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Diesel

Engines

Akshay Ighe
Rupesh Nathe
Mayur Joshi
Amit Jituri

ENGINE
Engine

is a power plant of an
automobile which produces power and
through transmission and end drive
system and it runs the wheels which
in turns moves the vehicle in desired
direction at specific speed.

In this presentation we will discuss


about I.C. Diesel Engine.

Classification Of I.C.
Engine

Working Principle
Spark Ignition
Compression Ignition
Working Cycle
Otto Cycle
Diesel Cycle
Fuel
Gasoline
CNG
LPG
Diesel

NO. Of Strokes
Two Stroke
Four Stroke
Five Stroke
Six Stroke
Construction
In Line Engine
V- Engine
U-Engine
W-Engine
Radial Engine
Rotary Engine
Boxer Engine

Method Of Fuel Supply To Engine


Carbureted Engine
Fuel Injected
Method Of Lubrication
Mist Lubrication
Wet Sump Lubrication
Dry Sump Lubrication
Method Of Cooling
Air Cooled Engine
Liquid Cooled Engine
No. Of Cylinders
Single Cylinders
Multi Cylinders

S.I. Engine:-It runs on Otto cycle and fuel


is ignited by spark.
Types Of Fuel
Gasoline (C8H18)
CNG
LPG

C.I. Engine:- It runs on Diesel cycle and


Fuel is ignited by High pressure
Compression.
Types Of Fuel
Diesel (C12H23)

Properties Of Diesel
The chemical components or composition of diesel fuel
include 75 percent of saturated hydrocarbons and 25%
aromatic hydrocarbons. When broken down, it consists
of paraffin that includes iso and cycloparaffins as well as
naphthalene and alkyl benzenes.

History Of Diesel Engine


The diesel engine was developed
byGermaninventorRudolf Dieselin 1893.
Since the 1910s they have been used
insubmarinesand ships.
In the 1930s, they slowly began to be used
in fewautomobiles.
Since the 1970s, the use of diesel engines
in larger on-road andoff-road vehicles
increased.

Engine Terminology

Top

Dead Center (TDC): The


topmost position of the piston in
the engine cylinder.
Bottom Dead Center (BDC):
The bottommost position of the
piston in the engine cylinder.
Cylinder Bore (D): The
cylindrical barrel shaped passage
in which the piston reciprocates.

Stroke

(s): The distance


travelled by the piston from TDC
to BDC.
Clearance volume(Vc): The
volume remaining between
piston and cylinder when the
piston is at top dead centre.
Swept volume(Vs): The
volume of a cylinder swept by
the piston while moving from
one dead centre to another.

Total

volume (Vt): Swept volume +


Clearance volume = Total volume.
(Vs + Vc=Vt).
Cubic Capacity (CC): Cubic
capacity is the total volume of the
engine cylinders taken by piston
movement (piston stroke).

Diesel Cycle

P-V Diagram:

A-B: Compression.
B-C: Ignition.
C-D: Expansion.
D-A: Exhaust.

T-S Diagram:
A-B: Adiabatic compression.
B-C: Isobaric ignition.
C-D: Adiabatic expansion.
D-A: Isobaric exhaust.

Crankshaft:-

Thecrankshaft,
sometimes called ascrank, is the
part of anenginethat translates
reciprocatinglinearpistonmotion
into rotation.

Camshaft:- It is a rotating shaft with one or


more cams fastened to it. It is used to
operate valves of internal combustion
engines.

Connecting rod:- In a
reciprocatingpiston engine,
theconnecting rod connects thepistonto
thecrank orcrankshaft. Together with the
crank, they form a simple mechanism that
converts reciprocating motion into rotating
motion.

Piston:-It is a reciprocating component of


engine used to transfer force from
expanding gas in the cylinder to
thecrankshaftvia aconnecting rod.

Valves:-

Intake valve:-The intake valve opens to allow


the fresh air into the combustion chamber
then closes to seal the chamber during
compression and power stroke.
Exhaust valve:-The intake valve opens to
allow the burnt gases to emit out of the
combustion chamber then closes to seal the
chamber during compression and power
stroke.

Valve
Stem

Valv
e
Spri
ng
Intak
e
Port

Exha
ust
Port

Valv
e

Valve
Seat

Fuel

injector:- Fuel injector is a


main component of diesel engine. It
injects high pressure fuel into the
combustion chamber in atomized
form.

Working Principle of
Compression Ignition

Definition : The concept behind


compression ignition involves using the
latent heat built up by highly compressing
air inside a combustion chamber as the
means for igniting fuel.
Charge of air gets compressed inside enclosed
chamber. (compression ratio 21:1)
Generation of tremendous heat and pressure
inside chamber.
Precise quantity of diesel fuel is sprayed under
high pressure (atomisation) into compressed air
inside chamber.
Air fuel mixture gets ignited and burst into a
controlled explosion and pushes the piston

Construction

Working

Intake Stroke:The intake valve opens up,


letting in air and moving
the piston down.

Compression Stroke:The piston moves


back up and
compresses the air.

Power Or Combustion Stroke :As the piston reaches the top,


fuel is injected at just the
right moment and ignited,
forcing the piston back down.

Exhaust:The piston moves back to the top,


pushing out the exhaust
created from the combustion
out of the exhaust valve.

Valve Timing- 4 Stroke


Diesel

Compression Ratio
Compression Ratio is a ratio of a cylinders
volume when the piston is at BDC to the
cylinders volume when the piston is at
TDC.
Comp. Ratio is ratio of volume of air
sucked into the cylinder to the volume it is
compressed
The compression ratio of diesel engine is
between 18:1 to 22:1.

Types Of Injection System

Indirect Injection
System(Pre-chamber)
Direct Injection System(DI)
Common Rail Direct Injection
System(CRDI)

Indirect Injection System

Direct Injection System

Fuel Injection Pump

Common Rail Direct


Injection System

MODERN DIESEL ENGINE

THATS ALL FOLKS