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CHAPTER 8

DYNAMIC
ECOSYSTEM

ECOLOGY
Is the scientific study of the interactions
of living organisms with other living
organisms and with the physical
environment.
Why is important to us to study the
ecology?
This is becouse to provide us with
understanding and knowledge of how to
manage,preserve and conserve the Earths
diverse ecosystem.

THE ABIOTIC AND BIOTIC


COMPONENTS OF THE
ENVIRONMENT

THE ABIOTIC COMPONENTS

PH TEMPERATURE

The pH of the water and soil has a


significiant on the distribution of
organism that live in habitat.
Most organism can survive in a neutral or
nearly neutral (pH 6-7) environment.
Aquatic organism are sensetive to the
effect of pH water and they will be killed
if the change of pH are
considerable(berubah).

LIGHT INTENSITY

ANIMAL

TEMPERATURE

Affects the physiological activities of plants and


animals.
Most living organisms only can tolerate a narrow range
of temperature such as 0-45 Celcius.
A drop in temperature in a certain range usually
decrease in the metabolic activities of the organisms.
Temperature higher than 45 Celcius usually couse be
enzymes denatured.
Some species of organisms can live under the extreme
temperature for examples thermophilic bacteria.
Aquatic environments undergo less extreme
temperature changes and provide more stable
habitats.

HUMIDITY(kelembapan)
(the present of water vapour present in the air)

Humidity of the air affects the rate of water


loss by plant and animals.
When the humidity is low,water evaporates
from the moist surfaces at a faster rate.
Is usually high at night but lower during a
day.
Snakes,frogs,liverworts and mosses prefer
humid areas.
Some organisms regulate their activities to
prevent dehydration example,woodlice are
found under stone and rotting tree stumps.

TOPOGRAPHY
(Physical features
al of the land)

ti
tu
d
e
gradient

Aspect of a
region

ALTITUDE

The main factor of topography.


A higher altitude is associated with a
lower atmospheric pressure and
temperature.
Different plants are grow with different
altitudes.
Exp: pine trees can be found growing at
the higher altitude than tropical plants.

GRADIENTS

Or the steepness of a slope .


Steep slopes result in a rapid drainage
and run-off.
The soil layer is thinner and drier.
This area is not a suitable habitat for
organisms.

ASPECT

Refer to direction of wind and sunlight.


The slopes of mountains facing the direction
of wind receive more rain than the slopes
shade of the wind.
The organisms from different slopes of
mountains are different.
In the northern hemisphere,the slopes facing
south receive more sunlight than the valleys
and slopes facing north.
This will influence the natural vegegation and
land-use by humans.

MICROCLIMATE(iklim
mikro)

Refer to the climate in a microhabitat.


It is includes the humidity, temperature,
light intensity and atmospheric conditions
which the organism live.
It also influence the number and
distribution of organisms.

THE BIOTIC COMPONENTS

IN ECOSYSTEM
The primary
source of
energy for
all
organisms
comes from
sunlight.

Green
plants are
producer
becouse it
use light
energy to
systhesise
organic
substance(f
ood)

Animal eat or
consume other living
organisms.

1.They meet their


needs for energy by
feeding other
organisms so they
are called
consumers.

2.Primary consumers
are herbivores
which obtain their
energy by
consuming
producers,

3.Secondary
consumers are
carnivores which
obtain their energy
by eating primary
consumers.

4.Tertiary consumers
are carnivores that
prey on secondary
consumers.

DECOMPOSERS

Such as bacteria and fungi


They break down waste products and
dead bodies of other organisms into
simpler substances to be used againt by
plants.