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: MAINTAINANCE & REHABILIATION OF STRUCTURES

(3360605)

REPAIR
STRATERGIES

UNIT II

Prepared By:

Mr. K.R.THANKI
(BE Civil)
LECTURER CIVIL ENGINEERING
DEPARTMENT
GOVERNMENT POLY TECHNIC ,
JUNAGADH,GUJARAT-INDIA.

CONTENTS:
Causes of distress in structure

Construction and design failures


Condition assessment and distress
diagnostic techniques
Inspection and evaluating damaged
structure.

Factors causing Building Distress :


The reason for distress during service is
the lack of maintenance of the building
which results in deterioration/aging of
materials and structural components
leading to corrosion and cracking.

Buildings or structures are damaged at


different grades of damage when they
experience extreme loading conditions
like in severe earthquakes or cyclonic
storms for which they are not designed.

Factors causing Building Distress :


They may also fail if the building
including the foundation is not
properly designed and constructed
following the standard Codes of
practice. An impression exists that
taller structures are seismically unsafe
in comparison with low-rise buildings.
It is to be noted that most lives were lost
in Kachchh (Gujarat) earthquake of
2001 in one and two storeyed masonry
buildings. Hence, all buildings have to

Factors causing Building Distress :


Inadequacy of design and poor quality of
construction and maintenance are
therefore the main reasons for the
distress seen in buildings during
service or under natural hazards.
This is because building codes and
byelaws
are
not
conscientiously
followed in design and quality of
construction, nor in maintenance.

Factors causing Building Distress :


The current [Indian standard (I.S.)]
building codes and guidelines in India
have been tested and found effective
in achieving safety of the residents
during the last six earthquakes
(Uttarkashi 1991 to J & K 2005).
Hence not following these codes in
design and construction is sure recipe
for distress in future.

Condition Assessment of Buildings


A The building has not shown any signs
of distress and It satisfies all the safety
and
serviceability
requirements
according to relevant Codes of
practice, hence no action is needed
towards retrofitting.

Condition Assessment of Buildings

8/11/16

B The building is seen to be deficient (or


distressed) but it can be repaired and
strengthened to satisfy the Codal
safety requirements or performance
criteria set by the user.

Condition Assessment of Buildings

8/11/16

C The building is badly damaged. It is to


be demolished and a new building may
be built, build back better.

Factors causing Building Distress :


Main steps of condition assessment will
be
a) To record the damage if any, and find
out the causes for distress
b) To assess the extent of distress and to
estimate the residual strengths of
structural components and the system
including the foundation.
c) To plan the rehabilitation and
retrofitting/strengthening
of
the
building.

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Factors causing Building Distress :


Typical visible distress detrimental to the
safety of buildings
Cracks in RC beams, Columns , slabs,
masonry walls (particularly if the walls
are load bearing walls) , spalling of
concrete, sagging of beams or slabs ,
and tilting of columns or RC frames
(out of plumb) and major failure of
structural members are the typical
types of crucial damages that will
require structural repairs to bring back
the lost strength. Such actions will
need to be done along with retrofitting

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Factors causing Building Distress :


Typical visible distress detrimental to the
safety of buildings

Diagonal cracks of the beam and failure at


the column top

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Factors causing Building Distress :


Typical visible distress detrimental to the
safety of buildings

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Cracks in column

Factors causing Building Distress :


Typical visible distress detrimental to the
safety of buildings

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Cracks in masonry wall

Factors causing Building Distress :


Typical visible distress detrimental to the
safety of buildings

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Cracks in good quality brick wall

Factors causing Building Distress :


Typical visible distress detrimental to the
safety of buildings

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Failure of a portion of building (at expansion joint)

Factors causing Building Distress :


Typical visible distress detrimental to the
safety of buildings

Failure in column-beam joint (lack of stirrups)

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Factors causing Building Distress :


Typical visible distress detrimental to the
safety of buildings

Column failure (absence of tiers, buckling of


longitudinal bars)

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Factors causing Building Distress :


Typical visible distress detrimental to the
safety of buildings

Column top failure (bad joint detail)

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Factors causing Building Distress :


Typical visible distress detrimental to the
safety of buildings

Corrosion in RC beam

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Factors causing Building Distress :


Typical visible distress detrimental to the
safety of buildings

Corrosion in RC column

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Factors causing Building Distress :


Typical visible distress detrimental to the
safety of buildings

Corrosion in the RC slab (lack of control on 22


the cover)

Building failures and causes:


What does a structural failure mean?
Building failure occurs when the building
loses its ability to perform its intended
(design) function. Hence, building
failures can be categorized into the
two
broad
groups
of
physical
(structural) failures (which result in the
loss of certain characteristics, e.g.,
strength) and performance failures
(which means a reduction in function
below an established acceptable limit)
(Douglas and Ransom, 2007).

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Building failures and causes:

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General causes of failure


Failure of a structure can occur from
many types of problems, mostly unique
to the type of structure or to the various
industries.
Due to size, shape, or the choice of
material, the structure is not strong and
tough enough to support the load.
Failure can occur when the overstressed
construction reaches a critical stress
level.

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General causes of failure


Instability, whether due to geometry,
design or material choice, causing the
structure to fail from fatigue or corrosion.
These types of failure often occur at
stress points, such as squared corners or
from bolt holes being too close to the
material's edge, causing cracks to slowly
form and then progress through cyclic
loading. conditions.
Manufacturing errors, may be due to
improper selection of materials, incorrect
sizing, improper heat treating, failing to
adhere to the design, or shoddy

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General causes of failure

Cracking Due to Expansion of

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General causes of failure

Arching up and Cracking of Coping 28


Stones of a Long Garden Wall

General causes of failure

Cracking in Cladding and Cross Walls 29


of a Framed Structure

General causes of failure

Horizontal Crack at the Base of Brick


Masonry Parapet (Masonry cum Iron
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Railing) Supported on a Projecting RCC

General causes of failure

Cracking in Top Most Story of a Load


Bearing Structure

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General causes of failure

Horizontal Cracks in a Wall at supports


due to Excessive Deflation of a Slab of
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Large Span

Man made v/s natural causes


Most of the structural failures are
associated with materials and are the
consequence
of
human
blunder
involving a lack of know-how about
materials or the combination of
contrary materials.
There are structural failures that can be
endorsed to irregularity in materials.
Although too much reliance is given on
modern structural materials yet the
manufacturing or production faults
may
exist
even
in
the
most
dependable structural materials, such
as standard structural steel or

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Man made v/s natural causes


V/S
One of the major natural factors that
result intobuilding collapseisrainfall;
othersmay
include
temperature,
pressure, etc.
The fact remain that this is a natural
factorthat
cannot
be
stopped,
buildings therefore need to be
constructed adequately bearing in
mind such uncontrollable factors.

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DISTRESS OF CONCRETE
STRUCTURES
If a building has given about
25v to 30
years
of
service
without
much
maintenance or repair then it is
reasonable to expect that it would need
some repair sooner or later.
CATEGORIES OF REASONS DISTRESS OF
CONCRETE STRUCTURES
WEATHERING
AGEING
ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS

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DISTRESS OF CONCRETE
STRUCTURES
DESIGNING
AND

POOR
CONSTRUCTION QUALITY

CHANGE OF LOADING PATTERN OR


NON CONVENTIONAL LOADING ON
STRUCTURE
WATER
LEAKAGE
LEADING
TO
CORROSION
OF
CONCRETE
STRUCTURE

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DISTRESS OF CONCRETE
STRUCTURES
PERFORMANCE
OF
CONCRETE
STRUCTURE DEPENDS UPON:
1. QUALITY

OF CONCRETE

2. AMBIENT

CONDITIONS

EXPECTED
SERVICE
LIFE
OF
STRUCTURES
Life span of RCC is generally taken as
100 years

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DISTRESS OF CONCRETE
STRUCTURES
EXPECTED CONVENTION ABOUT
DESIGN
LIFE SPAN
Monumental structure like temple
,mosque or church is 500 to 1000 yrs.
Steel bridges ,steel buildings or similar
structures is 100 to 150 yrs.
Concrete bridges or hign rise buildings
or stone bridges is 100 yrs.
A house or general building is 60 to 80
yrs.
Highways :concrete pavement for
about 30 to 35 yrs and bituminous
pavements for about 8 to 10 yrs.

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COMMON FAILURE MODES OF R.C.C.


Cracks, potholes and erosion of the top
layer
of
concrete,
rusting
of
reinforcement, splitting etc.
Cracking
is
the
most
common
phenomenon in concrete structures.
Cracking of concrete section cannot be
prevented but size and location of the
cracks can be limited & controlled by
reinforcement, placement of control
joint, and better concreting and curing

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CAUSES OF EARLY DETERIORATION


OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES
Poor workmanship : untrained man
power
and
bad
quality
of
construction
Inadequate cover to reinforcement.
Loosely fitted joints.

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CAUSES OF EARLY DETERIORATION


OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES
Excessive water cement ratio
The IS: 456:2000 has laid down upper
limits for water cement ratio, normally
it need about 15 to 18 lts. Of water per
50kg bag of cement.
With this quantity of water concrete will
be stiff and uncompact able so we mix
additional water for workability. This
extra water after evaporation leaves
out minute capillary pores which lead
to corrosion 0f reinforcement.

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CAUSES OF EARLY DETERIORATION


OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES

Inadequate concrete cover


Bars are not bent accurately or may not
be effectively fixed to ensure that
specified gap is left between bars and
form work while often not only bars
touch formwork but also the binding
wires loose ends and the steel bars are
seen at the surface of concrete.
In that case,
moisture.

they

are

prone

to

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CAUSES OF EARLY DETERIORATION


OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES
Honey
comb
or
Un
vibrated
concrete
Porous concrete is a major source of
weakness in concrete.
Un-compacted concrete results in
honey combing which gives low
compressive strength and permits
moisture to enter, resulting in corrosion
of steel bars.

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CAUSES OF EARLY DETERIORATION


OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES

Cold
joints
or
construction joints

bad

A cold joint is a joint where fresh


concrete is placed against a previous
un-compacted concrete which has
already hardened due to lapses of time
that is more than concrete setting time.

Inadequate reinforcement
Many a contractor does not put enough
reinforcement in concrete structural
member s and hence it fails under

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CAUSES OF EARLY DETERIORATION


OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES
Wrong placing of reinforcement
Many times contractors do not know
the correct location of reinforcement in
structural member so it is not placed at
proper position.
Inadequate cement quantity
IS: 456:2000 has laid down
minimum quantity in concrete.

the

Minimum quantity of cement is needed


not only to coat the fine and coarse
aggregate particles but also to fill the
voids between the aggregate particles

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CAUSES OF EARLY DETERIORATION


OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES
Congested reinforcement bars
Too many steel bars in narrow and
slender RCC columns, walls or beams
results in NO room for having cover in
concrete nor for inserting a needle
vibrator to ensure full compaction
leading to honey combed concrete.
Initially rust steel bars
Alkali aggregate reactivity
Under most conditions the reaction
causes
excessive
expansion
and

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CAUSES OF EARLY DETERIORATION


OF CONCRETE STRUCTURES
Effect of weather and water
leakage
Weather causes structure to delay.
Prolong
exposure
to
polluted
environment and acid rain can give
weathered concrete and corrode metal
ties and fastenings.

Porous cover blocks


Having incorrect mix proportions and
water cement ratio. These are usually
fixed to the steel bars at about one

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EFFECTS OF CRACKING ON LIFE OR


DURABILIY OF STRUCTURE
Understanding of cracks in concrete will
help us to avpoid failures of concrete
on one hand, avoidable worries and
expenditure on other hand .

Reduce loading capacity of structure


Progressive failure
Loss of appearance
Leakages
Apprehension of failure in mind

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Controlling cracks
Better concrete mix design
Friendly environment condition at
the time of concreting at site.
Have dense concrete
Use low heat of pozzolanic cement in
mass concreting.

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IDENTIFICATION OF DISTRESSED
LOCATIONS ON STRUCTURES
PRELIMINARY INSPECTION
Carry out a preliminary inspection
possibly with some testing in order to
get characterize the nature of problem
and to plan the detailed investigations.
Detailed inspection
Checking the strength of concrete
Chemical analysis on concrete
Corrosion test

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IDENTIFICATION OF DISTRESSED
LOCATIONS ON STRUCTURES
Conclusion from investigation
In
majority of cases ,the cause of
damage can be tracked to the following
singly or in combination:
Low cover to steel
Permeable concrete
High chloride levels

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REPAIR
Repair refers to modification of
structure, damaged in its appearance
or serviceability, to
restore, partly or
wholly, the pre-existing characteristics
of serviceability, load-bearing capacity
and if necessary, to improve its
durability.
Repair techniques are used to restore
the structural integrity and shape of a
concrete element and generally include
removal of damaged concrete and
replacement of new concrete.

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GENERAL REPAIR PROCEDURE


Surface preparation and protection
of reinforcement
Chipping of defective or deteriorated
concrete should be done till all
defective concrete is removed.
During
repairs
structural
load
carrying
members
must
be
supported.
Remove all rust from steel bars if it is
reinforced member. In concrete rust
is like cancer.

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GENERAL REPAIR PROCEDURE


Surface preparation and protection
of reinforcement
The old concrete of masonry surface
should be made rough to give proper
mechanical bond.
Wash and clean the entire surface
before taking up repairs
Bonding material / epoxy should be
applied between old and new
concrete.
Spraying of water at regular intervals
on inclined or vertical members or we

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MATERIALS AND METHODS FOR


CRACK REPAIR

Repair materials can be of following


types:

Cement bound
Polymer cement bound
Resin hardener bound(epoxy)
Following materials are generally
used in crack repair:
1.Low viscosity epoxy materials
2.Epoxy modified mortar
3.Polyurethane based coating over
epoxy mortar
4.Elastomeric concrete

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MATERIALS AND METHODS FOR


CRACK REPAIR

Low viscosity epoxy material


Designed for grouting gaps of low width
of about 0.5 to 10mm. Epoxy
compound like RESICRETE of SWC or
CONVEXTRA EP10 of FORSROC which is
normally supplied as two component
product consisting of base and
hardener that is filler and polymer can
be used.
Epoxy modified mortar
Epoxy mortar is a common material
used for repair of concrete surfaces in

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MATERIALS AND METHODS FOR


CRACK REPAIR
Polyurethane based coating over
epoxy mortar
As epoxy mortars are non UV
resistors ,but still have good strength
so they can be used with a coating of
this material.
Elastomeric concrete
An epoxy material used in repairs not
only in slabs and roads but also in
structures and concrete surface.

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MATERIALS AND METHODS FOR


CRACK REPAIR

Fiber reinforced concrete


It is a concrete with small sized
aggregates, cement sand mortar and
some type of hair .Various types of hair
can be:

Steel fibers
Carbon fibers
Glass fibers
Polypropylene fibers

Generally polypropylene fiber is used.

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MATERIALS AND METHODS FOR


CRACK REPAIR

Ferro cement
Term Ferro cement is applied to a
mixture of Portland cement and sand
reinforced with layers of woven or
expanded steel mesh and closely
spaced small diameter steel rods.
Construction made with this is more
resistant to earthquakes.

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SOME SPECIFIC REPAIR TECHNIQUE


FOR CONCRETE SURFACE

1.Cracking of concrete surface up to


certain depth:
a)Cracks up to depth of 0 to 20 mm
category A
b)Cracks between depth of 20 to 50category B
c)Cracks to depth of more than 50mmcategory C
1.Weather effects on concrete or rusting
of reinforcement category D
2.Blowholes and streak marks on
concrete-category E

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SOME SPECIFIC REPAIR TECHNIQUE


FOR CONCRETE SURFACE

Repair methods-anyone of the above


materials can be used with following
described methods

Application by hand
Casting into formwork fixed into
existing concrete surface
Spraying through purposely designed
equipment.

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ASSESMENT OF QUALITY OF
STRUCTURE SOON AFTER ITS
As the repair of structural
element of
CONSTRUCTION
building is over, it is desirable hat
soundness of structure is assed with
the help of non-destructive testing
technique. Some NDTs which are
available are:
Pulse velocity measurement method
(PVM)
Cover meter
Rebound hammer or similar methods
Core cutting and testing of critical spots

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REQUIREMENT FOR TRAINING FOR


CONCRETE REPAIR AND CONCRETE
To achieve good quality of work
it is
WORKERS
necessary to have skilled workers at
site.

Like masons know the importance of


water,
right
placement
of
reinforcement, mixing ingredients etc.
Training should look that construction
workers are trained for correct process
and quality procedure with practical
sessions and hands on work.

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K.R.THANKI
(BE Civil)

THANK
YOU

FOR ANY OTHER INFORMATION CONTECT ME TO


Email : thankikrunal@yahoo.co.in

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