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Floor vibrations

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Floor Resonance

Flexible

Structures

Lower Natural

Frequency

matches footfall

Resonance

under Footfall

vibration

Low Mass

Less energy

required to excite

Individual

person can

excite floor

e.g.

Residential, Hospitals

e.g. High grade steels/concretes, trusses, Lightweight concrete, Voided slabs, Light Gauge

Steel Floors

e.g. Slimflor, CLT

e.g. Computer analysis, Lower Live Loads, Lower ULS load factors (Eurocodes)

Architectural Drivers

Humans perceive acceleration (frequency) more than

magnitude (amplitude)

Irritated occupants??

Adverse Comment

Analyse Dynamic Performance of floor

Calculate Floor Response to footfall excitation

Harmonic

but ignores:

Complex floor systems e.g. slab-secondaryprimary

Damping

Footfall sub-harmonics

Unconventional buildings e.g. hospitals, discos.

Guidance Documents

To help?

General Design Standards

BS 5950-1 - Structural use of steelwork in building- Rolled and welded

sections

BS EN 1993-1.1 - Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures. General

rules and rules for buildings

Performance Standards

BS 6841- Guide to measurement and evaluation of human exposure to

whole-body mechanical vibration and repeated shock

BS 6472-1 - Guide to the Evaluation of human exposure to vibration in

buildings

Design Guides

SCI Publication 354: Design of Floors for Vibration A New Approach

Concrete Centre: A Design Guide for Footfall Induced Vibration of

Structures

Floor Acceleration

Excitation Force

Weighting Factor for Human

Perception

Amplitude:

at location of

Force

Amplitude:

at location of

Receiver

Modal Mass

Dynamic Magnification

Factor: Relationship between

natural frequency (and damping)

- 2% General Office

- 0.5% stairs

Variables

Natural Frequency(ies)

f0 = Lowest (Fundamental) Frequency (oscillation

speed)

f0, f1, f2, f3, f5, fn

Individual beams have different modes of oscillation

In floor systems, floor modes can be made up of

simple beam modes but offset from each other

Variables

Amplitude n

Amplitude n of Oscillation Mode

Unity Normalised

@ Excitation Point & Response Point (or the same)

Modal Mass Mn

Modal Mass Mn of Oscillation Mode

Larger floor plates / greater continuity Larger mass to get moving

Mass (kg) of slab

region being

excited

Variables

Excitation Force Fh

Forcing Function: Impulse Force with Time (Normal Walking: 1.7 to 2.4Hz)

Floor Response Functions for different harmonics of driving function (2Hz Pace)

Sub-harmonics: frequencies are factors higher, smaller amplitudes & out of

phase)

Excitation Force

Weighting Factor for Human

Perception

Amplitude:

at location of

Force

Amplitude:

at location of

Receiver

Modal Mass

Dynamic Magnification

Factor: Relationship between

natural frequency (and damping)

Mass:

Square Root

Sum of the

Squares

Amplitudes:

-per Oscillation Mode

- 2% General Office

- 0.5% stairs

1. Build Model of Floor Plate

Modify Design

Modify Assumptions

3.0Hz < f0

Fundamental Natural frequency (lowest Oscillation

mode) f0

3. Output Data:

Natural Frequency : each Oscillation mode f0,f1,f2

Modal Mass : 1 per Floor Oscillation mode M1, M2, M3..

Nodal Deflections

Every FE node (or critical location)

Every Floor Oscillation mode

Steady State Response: Every FE node (or critical)

Transient Response: Every FE node (or critical)

Result Sensitivity?

Very walking speed?, Vary damping %?,

Alternative modelling parameters?

R > Limit

OK

Computer Models

Objective: Simplify floor structure to an idealised

model of dynamic performance:

Steel Frame

Steel frame

construction?

-Beams fully fixed to columns

-Beams fully fixed to shear walls

-Column stiffness modelled

-Additional supports e.g. Cladding provides edge support to

beams

Concrete Slab

Elements are constant thickness so Ribbed slab cant be

replicated with two I values:

So must modify Elastic Mod (to modify EI)

Orthotropic Shells Ideally (Ex,Ey)- But S-Frame only

allows isotropic elements

Concrete Shell

FE Analysis

Beff /

(205/38)

Elastic Modulus

Concrete Short-term Ec: ~ 38kNmm2 (NWC)

affects:

Composite Slab: Second Moment of area (Concrete +

Metal Deck)

Composite Beam: Second Moment of area (I)

(equivalent steel section)

Steel (Unchanged)

Beam (Equivalent Steel Section

of Dynamic Composite Beam

Properties)

Floor loading = 1 * DL + 0.1* IL

(10%)

FE Analysis

Slab-Beam Interaction

Ecy

Shell

Orthotropic Shell Elements:

Ecx (Larger)

Slab Elastic moduli modified to account for I

value

But do beams-slab behave as composite?

shell (Orthotropic) Composite Beam I values to

account for composite stiffness.

Shell Modify Composite Beam properties to

account for slab stiffnesses

Easiest but less accurate.

Icomp

Shell

Ecy

Ecx (Larger)

Ec

Ec

Icomp mod

Shell

Slab Compression

Beam Tension

Constructing Model

1.Build floor in Fastrak (Dynamic Combination)

panel loading or line loads. Apply dynamic support conditions

(additional fixity). Get static results for validation.

3.Construct FE model

Fastrak

Stick Frame

Rectangular (quadrilateral) elements should suffice in SFrame (easiest) as stress concentration is not important.

Restrict floor plate size slows analysis and might need

50+ oscillation modes to find all under 15Hz!

beams or slab bending?

Get results for validation.

VALIDATE Static Results!

FE Model

FE Dynamic Results

FE Static Results

Unstressed Analyses

Oscillation Modes

Output Data

Natural Frequencies

Modal Masses

Amplitudes

Response(s) Calculation

Response Limits

What is the acceptance criteria?

Response Factors are based on the base curve 1 in BS6472

e.g. R8 = base curve x 8

Higher Response Factor, the more the bouncy the floor.

comment e.g.

Residential (day)

R = 2 to 4

General Office

R = 4 to 8

Stairs

R = 20 to 30

Graphical Results

Contour Plots ideal (but software difficult to find).

Exceeding Limits?

Computer Analysis conservative but might still

exceed Response limit

Reduction Factors

Excitation / Response Locations

Response location (i.e. critical location) and take

corresponding e values of neighbouring points.

Failing that..

intermittent occurrences.

High responses are acceptable if intermittent, but

not constantly.

State Peak

-i.e. walking for a short time so vibration doesnt

reach steady state (max)

Exciter Point 1

= 1.0

Exciter Point 2

= 0.05

Receiver Point

Any Questions?

Read SCI P354!

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