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CHAPTER 2:

PRINCIPLES OF CURRICULUM
DEVELOPMENT
Developing the Curriculum
Eighth Edition

Peter F. Oliva
William R. Gordon II

AFTER STUDYING THIS CHAPTER YOU


SHOULD BE ABLE TO:
Describe

the ten axioms for curriculum


development discussed in this chapter.

Illustrate

in what way the curriculum is influenced


by changes in society.

Describe

limitations affecting curriculum changes in


a school system and within which curriculum
workers must function.

Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.


2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights

2-2

CLARIFICATION OF TERMS
Education

is one of the institutions the human race


has created to serve certain needs, and, like all
human institutions, it responds or should respond
to changes in the environment. The institution of
education is activated by a curriculum that itself
changes in response to forces affecting it.

Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.


2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights

2-3

CLARIFICATION OF TERMS
The

curriculum is perceived as a plan for the learning


experiences that young people encounter under the
direction of the school.

This

process of keeping the curriculum running


smoothly is commonly known as curriculum
development.

The

preliminary phase, when the curriculum workers


make decisions and take actions to establish the
plans that teachers and students will carry out, is
known as curriculum planning.

Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.


2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights

2-4

CLARIFICATION OF TERMS

Curriculum

implementation is defined as the


translation of plans into action.

Those

intermediate and final phases of


development in which results are assessed and
successes of both the learners and the programs
are determined is known as curriculum evaluation.

Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.


2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights

2-5

CLARIFICATION OF TERMS

Curriculum

revision is used to refer to the process


for making changes in an existing curriculum or to
the changes themselves and is substituted for
curriculum development or curriculum
improvement.

Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.


2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights

2-6

CLARIFICATION OF TERMS
Key

Point: Through the process of curriculum


development we can discover new ways for
providing more effective pupil learning experiences.
The curriculum developer continuously strives to
find newer, better, and more efficient means to
accomplish this task.

Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.


2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights

2-7

TYPES OF CURRICULUM
DEVELOPERS

Some curriculum developers excel in the


conceptualizing phase (planning), others in
carrying out the curricular plan
(implementation), and still others in assessing
curriculum results (evaluation).

Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.


2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights

2-8

TYPES OF CURRICULUM
DEVELOPERS
To

the weary professional curriculum worker, it


sometimes seems that every federal, state, and
local legislator is a self-appointed, self-trained
curriculum consultant who has his or her own pet
program to promulgate.

Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.


2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights

2-9

TYPES OF CURRICULUM
DEVELOPERS
What

has led so many people to be dissatisfied


with so much of what education is all about? Why
is the status quo rarely a satisfactory place to be?
And why does it turn out, as will be illustrated, that
yesterdays status quo is sometimes tomorrows
innovation? For answers to these questions some
general principles of curriculum development
should be considered by teachers and specialists
who participate in efforts to improve the
curriculum.

Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.


2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights

2-10

SOURCES OF CURRICULUM PRINCIPLES

Principles serve as guidelines to direct the activity


of persons working in a particular area.

Curriculum principles are derived from many


sources:
Empirical data
Experimental data
The folklore of curriculum, composed of
unsubstantiated beliefs and attitudes
Common sense

Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.


2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights

2-11

SOURCES OF CURRICULUM PRINCIPLES

Unless

a principle is established that is irrefutable


by reason of objective data, some degree of
judgment must be brought into play. Whenever
judgment comes into the picture, the potential for
controversy arises.

Consequently,

some of the principles for curriculum


development provoke controversy, while others are
generally accepted as reasonable guidelines.

Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.


2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights

2-12

TYPES OF PRINCIPLES

Curriculum

principles may be viewed as whole


truths, partial truths, or hypotheses. While all
function as operating principles, they are
distinguished by their known effectiveness or by
degree of risk.

Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.


2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights

2-13

TYPES OF PRINCIPLES

Types

of guiding principles for curriculum


development:
Whole

Truths
Partial Truths
Hypotheses

Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.


2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights

2-14

TEN AXIOMS
Axiom

1. Change is both inevitable and necessary,


for it is through change that life forms grow and
develop.

Axiom

2. A school curriculum not only reflects but


also is a product of its time.

Axiom

3. Curriculum changes made at an earlier


period of time can exist concurrently with newer
curriculum changes at a later period of time.

Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.


2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights

2-15

TEN AXIOMS

Axiom

4. Curriculum change results from changes


in people.

Axiom

5. Curriculum change is effected as a result


of cooperative endeavor on the part of groups.

Axiom

6. Curriculum development is basically a


decision-making process.

Axiom

7. Curriculum development is a neverending process

Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.


2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights

2-16

TEN AXIOMS
Axiom

8. Curriculum development is a
comprehensive process.

Axiom

9. Systematic curriculum development is


more effective than trial and error.

Axiom

10. The curriculum planner starts from


where the curriculum is, just as the teacher starts
from where the students are.

Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.


2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights

2-17

TEN AXIOMS
Key

Point: The investment of thought, time,


money, and work by previous planners cannot be
thrown out even if such a drastic remedy appeared
valid to a new set of planners since most
curriculum planners begin with already existing
curricula.

Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.


2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights

2-18

A FINAL THOUGHT:
Curriculum

change is a normal, expected


consequence of changes in the societal
environment. It is the responsibility of curriculum
workers to seek ways of making continuous
improvement in the curriculum.

Oliva/Gordon Developing the Curriculum, 8e.


2012, 2009, 2005, 2001, 1997 by Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights

2-19