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A Computer
Information Processing Machine
It is a system, which consists of a number of
interrelated components that work together with
the aim of converting data into information

To attain information:
Data is entered through input devices
The data is processes using the central processing
The processed data (information) is displayed to
the users using output devices

All these parts constitute the computer


A Computer
A computer is an intelligent thinking
machine -> this is not true
Every computer needs to be told
exactly what to do and how to do
This is done by giving instructions to
the computer
These instructions are given in the
form of computer programs, which
constitute the software

Computer Organization
The basic hardware units of a
computer system are
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
Memory Unit
Input Unit
Output Unit


Input Devices
Input devices are electromechanical device
Human communicate with computers through input
Data and instructions are entered into the memory of
a computer through input devices
It captures information and translates it into a form
that can be processed by the central processing unit
Computer accepts input in two ways: manually or
In manual data entry, the user enters the data into
the computer by hand, for example by using
keyboard or mouse
In direct entry, information is fed into the computer
automatically from a source document (like barcode)
Some Input Devices are: Keyboard, pointing device
like mouse and joystick, and scanners

Input Devices

Keyboard &




Input Devices




Output Devices
Computers communicate with human being using
output devices
Output devices take the machine-coded output
results from the CPU and convert them into a form
that is easily readable (such as characters, graphical,
or audio visual) by human beings
Output unit processes data into useful information
The outputs are in the form of: softcopy and hardcopy
The physical form of output is known as hard copy
The electronic version of an output, that reside in
computer memory and/or disk, is known as soft copy
Some Output Devices are: Monitors, Printers, and
audio response

Output Devices



Central Processing Unit

Brain of a computer system
Converts data (input) into meaningful
information (output)
A CPU controls all internal and external
devices, performs arithmetic and logic
operations, and operate only on binary
data, i.e., data composed of 1s and 0s
It also controls the usage of main
memory to store data and instructions
and controls the sequence of operations

Central Processing Unit

CPU consists of three
main subsystems:
The arithmetic logic
The control unit
The registers
The three subsystem
work together to
provide operational
capabilities to the


Arithmetic/Logic Unit (ALU)

The arithmetic/logic unit (ALU) contains the
electronic circuitry that executes all arithmetic
and logical operations on the data made
available to it
ALU comprises of two units: Arithmetic Unit and
Logic Unit
Arithmetic Unit: The arithmetic unit contains the circuitry that is
responsible for performing the actual computing and
carrying out the arithmetic calculations, such as
addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.
It can perform these operations at a very high speed

Arithmetic/Logic Unit (ALU)

Logic Unit: Enable the CPU to perform logical operations
based on the instructions provided to it.
These operations are logical comparison
between data items
The unit can compare numbers, letters, or
special characters and then take action
based on the result of the comparison
Logical operations of logic unit can test for
three conditions: equal-to condition, lessthan condition, and greater-than condition

Control Unit
This unit checks the correctness of
sequence of operations
It fetches program instruction from the
primary unit, interprets them, and
ensures correct execution of the
It also controls the input/output devices
and directs the overall functioning of
the other units of the computer

Special-purpose, high speed
temporary memory units that holds
various types of information such as
data, instructions, addresses, and the
intermediate results of calculations
They hold the information that the
CPU is currently working on
Registers can be thought of as CPUs
working memory

Memory Unit
Components such as input device, output device, and
CPU are not sufficient for the working of the computer
A storage area is needed in a computer to store data
and instructions either temporarily or permanently
The memory unit stores information is a group of
memory cells, called memory locations, as binary
Each memory location has a unique memory address
The CPU accesses the contents of the desired memory
locations by referring to the address of the memory
The computer memory is broadly categorized as:
Primary memory (to handle the data)
Secondary memory (to store the output)

Primary Memory
Main Memory
Stores data and instructions for processing
This main memory forms the working area of the program,
where the results generated are normally stored during the
time of its run
A memory module interface with other parts of a computer
system through a set of address lines, data lines, and control
These are called address bus, data bus and control bus
The relevant address on the address bus and appropriate
control data cause data to be written on a read from the
required part of the memory
Primary memory device are expensive
They occupy very little space, consume very low power, and
are faster as compared to secondary memory devices
Primary Memory is further classified into
Random Access Memory (RAM) Volatile memory
Read Only Memory (ROM)

Primary Memory

Secondary Memory
Auxiliary memory or external memory or bulk
Least expensive and has much large storage
capacity than in primary memory
Instructions and data stored on such storage
devices are permanent in nature (non-volatile)
The access time in secondary memory is much
large than in primary memory
Common secondary storage devices are
magnetic disks and tapes
Dist drives are available in the forms, floppy
disks drive and hard disk drive

Secondary Memory


Memory Operations
Some operations are common to both
primary and secondary memory. They are
Read operation: During this operation, data is
retrieved from memory
Write operation: In this operation, data is
stored in the memory

Using read and write operations, many

other memory-related functions such as
copy and delete are carried out

Unit of Memory
The memorys interface circuits is designed to
logically access a byte or a multiple of a byte of
data from he memory during each access
The smallest block of memory is considered to
be a byte, which comprises eight bits
The total memory space is measured in terms of
The unit of memory is a byte
The capacity of memory is the maximum
amount of information it is capable of storing
The memory capacity is also expressed in
number of bytes

Unit of Memory
Units used to express memory capacity are:
Byte:- The smallest meaningful storage block. It
represents one addressable storage location in
memory. It consists of eight bits
KB:- One Kilobyte is equal to 1024 bytes
MB:- One megabyte is equal to 1024 Kilobytes
GB:- One Gigabyte is equal to 1024 megabytes
TB:- One terabyte is equal to 1024 gigabytes