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Attitude Determination and

Control

Dr. Andrew Ketsdever


MAE 5595

Outline

Introduction

Definitions
Control Loops
Moment of Inertia Tensor
General Design

Control Strategies
Spin (Single, Dual) or 3-Axis

Disturbance Torques

Sensors

Magnetic
Gravity Gradient
Aerodynamic
Solar Pressure
Sun
Earth
Star
Magnetometers
Inertial Measurement Units

Actuators

Dampers
Gravity Gradient Booms
Magnetic Torque Rods
Wheels
Thrusters

INTRODUCTION

Introduction
Attitude Determination and Control
Subsystem (ADCS)
Stabilizes the vehicle
Orients vehicle in desired directions
Senses the orientation of the vehicle relative
to reference (e.g. inertial) points

Determination: Sensors
Control: Actuators
Controls attitude despite external
disturbance torques acting on spacecraft

Introduction
ADCS Design Requirements and Constraints
Pointing Accuracy (Knowledge vs. Control)
Drives Sensor Accuracy Required
Drives Actuator Accuracy Required

Rate Requirements (e.g. Slew)


Stationkeeping Requirements
Disturbing Environment
Mass and Volume
Power
Reliability
Cost and Schedule

Introduction
Z
Nadir

X
Velocity Vector

Control Loops
Disturbance Torques
Desired
Attitude

Attitude
Control
Task

e.g. +/- 3 deg


Ram pointing

Estimated
Attitude
e.g. 3.5 deg
Ram pointing

Attitude
Determination
Task

Commands
e.g. increase
Wheel speed
100rpm

Attitude
Actuators

Actual
Attitude
e.g. 4 deg
Ram pointing

Attitude
Sensors

Spacecraft Dynamics
- Rigid Body
- Flexible Body (non-rigid)

Mass Moment of Inertia

H I
where H is the angular momentum, I is the mass moment of inertia
tensor, and is the angular velocity

H x I xx

H H y I yx
H z I zx

I xy
I yy
I zy

I xz

I yz
I zz

x

y

where the cross-term products of inertia are equal (i.e. Ixy=Iyx)

Mass Moment of Inertia


For a particle

For a rigid body

IO r m
2

I r 2 dm r 2 dm
m

dm

I r 2 dV
V

Mass MOI

x
x

dm
dm

I xx y z dm
I yy
I zz

I xy xy dm
I xz xz dm

I yz yz dm

Rotational Energy:

1
E I ij i j
2

Mass MOI
Like any symmetric
tensor, the MOI
tensor can be
reduced to diagonal
form through the
appropriate choice of
axes (XYZ)
Diagonal components
are called the
Principle Moments of
Inertia

Ix

I 0
0

0
Iy
0

H I

0
I z

Mass MOI
Parallel-axis theorem: The moment of
inertia around any axis can be calculated
from the moment of inertia around parallel
axis which passes through the center of
mass.
O

CM

d
r

I I md

ADCS Design

ADCS Design

ADCS Design

ADCS Design

ADCS Design

Control Strategies

Gravity Gradient Stabilization


Deploy gravity
gradient boom
Coarse roll and
pitch control
No yaw control
Nadir pointing
surface
Limited to near
Earth satellites
Best to design such that Ipitch > Iroll > Iyaw

Spin Stabilization
Entire spacecraft
rotates about
vertical axis
Spinning sensors
and payloads
Cylindrical
geometry and solar
arrays

Spin Stability
UNSTABLE

STABLE

S
S

IS
1
IT

IS
1
IT

Satellite Precession
Spinning Satellite
Satellite thruster is fired to
change its spin axis
During the thruster firing, the
satellite rotated by a small
angle
Determine the angle

2 FR(t )


;
I
t
2 FR( )

2
I

R
F

Dual Spin Stabilization


Upper section does not
rotate (de-spun)
Lower section rotates to
provide gyroscopic
stability
Upper section may rotate
slightly or intermittently to
point payloads
Cylindrical geometry and
solar arrays

3-Axis Stabilization
Active stabilization of all three
axes
Thrusters
Momentum (Reaction) Wheels
Momentum dumping

Advantages
No de-spin required for
payloads
Accurate pointing

Disadvantages
Complex
Added mass

Disturbance Torques

External Disturbance Torques


NOTE: The magnitudes of the torques is
dependent on the spacecraft design.

Torque (au)

Drag

Gravity
Solar
Press.
Magnetic
LEO

GEO
Orbital Altitude (au)

Internal Disturbing Torques


Examples
Uncertainty in S/C Center of Gravity (typically
1-3 cm)
Thruster Misalignment (typically 0.1 0.5)
Thruster Mismatch (typically ~5%)
Rotating Machinery
Liquid Sloshing (e.g. propellant)
Flexible structures
Crew Movement

Disturbing Torques

T H I

T r F

Gravity Gradient Torque


3
Tg
I z I y sin 2
3
2R

where:
Tg maximum gravity gradient

Earth' s gravitational parameter


R orbit radius
I y , I z S/C mass moments of inertia

maximum deviation away from vertical

Magnetic Torque
Tm m xB
where:

Tm magnetic disturbance torque

m S/C residual magnetic dipole Amp m 2


B strength of Earth' s magnetic field

M
for points above the equator
3
R
2M
3 for points above the poles
R
M Earth' s magnetic moment 7.96 1015 tesla m 3
R orbit radius meters

*Note value of m depends on S/C size and whether on-board compensation is used
- values can range from 0.1 to 20 Amp-m2
- m = 1 for typical small, uncompensated S/C

Aerodynamic Torque
Ta F c pa c g
where:

1
F C D Av 2
2

Ta aerodynamic disturbance torque

atmospheric density
C D coefficient of drag typical S/C values are 2 - 2.5
A cross - sectional area
v velocity
C pa center of atmospheric pressure
C g center of gravity

Solar Pressure Torque


Tsrp F c ps c g
where:

Fs
F
As 1 cos i
c

Tsrp solar radiation presure disturbance torque


c ps center of solar radiation pressure
c g center of gravity
W
2
m

Fs solar flux density


c speed of light

As area of illuminated surface

reflectance factor 0 1, typical value 0.6 for S/C


i sun incidence angle

FireSat Example

Disturbing Torques
All of these disturbing torques
can also be used to control the
satellite

Gravity Gradient Boom


Aero-fins
Magnetic Torque Rods
Solar Sails

Sensors

Attitude Determination
Earth Sensor (horizon sensor)
Use IR to detect boundary between deep space &
upper atmosphere
Typically scanning (can also be an actuator)

Sun Sensor
Star Sensor
Scanner: for spinning S/C or on a rotating mount
Tracker/Mapper: for 3-axis stabilized S/C
Tracker (one star) / Mapper (multiple stars)

Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU)


Rate Gyros (may also include accelerometers)

Magnetometer
Requires magnetic field model stored in computer

Differential GPS

Attitude Determination

Actuators

Attitude Control
Actuators come in two types
Passive

Gravity Gradient Booms


Dampers
Yo-yos
Spinning

Active

Thrusters
Wheels
Gyros
Torque Rods

Actuators
Actuator

Accuracy

Comment

Gravity Gradient

2 Axis, Simple

Spin Stabilized

0.1 to 1

2 Axis, Rotation

Torque Rods

High Current

Reaction Wheels

0.001 to 0.1

High Mass and Power,


Momentum Dumping

Control Moment Gyro

0.001 to 0.1

High Mass and Power

Thrusters

0. 1 to 1

Propellant limited,
Large impulse

Attitude Control