
pavement temp expect at geographic locations
High temp grades vary from 46 c to 82 c
Low temp grades range from -10c to -46
Example grade pg 58-28 would be maximum
temperatures of 53 c to 58 c and minimum temp
down to -28 c
Specification also require adjustments to binder
grade based on loads
Example pg 64 may be increase to pg 70 for slow moving
or parked heavy transport vehicles or pavements for ESAL
traffic loads over 30 million

6-2 Superpave Asphalt


Binders
Plot of high or low temp recorded at a site for
number of years yield frequency distribution curve
A measure of the variability of the curve is the
standard deviation
Average temp from the curve is used to specify
the binder grade
Reliability is 50%
In on e half of the years the actual temperature will be
higher then average

Temp of twice the standard deviation above the


average would be 98% reliable
In only 2 out of 100 years would this be exceeded

6-2.2 Superpave Revised


Tests
Rolling thin film oven test similar to the thin film oven test 8 small
samples are placed in bottles and rotated for 75 min while being
subjected to air streams two samples are tested to find loss
Pressure aging vessel test samples from RFTO are placed in a pressure
aging vessel and are aged for 20 hours under a constant air pressure
measures the aging that occurs over long period of time
Rotational Viscometer test measures the viscosity of the original binder
at high temp to ensure that it is fluid enough for the mixing operation
Dynamic shear rheometer test samples form the original binder are
placed between a base plate and an oscillating plate test measure the
elastic and viscous properties of the binder at various ages
Bending beam rheometer test are formed into a beam at low temp and
loaded until cracking occurs
Direct tension test indicates the binders resistance to pavement
cracking in the winter by measuring the load required to cause failure in
tension

6-3 Asphalt Concrete


Properties
Asphalt concrete
Asphalt cement
Aggregates
Air

Amount of asphalt absorption is less than water


absorption for the same aggregates usually
about 50%
Mass/volume relationships of a compacted
asphalt paving mix are illustrated in 6-9
Formulas on page 221
Sample problems Page 222 -225

6-3.2 Asphalt Concrete


Properties
Stability of asphalt concrete
Depends on strength and flexibility of mixture
Strength must be sufficient to carry the load
without shear occurring
Structure must remain intact
Main contributor to strength is friction
between partials
Flexibility important to distribute imposed
loads by deflecting slightly without cracking
or permanent deformation

6-3.3 Safety
Skid resistance and drainage of
water from surface key safety
issues
Skid resistance improves with
smaller sized hard aggregates for
surface course
Provides more contract for development
of friction force

6-3.4 Durability
Key to maintaining the stability and skid resistance over service life
As it ages pavements become more dense
Pavements fail due
Changes in the aggregates
Permanent deformation or rutting
Cracking either due to fatigue or low temperatures
Bleeding of asphalt to the surface

To prevent failure
Use strong sound durable aggregates
Use asphalt binders that resistance fatigue cracking rutting and low temperature cracking
Maximum temperature during mixing to prevent premature hardening
Maximum percentage of air voids to reduce permeability and movement of air and water
Minimum percentage of air voids helps to ensure that asphalt does not bleed to the
surface
Minimum percentage of vma to ensure that sufficient space is left for asphalt cement
Minimum and maximum percentages for vfa asphalt content must not be too high for
stability air voids content must not be too high for light traffic areas or too low for heavy
traffic areas

6-4 Aggregates
Aggregates
Coarse aggregates
Fine aggregates
Mineral filler

Mineral filler
Defined as fines
Important to produce dense graded strong material
Limestone dust most common used

Aggregates should
Well graded
Hard
Sound
Rough surfaced
Cubical
Hydrophobic (hater hating)
Free form deleterious substances

6-4.2 Superpave aggregates


Requirements
Gradation requirement include
control points for minimum and
maximum percent passing certain
sieve sizes
Restricted zone limits the amount of
medium to fine sand with their
rounded grains
Table 6-5 page 229

6-5 Asphalt Concrete Mix


Design
Mix Design
Selection of aggregate proportions to meet specification
Conducting trial mixes at a range of asphalt contents and
measuring the resulting physical properties of the
samples
Analyzing the results to obtain the optimum asphalt
content and to determine if the specifications can be met
Repeating with additional trial mixes using different
aggregate blends until a suitable design is found

Two methods for making and evaluating trial mixes


Marshall method
Hveem method

6-5.2 Marshall Method


Aggregates are blended in proportions that meet specification
Mixing and compacting temperatures for the asphalt cement
being used are obtained from temperature viscosity graph
A number of briquettes are mixed using 1200 g of aggregates
and asphalt cement content at various percents both above
and below the expected optimum
Density of the briquettes is measured to allow calculation of
the void properties
Briquettes are heated to 60 c . Stability and flow values are
obtained in a compression test in the marshal apparatus
pictured on page 234
Example 6-6 and Example 6-7

6-5.4 Hveem Method


Obtain the estimated optimum asphalt content
by the centrifuge kerosene equivalent method
Prepare test briquettes at a range of asphalt
contents above and below the estimated
optimum
Conduct stabilometer tests to obtain
stabilometer values in the Hveem apparatus
Conduct swell tests on two samples containing
the estimated optimum asphalt content.

6-6 Superpave Mix Design