Power Transmission and Distribution

Power System Structure
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Generation

Transmission / Sub transmission

Medium 24 kV
Voltage 21 kV
15 kV
13.8 kV

Extra High Voltage
High Voltage

765 kV
400 kV
220 kV
132 kV
110 kV
66 kV

Distribution
Medium Voltage

33 kV
22 kV
11 kV

 Transmission circuits handle/route largest power , interconnect various power
stations & feed to load centres

 Subtransmission circuits feed to distribution substations & bulk consumers within a
geographical area.

 Distribution circuits fed from distribution substations feed domestic , medium size
industries and commercial consumers.
Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Switchyards Design features
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Design Aspects
Single line diagram
Busbar Arrangement
Fault level
Type of construction
Creepage & Clearance
Grounding & Lightning Protection
Safety Interlocks
Other Miscellaneous items e.g lighting , civil
Considerations for Choice of Busbar Arrangement
Importance of Substation
Reliability
Redundancy
Economics and availability of finance
Availability of Space and Right Of Way for approaching lines
Future Expansion
Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Switching Devices
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Ratings

Level

Isolator

Switch

Circuit Breaker

Current Carrying Load
Fault

Yes
Yes

Yes
Yes

Yes
Yes

Current Making Load
Fault

No
No

Yes
No

Yes
Yes

Current Breaking Load
Fault

No
No

Yes
No

Yes
Yes

 Isolator is rated only for carrying current,
 Make/Break small line charging current.
 OPEN/CLOSE operation done under ZERO current condition.

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Unit System
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Stn B

Stn A

Line + Transformer

Absence of Busbar, CB reduces cost
Less Reliability as line fault causes transformer outage
Commonly used as U/G Cable + Transformer system

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Single Bus System
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

A: Single Bus System

B: Single Bus with Bus
section isolator system

C: Single Bus with Bus
section breaker system

Simplest and Economical Arrangement
To improve Reliability bus section isolator/CB is introduced

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Single Bus System- Primary Components,
Protection Zone
BusEarthing
Switch

Bus
BusPotential
Transformer

BusIsolator

Protection-zone,
busbar

Circuit-breaker
Current
Transformer

Earthingswitch

Protection-zone,
line/trafo

Line
Isolator

Earthingswitch

Wave
Trap

Wave
Trap
Surge
arrester

Potential
Transformer

Line 1

Energy Automation

Line
Isolator

Transformer

Line 2

Power Transmission and Distribution

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Single Bus System- Primary Components,
Protection Zone
BusEarthing
Switch

Bus
BusPotential
Transformer
Protection-zone,
busbar

BusIsolator
Current
Transformer

Protection-zone,
line/trafo

Circuit-breaker

Earthingswitch

Line
Isolator

Earthingswitch

Wave
Trap

Wave
Trap
Surge
arrester

Line 1

Energy Automation

Line
Isolator

Potential
Transformer

Transformer

Line 2

Power Transmission and Distribution

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Single Bus System- Primary Components,
Over-lapping Protection Zone
BusEarthing
Switch

Bus
BusPotential
Transformer

BusIsolator

Protection-zone,
busbar

Circuit-breaker
Current
Transformer

Earthingswitch

Core !

Core !

Core 2

Core 2

Line
Isolator

Earthingswitch

Potential
Transformer

Line 1

Energy Automation

Line
Isolator

Wave
Trap

Wave
Trap
Surge
arrester

Protection-zone,
line/trafo

Transformer

Line 2

Power Transmission and Distribution

Single Bus with sectionaliser System- Primary Components,
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Bus Section-isolator
Over-lapping
Protection Zone
Bus A

Busdisconnect

Bus PT 1

Bus PT 2

Circuit-breaker

CT
VT
Earthing switch
Linedisconnect

Surge arrester

Earthing switch

To improve Reliability bus section isolator/CB is introduced
Energy Automation

Bus B

Power Transmission and Distribution

Main & Transfer Bus Arrangement
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Main Bus

Transfer Bus coupler

x

x
CT
Earthingswitch

Line
Isolator

x
CT

Earthingswitch

Line
Isolator

Transfer
Isolator

Transfer
Isolator
Transfer Bus
Wave
Trap
Surge
arrester
Line 1

x
CT

Earthingswitch

CT

Line
Isolator

Transfer
Isolator

Wave
Trap

Wave
Trap

Surge
arrester

Surge
arrester
Line 2

Line 3

A Transfer Bus Coupler & All feeders need one additional isolator.
Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Main & Transfer Bus Arrangement –Normal operation
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Main Bus

x

x

x

x

Transfer Bus

Line

Power Flow
Energy Automation

Line

Transformer

Transfer Bus coupler

Power Transmission and Distribution

Main & Transfer Bus Arrangement –Normal operation
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Main Bus

x

x

x

x

Transfer Bus

Line

Power Flow
Energy Automation

Line

Transformer

Transfer Bus coupler

Charged

Power Transmission and Distribution

Main & Transfer Bus Arrangement –Bay Outage
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Main Bus

x

x

x

x

Transfer Bus

Line

Power Flow
Energy Automation

Line

Transformer

Transfer Bus coupler

Bay Out of Service

Power Transmission and Distribution

Main & Transfer Bus Arrangement
CT location
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Main Bus

x

x

x

x

Transfer Bus

Line

Line

Transformer

Protection / CT Transfer Switch required
Energy Automation

Transfer Bus coupler

Power Transmission and Distribution

Main & Transfer Bus Arrangement
CT Location
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Main Bus

x

x

x

x

Transfer Bus

Line

Line

Trip Transfer Switch Required
Energy Automation

Transformer

Transfer Bus coupler

Power Transmission and Distribution

Double Main Bus System
or Main & Reserve Bus system
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Bus I

Bus-coupler

BusPT -I

Bus II
BusIsolators
Circuit-breaker

BusEarthing-I, II

CT

Earthingswitch

Line
Isolator

Wave
Trap

Earthingswitch
Earthingswitch

Line
Isolator

Wave
Trap

Surge
arrester

Surge
arrester

Line 1

Energy Automation

Line 2

Transformer

BusPT -II

Power Transmission and Distribution

Double Main & Transfer Bus Arrangement
(DMT)
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Transfer
Bus-coupler

Bus I

Bus-coupler

BusPT -I

Bus II
BusIsolators
Circuit-breaker

BusEarthing-I, II

CT
Earthingswitch

Line
Isolator

Earthingswitch
Transfer
Isolator

Wave
Trap

Wave
Trap

Surge
arrester

Surge
arrester

Line 1

Line 2

Almost all PGCIL 220kV substations use this arrangement
Energy Automation

BusPT -II

Power Transmission and Distribution

245kV Switchyard Layout
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

245 kV Outdoor switchyard (AIS)

1 Bus I
2 Bus II

3 Bus-disconnector
4 Circuit-breaker

5 CT
6 VT

Double busbars, classical layout

7 Line-disconnector with built-on earthing switch
8 Surge arrester

Almost all PGCIL 220kV substations use this arrangement
Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

One and a Half Breaker Arrangement
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Bus A

Bushing

Q0 11

Q0 41

For future use
Q0 13

Q0 12

Q0 42

Bushing

Bus B

Almost all PGCIL 765kv,400kV substations use this arrangement
Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Three Main & Transfer Bus Arrangement
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

2000/1/1/1A

Core Like line
417

Practiced in Europe, Germany
Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Ring or Mesh System
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Line 1

Transformer 2

Transformer 1

Line 2

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Power Line Carrier Coupling
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

A

Line Trap

B

A

B

Coupling Cap.
HF

HF

4 / 988

Single Phase to Ground Coupling

A

B

HF
Inter – System - Coupling

4 / 988

HF
Phase to Phase Coupling

Energy Automation

HF

HF

Power Transmission and Distribution

Switchyards Design Considerations
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Fault level
 Expressed as MVA or kA and duration of 1-3 sec.
 Depends upon source impedance ie distances from the
power sources
 All CBs to be rated for Fault level
 Earthing switches for making the fault level
 All busbars, bus supports to be designed to withstand
mechanical forces due to short circuits.
Safety Clearance & Creepage Distance
 As per voltage level among live parts & earth
 Shortest path taken on surface by leakage current.
Grounding & Lightning Protection
 Grid/Mesh is formed and burried in ground
 Earthing Electrodes (pipe/rod/plates) are connected to mesh
 Shield wires to protect against direct lightning strokes
Safety Interlocks in Control schemes
 Isolator Open/Close possible only if CB is open.
 E/S closing possible only when isolator is closed.etc.
Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Power System Structure
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Generation
Medium 24 kV
Voltage 21 kV
15 kV
13.8 kV

Transmission / Sub transmission
Extra High Voltage
High Voltage

765 kV
400 kV
220 kV
132 kV
110 kV
66 kV

Distribution
Medium Voltage

33 kV
22 kV
11 kV

The
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anelectrical
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..
Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

System Disturbances
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Short Circuits
in earthed systems
Symmetrical (3 phase)
Phase to Phase (and Earth)
Phase to Earth
Earth Faults in non effectively
earthed systems
Overload Conditions
Underfrequency/Undervoltage
Overvoltage

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Protective Relaying
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Role of Protection

Protective Relaying is the most important
feature of power system design aimed at
minimising the damage to equipment and
interruption to service in the event of faults. It
is therefore a co-factor among other factors
resorted to improve reliability of power system.

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

The Purpose of Protection
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

The protection can not prevent system faults,
But it can:

Limit the damage caused by short
circuits

While:

Protecting people and plant from
damage
Selectively clearing faults in
miliseconds
Protecting plant from overload
conditions

Power system must operate in a safe manner at all times.
Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Causes and Probability of System
Disturbances
Causes
 Operator Mistakes
 Pollution/Condensation
 Equipment failures, e.g. P.T.'s, Isolators
 Transient Overvoltages
Probability
 System faults (220/400 kV):
3p.a. and 100 km
 10-20 kV metal clad switchgear: 10-3 p.a. and feeder
 GIS switchgear:
5-10-2 p.a. and bus
 outdoor switchgear: 110/132 kV 7*10-2 p.a. -1and bus
220/275 kV
10 p.a. and bus
400 kV
2*10-1 p.a. and bus

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Principles of Relaying
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Since protective relaying comes into action at the
time of equipment distress, a certain safeguard is
necessary in the unlikely event of its failure to act at
the hour of need. Hence, two groups of protective
schemes are generally employed a)

Primary Protection

b)

Back-up Protection

Primary Protection is the first line of defense,
whereas back-up relaying takes over the protection
of equipment, should the primary protection fail.
Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Primary Protection
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

The Primary Protection has following characteristic
features 1.

It has always a defined zone of operation.

2.

It should operate before any back-up protection
could operate, therefore, it should be faster in
operation.

3.

It should be able to completely isolate the fault
from all the current feeding sources.

4.

Energy Automation

It should be stable for all operating conditions.

Power Transmission and Distribution

Back-up Protection
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

1.

Back-up protection should provide sufficient time
for the primary protection to perform its duty.

2.

Back-up protection covers a wider zone of
protection. Therefore, there is always a possibility
of large scale disturbance, when back-up relays
operate.

3.

Under primary protection failure, several back-up
relays may operate for complete isolation of fault.

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Reasons of Primary Protection Failure
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Primary protections failure could be due to any of
the following reasons 1. Current or Potential Transformer failure
2. Loss of Auxiliary Control Voltage
3. Defective Primary Relays
4. Open Circuits in Control & Trip Coil
5. Failure of Breaker
It is therefore logical that back-up relays should not
utilise any of the above items as common with
primary relays.

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Protection Concept
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Circuit Breaker

CT / VT

Cabling
DISTANCE RELAY

Protection

Energy Automation

Battery

The system is only as strong as the weakest link!

Power Transmission and Distribution

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Basic Protection
Requirements

Reliability

dependability (availability)
high dependability = low risk of failure to trip

Security

stable for all operating conditions ,
high security = low risk of over-trip

Speed

high speed minimizes damage
high speed reduces stability problems

Selectivity

trip the minimum number of circuit breakers

Sensitivity

notice smallest fault value

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Zones of Protection
No. 1 with
Energy Automation





To limit the extent of the power system that is disconnected when a fault
occurs, protection is arranged in zones
Zones of protection should overlap, so that no part of the power system
is left unprotected
Location of the CT connection to the protection usually defines the zone
Unit type protections have clear zones reach e.g Diff. Relay, REF relay
Zone reach depends on measurement of the system quantities e.g OC ,
EF, distance relays . The start will be defined but the extent (or ‘reach’) is
subject to variation, owing to changes in system conditions and
measurement errors.

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Protection - One Out of Two
Principle

System
1

Trip
Coil
1

Trip
Coil
2

System
2

Battery 1

Battery 2

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Redundancy Concept of DC
Circuits
Battery 1
Battery 2
Main Protection

Back-up Protection

87T

TR

TC 1
L-

Energy Automation

87BB

50/51
TR

TC 2
L-

Busbar Protection

Trip remote infeed

BF
TR

Power Transmission and Distribution

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Factors that influence fault current
magnitude
Infeed

Line

Consumer

G
• Short circuit power of the infeed
• Voltage level
• Line impedance
• Fault resistance (arc)
• Treatment of star point

Estimate of short circuit currents:
Medium Voltage (10 kV upto 30kV)
High Voltage (110 kV)
Extra High Voltage (220kV + )

Energy Automation

ISCmin > ILmax
ISCmin >= ILmax
ISCmin = 0,25 ILmax

Power Transmission and Distribution

Earth faults: Star-point configuration
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

R

earthed system
• Earth fault = short circuit
is recognised by normal
over-current protection.
• With low impedance earthing
the residual current detection
must be more sensitive.

Energy Automation

L

Peterson Coil

isolated neutral

• Earth faults = no short circuit
• Supply is not disrupted
• Earth fault must be alarmed and removed
as fast as possible
• Earth fault location is achieved with
wattmetric earth fault detection

Power Transmission and Distribution

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Protection Criterion Current
 The overcurrent condition is evaluated I>
 Suitable for:
I>
ILmax

I
ISCmin

 Additional criterion - Time

(to ensure selectivity)

Protection:
 Fuses
 inverse time protection
 definite time protection

Energy Automation

(IDMT)
(DT)

Power Transmission and Distribution

Protection Criterion - Current Difference
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

 Evaluation of node I1 + I2 + I3 + ... In = 0; if the equation is not

satisfied the fault is internal
 Security is increased by stabilisation |I1|+|I2|+ ... |In| = Istab
 Characteristic:
Idiff
Trip
Istab

 definite distinction internal / external faults (no back-up)

Protection:

 Line differential protection
 Generator-, motor-, transformer differential protection
 Busbar protection

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Protection Criterion Impedance
 From the voltage and current signals the

impedance is calculated
 The impedance is proportional to the fault
distance
 Characteristic:
X

Z<
R

 Additional criterion - Time

(Required for selectivity and back-up
protection)

Protection:
 Multiple stage distance protection
Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Measured signals and time grading principle
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

B

A
Protected object
Protection
device

Example distance protection

t
t3
t2
t1
A

Energy Automation

Z1

B

Z2

l

Power Transmission and Distribution

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Comparison Protection
Principle
B

A
Protected object
Protection
device
Protection
device

communication
momentary values/
binary decisions

Protection
device

t

A

Energy Automation

B

Power Transmission and Distribution

Typical Distance Zone Characteristics
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

MHO-circle

X

ZA

ZSC '

X
starting zone

external
fault

ZSC

 

combined circleand straight line
characteristic

Zone 3

internal
fault

Zone 2
Zone 1
R

R

X
polarised
MHO-circle

polygonal tripping
characteristic
(quadrilateral)

RF
ZS = 0

ZL
R

X
XA

settable arc compensation
ZL

RLB

ZS small
RA

ZS large
ZS

Energy Automation

R

Power Transmission and Distribution

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Further Typical Protection
Criteria
 Current increase
 Under and over voltage
 Directional comparison
 Phase comparison
 Power direction
 Phase angle
 Over and under frequency
 Frequency gradient
 Harmonics
 Special criteria in machine protection

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Typical Protected
Objects
 Generators

G

< 1MVA upto 1500 MVA

 Transformers

0,1 MVA upto 1000 MVA

 Busbars

from 110 kV up to 750kV

 Lines

from 1kV upto 750 kV

 Motors

M

 Reactors, Capacitor etc.

Energy Automation

approx. 100 kVA upto 20 MVA

Power Transmission and Distribution

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Redundancy
Concepts
Busbar Protection

Line Protection
1 out of 2 principle

LP1
LP2


1

trip line

Transformer Protection
Relay
1
.
.
.
Relay
n

Energy Automation

1 out of n principle


1

trip transformer

Section
1

2 out of 2 principle
&

trip section 1

&

trip section 2

Check
Zone
Section
2

Power Transmission and Distribution

Stability Limits in Transmission System
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

70

stability limit

60

Protection50
Fault
Clearing 40
Time
30
ms
20
10
0
1300

Energy Automation

1400

1500

1600

1700

1800

1900

2000

Line
Load
MW

Power Transmission and Distribution

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Failure Rate of Redundant
Systems
0.12
0.1
Failure
rate

active failure (over trip)

0.08
0.06
0.04
passive failure (under trip)

0.02
0
1
Energy Automation

2

3

4

5

6

number of relays

7

8

9

10

Power Transmission and Distribution

Why Digital Protection?
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Integration of the protection functions for one
feeder:
Feeder protection device
Example: overhead line of extra high voltage





Energy Automation

Distance protection with I>> or u</i>-exitation
Three-pole reclosure
Directional earth fault detection
Fault location
Event log
Fault recording

Power Transmission and Distribution

Why Digital Protection?
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Self-supervision
Raising of the availability




Plausibility control of the input values
Supervision of the a/d-conversion
Internal testing of the computer systems (watch-dog)
Supervision of the memory chips
Testing the trip-relay-coil

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Contact Terms
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Contacts provide electrical outputs for tripping and remote
indication purposes

Self-reset

The contacts remain in the operated condition only while the controlling quantity is
applied, returning to their original condition when it is removed.

Hand or electrical reset

These contacts remain in the operated condition after the controlling quantity is removed.
They can be reset either by hand or electrically by an auxiliary electromagnetic element

A 'make' contact

is one that closes when the relay picks up

A break contact

is one that is closed when the relay is de-energised and opens when the relay picks up.

Energy Automation

Differential Protection

Power Transmission and Distribution

Power Transmission and Distribution

Measuring Principle
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Basis is the first Kirchhoff’s law

1

I

I1

 trip

Energy Automation

IL

2

I = II1 + I2I
In the case of load:
I1 = IL
I = 0
I2 = -IL

The currents to a node
are positive defined.

Internal fault
(înfeed from two sides)
I1 = I1,F
I2 = I2,F
I = II1,F + I2,FI

I2
I

I=0

1

e.g. Transformer

}

2

External fault
I1 = IF
I2 = -IF
I = IIF - IFI = 0

 no trip

Power Transmission and Distribution

Peculiarity of the Transformer Differential Protection
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

1. Vector group (e. g. Yd5)

2. Different CT´s,
tap changer, magnetising cur

I1
I
I

trip region

current transformer

150°

tap changer,
CT adaptation
(will be eliminated)

I2

magnetising current
ITr, IRestr.

 vector group adaptation restraint function (stabilising) is ne
 I = f (Irestr.)

3. Dynamic currents

 Irestr. = |I1| + |I2|

 inrush current

 overflux (overexcitation)blocking via harmonics
 CT saturation during
 saturation detector
external faults

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Differential Currents with Harmonics
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

i

energising Y y
i1

iDiff = i1

even,
2nd harm.

t=0

20

40

60

80 ms 100

t

80 ms 100

t

i

energising
i1

D y

2nd
harm.

t=0

paralleling
(energising transformer T1)
i2

iDiff = i1

even

T2
T1

20

even
and
odd

40

i

iDiff = i2

2nd
harm.
20

Energy Automation

60

40

60

ms

80 t

Power Transmission and Distribution

Differential Currents with Harmonics
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Over-excitation
UTr > UN

i

iDiff = i1 - i2

odd
i2

i1

3rd and
5th
harm.

External short circuit with
saturation of the CTs at the
low-voltage side

i1

20

80 t
iDiff = i1 - i2

even
and
odd

i2

internal short circuit with
saturation of the CTs at the
high-voltage side

40

60

ms

80

t
iDiff = i1

i

even
and
odd

i2 ~ 0
20

Energy Automation

60 ms

i

20

i1

40

40

60

ms

80 t

Power Transmission and Distribution

Differential Protection for Generators and Motors
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Basic principle can be nearly direct used.
1. Stabilising characteristic
I
I

Trip area

 identically current
Error currents
via CT
IRestr.

2.

Transients

transformers
 sensitive setting is

possible

sensitive settings

Insensitive settings at
generators: external short circuit with large
dc time constants
 matching transformers
in the secondary circuit
motors:
start-up currents
 different primary CTs
transient transfer features of
CT
adifferent
burden
are important (dc component)
Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Devices with Differential Protection Functions
7UM62 and7UT6xx -Family
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

 7UM621 and 7UM622
for protection objects with
two ends
(machines)
 7UT612 for protection objects
with two ends
 7UT613 for protection objects
with three ends
 7UT633 for protection objects
with three ends
 7UT635 for protection objects up
to five ends
Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Applications
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

7UM 62
7UT612

7UT613

Transformer

7UT613

Two winding transformer
2 or 3phases

Three winding transformer 1 1/2 circuit breaker application
2 or 3phases
with two winding transformer

GS
3~
7UT6

7UT613

7UM 62
7UT612

Short lines
Generator/Motor longitudinal or
transversal differential protection 2 ends

Energy Automation

Short lines
3 ends

Power Transmission and Distribution

Connection Example
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Side1
(Winding1)

Side 3
(Winding 3)

Side 2
(Winding 2)

 direct connection to the main CTs
 no matching transformers / no
matching connections

7UT613; 633

7UM 62
7UT 612 )*
)* direct zero sequence current
also possible

Energy Automation

 numerical vector group
adaptation
without zero
sequence current
correction depending of the type of
earthing of the winding.
 increased sensitivity by 33% by
measuring of the zero
sequence
current (7UT6) for single-pole
faults.
 1A/5A main CTs adaptation in the
relay
 permissible ratio CT nominal
current
to transformer nominal current up
to
1:4

Power Transmission and Distribution

Functional Diagram of the Differential Protection
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

tripping characteristic
and saturat. detection
IDiff

tripping by IDIFF>

IDiff>

i1P

i2P

i3P

measured value i1A*
preprocessing
winding 1
measured value i *
2A
preprocessing
winding 2
measured value i *
3A
preprocessing
winding 3

IStab

iDIFF = i1A* + i2A* + i3A*
basic wave
filtering
IDiff
iStab = | i*1A | +
| i*2A | + | i*3A |
rectified mean value
IStab

harmonics analysis
crossblock

Blocking
by
harmonics

blocking by
2nd harmonics
and 3rd or 4th.
or 5th harmonics

tripping
logic

&

>1

tripping by IDIFF>>

iDIFF>> Stage

i1P, i2P, i3P
i *1A, i *2A, i *3A
IDiff
iDiff
IStab
iStab
Energy Automation

TRIP L1
TRIP L2

fast tripping with
evaluation of
IDiff and iDiff

TRIPcommand

sampling values from winding 1, 2, 3
values after vector group and CT matching
basic wave contents in the differential current
differential current
rectified mean value of the stabilising current
stabilising current

TRIP L3

Power Transmission and Distribution

Measuring Pre-processing, Example for CT Matching (Part
1)
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

SN = 100MVA
1000/1A
IP1 = 500A
(load current)

UN1 = 110kV UN2 = 30kV
2000/1A
Side 1

IN, Trafo = 525A

IS1 = 0,5A

Side 2

IP2 = 1833A
(load current)

IN, Trafo = 1924A

7UM 62 IS2 = - 0,92A
7UT6
measured

secondary currents

IDiff = ?
IRestr. = ?

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Measuring Pre-processing, Example for CT Matching (Part
2)
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

1. Calculation of the transformer nominal current
2. Correction factor

SN

3  UN INTrafo =
I NCT
I NTrafo

3. Correction nominal current
4. Calculation of the differential and stabilising current

Idiff = |I1' + I2' |

Calculation example:
SN = 100MVA; UN1 = 110kV; UN2 = 30kV; IN1CT = 1000A; IN2CT = 2000A
Correction factors:

kW1 = 1,9;

kW2 = 1,04

Load conditions:

Ip1 = 500A;

Ip2 = 1833A

Secondary currents: 

Is1 = 0,5A;

Matched currents:

I1' = 0,95A;

Energy Automation

Is2 = 0,92A
I2' = 0,95A

I

Power Transmission and Distribution

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Example Calculation: Vector Group Correction
Situation: Single Phase Fault, No Load
L1

F1

ISC

F2

Ynd1

ISC/ 
Source

L2
ISC/ 

L3
ISC
F1
IL1 =
IL2 =

IL3 =
IE =

F2
-ISC
0
0
ISC

Energy Automation

IL1 =
IL2 =

0
0

IL3 = 0
IE = ISC

Il 1 =

ISC / 

Il 2 = - ISC / 
Il 3 =

0

Power Transmission and Distribution

Tripping Characteristic
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

 flexible adaptation to various transformers, e.g. with tap changer or different main
 high stability against external faults with CT saturation
 fast tripping for solid short-circuits within one period
Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Relay Settings
Influence of the Tap Changer
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Problem:

The tap changer modifies the transformer ratio
additional error in the differential current

Example:

tap changer c = 16%

c
2 c
c = 0,16  I diff  0 ,087 I res
I diff  I res

If IN.Tr. is flowing the additional Idiff is approx. 17,5% of the transformer
current. With slope 1 = 0,25 there is the pick-up threshold at 50%.
The security margin is for steady state conditions high enough.
Considering transient conditions (CT-influence) a small increasing of
slope 1 (to 0,3) is recommended.
Recommendation for voltage setting:

UN, New

Umax  Umin
= 2
= UN (1 - c2 )
Umax + Umin

c: steps of tap changer (p.u.)
Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Pick up of Differential Protection
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

For triggering of internal tasks, events and fault records the differential
protection function needs a pickup information. This pickup becomes
active, if the differential current or the restraint current is over an internal
threshold (dotted line). Each external large current leads to a pickup.

Pickup doesn‘t always means internal failure!
Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

IDiff / IRestr.- Areas for Short Circuit / Normal Operation
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

I diff
I NTr

internal
short circuit/
Inrush
limiting curve

external short
circuit with
CT saturation

1

external
short
circuit
normal operation

Energy Automation

2

(nominal current)

(low current)
4

external short
circuit with
a high current

I Restr.
I NTr

Power Transmission and Distribution

Rush Stabilisation
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Cross-block = No (phase separate blocking)
iRUSH = iDiff

filter window
1 cycle

L1-block

Inrush current
in one phase

L2-block
L3-block

1P
I2HAR
Idiff

2P

3P

&
&

Idiff, L1 > trip blocking
Idiff, L2 > trip blocking
Idiff, L3 > trip blocking

t

Cross-block = Yes (blocking of all phases)

block

L1-block

setting value

15 %

&

L2-block

OR
1

IDiff > trip blocking for a limited time

L3-block

no block
t

 Recognise inrush condition by evaluating the ratio 2nd harmonic I2HAR to
basic wave IDiff.
 Time limit for cross-block. Reliable reaction to the inrush condition with
cross-block.
Trip of a short circuit after the set time delay.
Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Example of an Inrush Current
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

A unit transformer (IN = 396 A) was switched on from the high voltage side

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Stabilising at Motor Starting
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Typical for motor starting is the starting current and the superimposed dc
component with a large time constant. The current transformers (ct) transfer
different this dc component. The result is a differential current and the risk of an
over-function is given.

Detection of motor starting:
Increases the pick-up values for a restricted time

Criterion:
Supervision of
restraint current
Istab > I-Restr. Startup
(until 2 I/InO)
than the
Start-Factor (max. 2)
is active for a restricted
time
T Start Max
(Duration of dynamical
increasing of pickup)
Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Setting Recommendations
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Power System Data 1

The setting of this parameters are important, because they are necessary for
the scaling and “direction definition” of the measurands. At the protection
object transformer the setting for star point Solid Earthed leads to a zero
sequence elimination. Isolated leads to a direct current comparison
(without zero sequence consideration). This setting is only allowed at a really
free star point (no over voltage arrester, no Peterson coil).
At the protection object generator always the direct current comparison
method is active (no zero sequence elimination).

Setting values:

Under normal conditions the factory settings correspond with the practical
experiences.
It’s not necessary to change these parameters.
At transformers with tap changer the inclination of SLOPE 1 should be
increased. The setting for the inrush detection can be final select during the
primary test. If we are on the limits (low setting value) an activation of
CROSSBL. 2. Harm. is recommended.
If are current transformer operates on their limit the pickup value Idiff > and die
slope 1 should be increased.
The Idiff >> - stage must be set over the maximum inrush current.
At generators and motors SLOPE 1 can be reduced (to 0,15), if the current
transformers are identical. At generators the Idiff>>-stage must be set over the
transient fault current (3 to 7 IN,G).
Additional at generators it’s also recommended an activation of increasing the
Energy Automation
pickup
threshold during starting or at external faults (Start-Factor > 1).

Power Transmission and Distribution

Earth Current Differential Protection in the 7UM62
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

The earth current differential protection (restricted earth fault protection - REF)
offers a higher sensitivity at single phase faults (approx. 5 %) against the
conventional protection. It’s used at generators with low ohmic star point or at
earthed Wye connected transformer windings .
Connection 1

protection
object

Energy Automation

Connection 2

protection
object

At connection 1 the zero
sequence current is
calculated from the phase
currents and direct
measured on the star point
(transformer application)
At connection 2 the zero
sequence current is
calculated only from the
phase currents.
(generator application,
where more than one
generator feeds into the
busbar)

Power Transmission and Distribution

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Measuring Principle of Earth Current Differential Protection
in the 7UM62
protection object:
generator

iL1S1

3I 01  I L1S1  I L2S1  I L3S1

iL1S2

iL2S1

iL2S2

iL3S1

iL3S2

iee2

3I 02  I L1S2  I L2S2  I L3S2

3I02

3I01

or

3I 02  I EE2

1
1

I/InO

Tripping range

I0Diff

Stabilizing range
Range not possible

I-EDS>
1

I0Stab
Energy Automation

I/InO

I 0 Diff  3I 01  3I 02
I 0 Stab  3I 01  3I 02

Power Transmission and Distribution

Commissioning with Browser- Support
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Currents on the high
and low voltage side

Tripping characterist
with actual
operating points

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Benefits for the Customer
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

 Protection relay with flexible adaptation to the transformer/generator/mo
or short line. Programming of the device data in the relay.
 Reduced amount of wiring by direct connection to the main CTs.
No matching transformers and therefore no wiring errors.
 Zero sequence current can be measured (in the 7UT6).
Sensitivity for single-pole faults in the transformer increased by 33% .
 Flexible adaptation of the tripping characteristic to various main CTs,
tapped transformers.
 Exact discrimination between the short circuit condition and the inrush
condition by on-line analysis of the harmonics. Fast tripping for
high-current faults. Saturation detector for external faults.
 Thermal monitoring of two transformer windings.
 Back-up DMTL/IDMTL with reverse blocking for one winding.
 Sensitive short circuit protection for faults winding against earth.
 Manifold commissioning aids.

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Why impedance protection?
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Situation:

Meshed network and two infeeds
Directional overcurrent time relays

0,6s

0,3s

0,6s

0,3s

0,6s

0,3s

0,6s

0,3s

non-selective trip

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Basic principle of impedance protection
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Localization of short-circuits by means of an impedance measurement:
- fault on the protected line

Z1

relay A

- fault outside the protected line

Z2

relay A

selectivity

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Distance measurement (principle)
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

IL

Z

I

L

1
L

ZL = RL + j XL

I

2
L
3
E

I

ZE = RE +j XE

ZE

UL1 UL2 UL3
6 loops:

3 phase- phase loops and
3 phase- ground loops

phase- phase -loop:

UL1-L2 = ZL ( IL1 - IL2)
Measured current
measured voltage

The same applies to the remaining loops

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Distance measurement (principle)
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

IL Z
I

1
L

L

ZL = RL + j XL

I

2
L
3
E

I

ZE = RE +j XE

ZE

UL1 UL2 UL3
phase-ground-loop:

UL1 = L1 · ( RL + j XL )- E · ( RE +j XE)

L1, E measured current
UL1

measured voltage

The same applies to the remaining loops

06.08.97
dtgerdis3

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Load and short-circuit impedances
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

ZL

distance relay
operating
characteristic

ZLF1
ZLF2

Fault area

X

ZL
ZLF2

D
RR

ZF2
ZLoad

RR

ZLF1

ZF1

Inc

L
Fault in
reverse
direction

Energy Automation

SC2

SC1

in g
reas

load

R
Load area

RF
F1

RF
F2

ZLoad

Power Transmission and Distribution

Principle of (analog) distance relaying
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

ZS A

ISC

ZL

B

ZSC

E

U1= k1 USC= k1 ISCZSC.
Relay design:
operation if
U1< U2
i.e. ZSC< ZReplica

comparator

ZReplica (line replica impedance)
(corresponds to the set zone reach)

U2=k2
ISCZReplica

X

ZReplica

Ext. fault

Internal fault
R

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Typical distance zone-characteristic
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

MHO-circle

ZR

X

shifted circle

X

ZSC'

ZSC'

external
fault

ZSC

ZSC
centre

internal
fault

R

 

R
polarised
MHO-circle

quadrilateral

X
X

ZS = 0

RF

XA

ZL

R

ZS small

ZS high
Energy Automation

ZSC-L

settable arc
compensation

Rarc
RA

ZS

R

Power Transmission and Distribution

Graded distance zones
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Z3
t = grading time
time

Z2

Z1

t3
t2

t1

A

B
D1

C
D2

Grading rules:

Z1 = 0,85 ZAB
Z2 = 0,85 (ZAB + 0,85 ZBC)
Z3 = 0,85 (ZAB + 0,85 (ZBC + 0,85 ZCD))
Energy Automation

D
D3
distance

Safety margin is 15
%:
- line error
- CT, VT error
- measuring error

Power Transmission and Distribution

Determination of grading times
(With numerical relays 250 ms is possible)
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

2nd Zone: It must initially allow the 1st zone on the neighbouring feeder(s) to clear the fault.
The grading time therefore results from the addition of the following times:
• operating time of the neighbouring feeder mechanical 25 - 80 ms
static:
15 - 40
digital:
15 - 30
+ circuit breaker operating time

HV / EHV:

60 ms (3 cycles) / 40 ms (2 cycles)
MV
up to about 80 ms (4 cycles)

+ distance relay reset time

mechanical: approx. 60-100 ms
static:
approx. 30 ms
digital:
approx. 20 ms.

+ errors of the distance relay internal timers mechanical: 5% of the set time, minimum 60-100 ms
static:
3% of the set time, minimum 10 ms
digital:
1% of the set time, minimum 10 ms
+ distance protection starting time *)

mechanical: O/C starter: 10 ms, impedance starter: 25 ms
static:
O/C stater: 5 ms, impedance starter: 25 ms
digital:
generally 15 ms

+ safety margin (ca.)

grading;

mechanical-mechanical:

100 m

static/digital-mechanical or vice versa:

75 ms

digital-digital
static-static
*) only relevant if the set relay times relate to the instant of fault
detection /orzone
pick-up. This is the case 50 ms
with all Siemens relays. There are other relays where the time is adapted by software to relate to the
instant of fault inception. In the latter case the starting time has to be dropped.
Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Determination of fault direction
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Fault location

Where is the fault ?
Current area for
forward faults

USC

SC

X

Impedance area for
forward faults

SC

ZSC

SC
R

SC
Current area for
reverse faults

current / voltage diagram

Z'SC
Impedance area for
reverse faults

impedance diagram

The impedance also shows the direction, but ....
Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Impedance measurement and directional determination
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Why impedance measurement and directional determination separately?
A

B

X

line characteristic
fault with arc resistance
in forward direction
fault in forward direction

close-in fault
R
fault in reverse
direction

direction may be determined together with the impedance measurement
but: problems may arise in certain cases (e.g. close-in faults)
separate directional determination required!
Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Impedance zones of digital relays (7SA6 and 7SA52)
wa
for

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

rd s

X

Line

Distance zones
Inclined with line angle 
Angle  prevents overreach of
Z1 on faults with fault
resistance that are fed from
both line ends

Z5
Z4
Z2
Z1B

Z1

rev
ers
e

Load

Load

R

forw
a

Z3

e
ers
rev

Energy Automation

rds

Fault detection
no fault detection polygon:
the largest zone
determines the fault
detection characteristic
simple setting of load
encroachment area with
Rmin and Load

Power Transmission and Distribution

Method used in 7SA52 and 7SA6 to measure I and V
Using a signal model (Kalman-Filter)
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

I

R

L

V

Phasors

Z = R + jL

V = I  Z

t

yk  A  sin   0 k  TA   B   cos  0 k  TA   e   C  cos  0 k  TA 


yk is the sampled value (v or i) - by assuming
 = 60 ms the following simplification results

yk  a  sin   0 k  TA   b  cos  0 k  TA 
Energy Automation

Im

current

a

voltage
a
b

b

Re

Power Transmission and Distribution

Impedance calculation using U- and I-phasors
Principle
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

U  U  e jU  U  e jtU

U    tU

 I    tI

R

X

I  I  e j  I  I  e j t I

t 0

Z

 Z  U   I

Z  Z  e j Z  Z   cos  Z  j  sin  Z 
 R jX

U U  e jU U j  U  I  U
U


Z 


e


cos




j
sin  U   I 
U
I
j I
I
I e
I
I
I

R
Energy Automation

X

Power Transmission and Distribution

Fast adaptive impedance measurement
Filters with different lengths
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

E. g. Zone Z1

Estimate 1 (n=5)
Estimate 2 (n=6)
Estimate 3 (n=8)
Estimate 4 (n=10)
Estimate 5 (n=13)
Estimate 6 (n=15)
Normal 1 (n = 21)
Normal 2 (n = 26)
Normal 3
0
10
Jump detected

20

30

40

50

60

70

80
ms

Least Square Estimate with quality control
Adaptive Zone restriction
Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Numerical filtered phasor measurement
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

X

R

1. Fast operation  Use short data window
2. High accuracy 

High selectivity

3. Signal distortion does not cause delay or maloperation

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

SIR - Definition
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

SIR (Source Impedance Ratio) describes the ratio
between the source impedance and the line impedance!

If
ZL

G

E

VF

distance relay

SIR 

ZS
ZL

E
Vf 
1  SIR

High SIR = Small loop voltage V F
in case of a fault at the end of the line
Note: SIR trip time curves are mostly related to zone 1, i.e. ZL = Z1

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

SIR - Considerations about line length and infeed
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

The SIR gives some information about the power of infeed
and the line length!
SIR > 4
SIR < 4 and >0.5
SIR < 0.5

short line*
medium line*
long line*

For a distance relay it is more hard to operate on a short
line (large SIR)
than on a long line (small SIR)!
*Classification according IEEE-Guide

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Trip time curves at SIR = 1
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

SIRSIR=1
= 1 (A-G)
(A G)
50

45

40

Other relays

trip p in g tim e (m s)

35

30

25

20

7SA522

15

10

5

0
0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

% of zone s etting

Energy Automation

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

100

Power Transmission and Distribution

Trip time curves at SIR = 30
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

SIR=30 (A-G)

SIR = 30 (A G)
50

45

40

Other relays
trip p in g tim e (m s)

35

30

25

20

7SA522

15

10

5

0
0

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

45

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

95

100

% of zone s etting

High SIR (low voltage) doesn’t effect the tripping time in numerical relays

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Selectivity in distance protection,
Teleprotection is the solution
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Normal setting: X1 = 0.85 XL

2

1
15%
Faults in this area
are
tripped from side 2
in t2

70%

15%

Faults in this area are tripped Faults in this area
from both sides in first-zone are tripped from
side 2 in t2
time

Faults on approximately 70% of the line length are cleared
without delay at both line ends
Faults in the remaining 30% of the line length
are cleared with a time delay.
Remedy:

Exchange of information between the two line ends

Required:

Communication channel (PLC, microwave radio, fibre optic, etc.)
Teleprotection logic (dedicated device or internal
function in numerical protection devices)

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Teleprotection Schemes
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Permissive Underreach PUTT
Permissive Overreach POTT
Blocking
Unblocking

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Application of Teleprotection Schemes
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

PUTT

POTT

Blocking

Unblocking

Middle + long lines
with FS-Carrier
or FO

Pref. short lines
with FS-Carrier
(2-Ph coupling)
FO or MW

All lines with
AM-Carrier
(less reliable
channel)

EHV-lines with
FS-Carrier.
Continuous signal
sending necessary
(must be admissible)

If second zone
tripping for near end
faults not allowed.
Not applicable to
lines with weak in
feed.

Only forward
overreaching zone
necessary

Reverse looking
blocking zone (fast)
additionally
necessary

No reverse looking
blocking zone
necessary

Simple logic!
Complex logic!
Current reversal
guide
ECHO-logic
(WI-logic)
PUTT - Permissive Under-reach Transfer Trip

Energy Automation

No monitoring of the
AM-channel!

POTT - Permissive Overreach Transfer Trip

Power Transmission and Distribution

7SA522 - Permissive underreach transfer trip (PUTT)
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Z1(A)

A

Z 1B(B)

Z1
(A)
Z1B
T1B
(A)

TS
T1

OR

transmit

Trip
receive

transmit

Trip
receive

TS

Energy Automation

Z 1B(A)

Z 1(B)

&
Further
zones

B

TS
T1

OR

Z1
(B)
Z1B
T1B
(A)

&
Further
zones

Power Transmission and Distribution

7SA522 - Permissive overreach transfer trip (POTT)
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Z1(A)

A

Z 1B(B)

Z1B
T1B
(A)

& TS

OR

OR

transmit

Trip
receive

transmit

Trip
receive

TS

Energy Automation

Z 1B(A)

Z 1(B)

&
Z1 or
further
zones

B

OR

TS

OR

&
&

Z1B
T1B
(B)

Z1 or
further
zones

Power Transmission and Distribution

7SA522 - Blocking
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

FD (B)

d
dt

(u,i)
(A)

Z1 (A)

A

FD (A)

Z1B (B)

B

Z1B(A) FD (A)

FD (B)

Z1 (B)

40 ms

40 ms

Forw.
(A)
FD
(A)

d
dt

(u,i)
(B)

Forw.
(B)
&

1

TS

transm.

1

transm.

TS

TV

Z1B
T1B
(A)
Z1 or
further
zones

FD
(B)

TV

&

1

trip

rec.

1

trip

Z1B
T1B
(B)

&

Z1 or
further
zones

rec.

TV

Energy Automation

&

TS

Power Transmission and Distribution

7SA522 - Unblocking
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Z1 (A)

A
Z1B (B)

Z1B
T1B
(A)

Z1B (A)

Z1(B)

&

fU

1

TS

&

Z1 or
further
zones

B

1
Unblocklogic

transm. f
0

fU

trip

U
rec.

rec.

f0 – Off frequency (monitoring frequency)
fU – Unblock frequency (send frequency)

B

&

&

Unblocklogic

U – Unblocking signal
B – Blocking signal

TS

Energy Automation

TS

1

trip

U
B

1

f0 transm.

Z1B
T1B
(B)

Z1 or
further
zones

Power Transmission and Distribution

7SA522 and 7SA6
Teleprotection via serial remote relay interface
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

PUTT and POTT schemes available: “plug and protect”
Echo, weak infeed trip and direct trip
Phase segregated
Communication prepared for 2 or 3 terminal lines
Transmission of operational measured values from the remote end(s)
28 remote signals can be configured in addition to the
teleprotection scheme
Number of remote relay interfaces: 7SA522 -> 2
7SA6 -> 1

>
Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Transient Blocking for Permissive Schemes
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Weak Infeed Echo Logic
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Receive
Signal

No Distance
Pick-up
Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

7SA522 - Echo and Tripping
in case of no-infeed or weak-infeed
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Configuration

Settings

Matrix
The receive signal is derived from :
and
*Three-terminal schemes are supported as well

Phase segregated weak-infeed tripping
Note: The echo signal must be routed in
addition to the send signal on the
transmission signal contact

!
17.10.97
en513ase2

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Overreach zone setting for POTT and Unblocking
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

incorrect!

Reverse
looking
zone (A)

Z1B(B)

Energy Automation

Z1B(A)

A

B

Reverse
looking
zone (B)

correct

Power Transmission and Distribution

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Digital Station
Protection

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Design variants

7SS50 Central Design
Matching Transformer measurement
7SS51 Central Design
Measurement per Phase

S IP R O T E C

7SS52 Decentral Design
Measurement per Phase

B U S B A R P R O T E C T IO N

1

B U SB A R P R O TE CT IO N

Energy Automation

2
SIPROTEC

7 S S5 2 11 -5 C A 00

3
SIPROTEC

B US B A R P R OT E C TI ON

7S S 52 11 -5C A 0 0

7S S5 21 1 - 5C A0 0

48
SIPROTEC

BU SB A R P R O T E C T IO N

7S S 521 1 -5 C A 0 0

SIPROTEC

B U S B A R P R O TE C T IO N

7S S5 2 1 1 -5 C A 0 0

Power Transmission and Distribution

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Function Overview

Consequent further development of the central digital
busbar-/circuit-breaker failure protection 7SS50/51

Further development of the proved measurement-principles, that
Siemens uses in conventional, analog and digital Technique.

High re-use of the software of the 7SS50/51, that today in app.
400 installations is established

Tripping time <15 ms at the contact of the tripping-relays

Transformer saturation allowed after 3 ms

Integrated two-staged circiut-breaker protection

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Function Overview

Phase-selective measurement for each busbar part.

Additional, disconnector undependened 'Checkzone'

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Busbar sections and Check-Zone
Busbar selective
System I

Energy Automation

X

X

X

Check-Zone

X

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Busbar selective
System II

Power Transmission and Distribution

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Function Overview

Phase selective measurements for each busbar section

Additional, disconnector undependened 'Checkzone'

 By-pass-busbar as separate busbar-section
 Detection of short-circuits also in 'gray area' of the copper field
between circuit-breaker and current transformer
 Overcurrent interlocking the TRIP-command pro feeder
 Feeder- out-of-operation for revision work

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

System Periphery

4-sub section busbar or 3-sub section withby-pass busbars

48 feeders

12 busbar sections

16 couplings at 2-sub section busbar, 8 at 3/4-sub section-busbar

24 Sectionalizing switch-disconnector

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

System Structure

S IP R O T E C

central
unit
Central

B U S B A R

1

2
SIPR OTEC

P R O T E C T IO N

unit

7 S S 5 2 1 1 -5 C A 0 0

3
SIPRO TEC

48
SIPRO TEC

SIPRO TEC

units
Bay bay
units
B USB A R PR OTECTION

7S S521 1-5C A0 0

BUS BA R P R OT ECT ION

Energy Automation

7SS52 11-5 CA 00

BUS B AR PR OTEC TION

7S S5 211 -5 CA 00

BU S BAR PROTE C TION

7SS 5 211 -5 CA00

Power Transmission and Distribution

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Bay unit

SIEMENS

SIPROTEC

Q1 EIN
Q1 AUS

RUN

ERROR

Q2 EIN
Q2 AUS
Q3 EIN
Q3 AUS
Q9 EIN
Q9 AUS
Q7/Q4 EIN
Q7/Q4 AUS
AUSLÖSUN
G
MITNAHME
AUSSER
BETR
ÜBERWACH

LED

MENU

ESC

ENTER

F1

F3

F2

F4

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Tasks of the bay-units

Detection, re-conditioning, testing and display of the
measurements

Special treatment of the measurements in coupler panel

Detection of the disconnector-position

Processing of the information for the circuit-breaker
failure protection

Serial copplung for central-unit, alarm transmission

Zyklic testing, self-diagnose

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Connections panel of the bay-unit
IL 1
IL 2
I

18 LED s

L3

I0

L C D -A n z e ig e

Q 1 E IN
Q 1 AUS

F o l ie n t a s t a t u r

TTL
LW L

Z e n t r a le in h e it
( L W L , 1 , 2 M B i t /s )

TTL
LW L
TTL

Q 2 E IN
Q 2 AUS

V .2 4

B e d ie n u n g /D ia g n o s e
(R S 2 3 2 , 1 9 ,2 k B d )

Q 3 E IN
Q 3 AUS
Q 4 /7 E IN
Q 4 /7 A U S

A U S L 1 /1
A U S L 1 /2

Q 9 E IN
Q 9 AUS

A U S L 2 /1
A U S L 2 /2

F e ld e in h e it

S V S SVS
L1
SVS
S V S L1
L2
L2
S V S SVS
L3

7SS521

L3

S V S LS-EIN-Befehl
- Im p u ls /
L S P rü fu n g

A U S L 3 /1
A U S L 3 /2

A U S /1
A U S /2

SVS-Freigabe

S V S - F r e ig a b e

M itn a h m e
G egenende

A U S LS
- F rPrüfung
e ig a b e
L S - ALS
U SAUS
L S - E IN

Abzweig außer Betrieb

LS Störung

L S b e r e it

G e rä te s tö ru n g

Abz. außer
B e trie b
UH+
UH-

=

=

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Central Device

SIEMENS

SIPROTEC
RUN

7SS520

ERROR

MENU

ENTER

ESC
LED

Energy Automation

F1

7

8

9

F2

4

5

6

F3

1

2

3

F4

.

0

+/-

Power Transmission and Distribution

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Tasks of the Central unit

Phase- and section selective busbar protection

Circuit-breaker failure protection

Data-traffic and synchronisation with the bay units

Zyklic test of the whole system

Management of the parametrisation- and configuration data

Operation interface

Operation- and fault alarms, fault recording

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Connections of the central unit
F e ld e in h e it 1
( L W L , 1 ,2 M B it /s )

M e ld u n g 1

TTL
LW L
34 LEDs

F e ld e in h e it 4 8
( L W L , 1 ,2 M B it /s )

TTL
LW L

L C D -A n z e ig e
F o lie n t a s ta t u r

TTL

S y s t e m s c h n it t s t e lle
(L W L )

LW L
B e d ie n u n g /D ia g n o s e
( R S 2 3 2 , 1 9 ,2 k B d )

TTL
V .2 4

Z e n tr a le in h e it
Z e it s y n c h r o n is a t io n
D i f f .- s t r o m ü b e r w a c h u n g fr e ig e b e n
S t ö r s c h r e ib u n g
f r e ig e b e n
S t ö r s c h r e ib u n g
e in fr ie r e n
M e ld u n g 1 6 ( 3 2 )

L E D - Q u it t ie r e n

G e rä te s tö ru n g
UH+
UH-

Energy Automation

=

=

Power Transmission and Distribution

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Serial Interface Bay unit-Central unit

Synchrone data transmission

Full duplex traffic with 2 fibre-optic (62,5/125um, 820nm, 1,5km,
FSMA)

Data protocol according to HDLC with transmission of telegramm
length (High Level Data Link Control procedures for data
communication)

1,2 MBaud

Zyklus time 1ms (50Hz), 0.83ms (60Hz)

Hamming-distance d = 4

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Circuit-breaker failure protection

Two-staged for fault outside the busbar areas
 Stage 1: repeating of the feeder-off command (1/3-polig)
 Stage 2: Switching-off all feeders at the same
busbar section after Differential
measurement with
reverse feeder current

Phase selective unbalance (reversion)

Differential current limit normalized from feeder nominal current

Separate set values IDiff and IStab for circuit-breaker failure

Specific feeder minimum current limit

Selective breaker intertripping of the opposide ends at circuit-breaker
failure

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Circuit-breaker failure protection

For faults inside the busbar areas
 breaker intertripping at opposide ends

By external autonomous circuit-breaker failure
 Selective busbar distribution of the TRIP-commands with overcurrent

release
in connection with external circuit-breaker failure-protection device

Pro feeder free eligible functionality of the SVS

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Function Assignment
Central unit

Master,
managt
das
manages
the
System

ZPS
(BSZ1)

bearbeitet
processing
Check-Zone
Check-Zone

DPR

ZPS
(BSZ2)
DPR

bearbeitet
processing
geradzahlige
parrity numered
Abtastwerte
sampling
values

ZPS
(BSZ3)
DPR

Processing
bearbeitet
odd numbered
ungeradzahlige
sampling values
Abtastwerte

ZPS
(SBK)
DPR
ZPS
(SK1)
1 2

koppelt jeweils bis
zu 8 Feldeincoupling
upto
an
8heiten
bay units

8

Feeder 1

Bay unit

Energy Automation

ZPS
(SK6)
48

Processing the bayinformation, alarms
and commands

A/D µC

CPS: Central Processor Station Protection
COC: Control, Operation, Copling

DPR

Feeder 2

Bay unit
A/D µC

PP: Processing Protection
SC: Serial Coupling

IOC: In-output Central unit
CS: Current Supply

Power Transmission and Distribution

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Hardware Structure
Central unit
ZPS
(BSZ1)

ZPS
(BSZ2)

ZPS
(BSZ3)

DPR

DPR

DPR

DPR

DPR

DPR

ZPS
(SK1)

ZPS
(SK2)

ZPS
(SK3)

EAZ1

EAZ2

DPR

DPR

DPR

ZPS
(SK4)

ZPS
(SK5)

ZPS
(SK6)

8

48

Feeder1

Bay unit

Feeder 2

Bay unit

A/D µC

A/D µC

CPS: Central Processor Station Protection
COC: Control, Operation, Copling

Energy Automation

PP: Processing Protection
SC: Serial Coupling

Modular
system

Less assembly
group-types

Easy upgraded

Simple wiring

SV

ZPS
(SBK)

1 2

Feeder 48

Bay unit
A/D µC

IOC: In-output Central unit
CS: Current Supply

Power Transmission and Distribution

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

TRIP- Control and Testing

Short circuit inside the
Check Zone calculated
from all sample values

Short circuit in selective
section x calculated from
parity numbered sections

Short circuit in selective
section x calculated from
odd numbered sections

ZPS
(BSZ 1)

ZPS
(BSZ 2)

ZPS
(BSZ 3)

DPR

DPR

DPR

TRIP-circuittesting

OFF-Relay
(pro feeder)
+L

L-

Three-canaled TRIP-control pro feeder

Energy Automation

back to table of contents

GA
GAFront
FrontView
Viewof
ofaaControl
ControlPanel
Panel

Power Transmission and Distribution

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

1.

Shows the Total height of the Panel

2.

Base frame dimensions are shown

3.

Width of the panel is shown

4.

Height at which various equipments are
mounted are shown

5.

Mimic details ae shown.

6.

Remember while doing this you need to match
the mimic with existing panel

7.

Keep things like Contol switch and Hand reset
Flag of relays and push button at operating
height

8.

Between various rows of Items remember to
keep 50 mm gap so that cable trough can be
put

9.

Ensure that switch doesnot foul on other
equipment when it is turned for operation

Antivibration Pad to be provided if required.
Our Standard
2200 Panel + 100 Base + 15 AV Pad = Total 2315
2200 Panel + 100 Base = 2300

Energy Automation

GA
GAFront
FrontView
Viewof
ofaaRelay
RelayPanel
Panel
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Ensuer sufficient space for
horizontal and Vertifal mounting as
well as easy servicing on later date

Ensure sufficient space for Cable
trough mounting

Ensure sufficient space in side of the
panel for bends available there

Energy Automation

Side
SideView
Viewof
of Simplex
SimplexPanel
Panel
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

1.

Depth of the panel is shown

2.

Bus wire slot dimention and
location is shown

3.

Door is single leaf or double leaf is
shown

4.

Cable entry details are shown

2

1

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

3

Antivibration pad
will be here if used

4

Side
SideView
Viewof
of Duplex
DuplexPanel
Panel

Power Transmission and Distribution

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Front
Panel

Corridor
Panel

Rear
Panel
Cable
entry

Energy Automation

19”
19”Rack
Racktype
typepanels
panels

Power Transmission and Distribution

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

1U = 44.5 mm

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Panels
Panelswith
withFront
FrontGlass
Glassand
andall
allEquipment
Equipmentmounted
mountedon
onSwing
Swingframe
frame
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Energy Automation

Panels
Panelswith
withEquipment
Equipmentmounted
mountedinside
insideon
onSwing
SwingFrame
Frame

Power Transmission and Distribution

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Energy Automation

Internal
Internalview
viewof
ofPanel
Panel
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Schematic
SchematicDrawing
DrawingContents
Contents
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*
*

Power Transmission and Distribution

INDEX
LEGEND
SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM
TRIP LOGIC (IF ANY)
DC DISTRIBUTION & DC SUPPLY SUPERVISION
AC DISTRIBUTION & AC SUPPLY SUPERVISION (IF ANY)
INDICATING METERING CIRCUIT WITH TRANSDUCERS
ENERGY METER CIRCUIT
PT FUSE FAIL CKTS
CT / PT CONNECTION OF MAIN RELAYS
CT / PT CONNECTION OF BACKUP RELAYS
BINARY INPUTS OF MAIN RELAYS
BINARY INPUTS OF BACKUP RELAYS
CONTACT DISTRIBUTION OF MAIN RELAYS
CONTACT DISTRIBUTION OF BACKUP RELAYS
TRIP RELAY CIRCUIT
CB TRIP CIRCUIT WITH TRIP CIRCUIT SUPERVISION
CB CLOSING CIRCUIT
ISOLATOR OPENING/ CLOSING CIRCUIT
TEMPERATURE SCANNER CIRCUITS
CB CONTACT MULTIPLICATION RELAY
OTHER CONTACT MULTIPLICATION RELAY CIRCUITS
SWITCH CONTACT DISTRIBUTION
PUSH BUTTON CIRCUIT FOR GENERATOR APPLICATIONS
SYNCHRONISING CIRCUIT WITH CHECK SYNC, GUARD & MULTIPLICATION RELAY
ANNUNCIATION CIRCUIT
INDICATION CIRCUIT
Energy Automation

SLD
SLDwith
withCT
CT//PT
PTLocation
Location
Mentions this core is
what
circuit

No. 1connected
with
to
Energy Automation

CT Sec
Shorting

Mentions the Bus
layout

Energy Automation

Mentions CT Detaiis

Power Transmission and Distribution

DC
DC//AC
ACDistribution
DistributionCircuit
Circuit

Power Transmission and Distribution

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Can be used for
Future tapping

Iincoming DC Source

Tapped in Buswire
block
Incoming protected
by a Fuse or MCB
Taken for adjacent
panel or for
associated panel

Every ckt protected
by Fuse of MCB

Energy Automation

Metering
MeteringCircuit
Circuit
No. 1 withShows
Energy Automation

Wire is
from
Previous
Sheet

•Check for Polarity of connection in case of MW, MVAR
•Check for 3 Ph 3 W or 3 Ph 4 W

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Energy
EnergyMeter
MeterConnection
Connection
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Typical
TTB Usage

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Annunciator
AnnunciatorCircuit
Circuit
Output of
annunciator for Bell /
Hooter of Trip / Non
trip

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Potential Free Inputs
of ANnunciator

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Push button for
accept / reset /
lamptest

CT
CT//PT
PTConnection
Connectionto
toRelays
Relays
Test block connection
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Binary
BinaryInput
InputConnection
Connection
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Binary
BinaryOutput
OutputConnection
Connection
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Trip
TripRelay
RelayCircuit
Circuit
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Trip
TripCircuit
Circuit&
&Its
Itssupervision
supervision
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Trip Ckt of CB

Trip Ckt Suprn

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

CB
CBClosing
ClosingCircuits
Circuitsand
andits
itsInterlocks
Interlocks

Power Transmission and Distribution

Isolator Condition
No. 1•with
Energy Automation

•Earth Switch Condition
•Field CB Condition
•86 Trip Relay Not Optd
•BB Trip Relay not optd
•CB Open Condition
•Other External Permission
•Scada Closing

Energy Automation

Terminal
TerminalBlocks
Blocks

Power Transmission and Distribution

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Why is a terminal Block used?
A TB Is used when any cable or wire connection enters and exits a Panel.
What are the Types of Terminal Blocks ?
Stud Type – generally Used for All Circuits
Disconnecting Type – generally used for CT and PT Circuits where testing might be essential.
Ring type Lugs are used for connection of Wires to the TBs
Other type of lugs are Flat type and Pin Type which are being used with pin type TBs – Generally not in
Siemens use

TERMINAL BLOCK ALLOCATION
USE THE FOLLOWING TERMINAL BLOCK SERIES DEPENDING OF APPLICATION
X1 - CT / PT CONNECTION
X2 - CB CONNECTION
X3 - ISOLATOR
X4 - ANNUN / INDICATION / OTHER
X5 - SPARE
X6 - INCOMING AC/DC
X7, X70, X71 - BUS WIRING
X8 - SCADA
Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Painting
Paintingof
ofPanels
Panels
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

What is the Colour of the Panel (Exterior and Interior) To be mentioned with IS Shade
It is to be mentioned whether the Finish should be Glossy, Semiglossy or MAC finish
Thickness of Paint should be mentioned in Microns varies from 50-150
Base frame colour is generally black

Types of Painting – Powder coating (Followed in Siemens), Spray painting.

Energy Automation

Panel
Panelconstruction
construction//Degree
Degreeof
ofProtection
Protection

Power Transmission and Distribution

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

This mentions about the quality of enclosure mentioned as IP31 … IP55 with each digit specifying for
entry of dust with varying dimensions, water and at what angle or position of the object.
Thickness of sheet steel is varying for load bearing member and other parts of panel. Generally it is 3mm
for load bearing member like front sheet etc., and 2mm for other parts like top, bottom, doors, etc.
Antivibration pad is a small rubber type material kept between the base frame and the actual panel this is
generally 15 mm thick

Colour
Colourand
andthickness
thicknessof
ofWires
Wires
Red, Yellow, Blue, Black are used for denoting the CT and PT circuits indicating various phase & neutral.
Black is used for single phase ac
Grey is used for DC circuits
Green is used for Earthing
2.5 or 4 Sqmm wire is generally used for CT and PT connections, 1.5 Sq mm used for others.
Prefabricated thin cables used for

Energy Automation

Ferrule
FerruleNumbering
Numbering

Power Transmission and Distribution

FERRULE NUMBERING TO BE FOLLOWED GENERALLY
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

THE FERRULE NUMBERS TO START WITH FOLLOWING ALPHABETS SUITABLY
FOR EACH TYPE OF CIRCUIT
A - MAIN PROTECTION
B - BUSBAR PROTECTION
C - BACKUP PROTECTION
D - METERING
E - PT CIRCUITS
G - SYNCHRONISING CIRCUITS
H - 1 PH AC CIRCUIT
J - INCOMING DC CIRCUIT
K - TRIPPING CIRCUIT
L - INDICATION / ANNUNCIATION CIRCUIT
T - RED FERRULE FOR TRIP
(ON SPECIFIC REQUEST ONLY)
U - SPARES
FERRULE NUMBER ENDINGS
FERRULE NUMBRES SHOULD END WITH THESE DIGITS FOR CT OR PT CIRCUITS

NUMBERS
NUMBERS
NUMBERS
NUMBERS

ENDING WITH 11 WILL BE
ENDING WITH 31 WILL BE
ENDING WITH 51 WILL BE
ENDING WITH 71 WILL BE

R PHASE CT OR PT CIRCUIT
Y PHASE CT OR PT CIRCUIT
B PHASE CT OR PT CIRCUIT
Ne PHASE CT OR PT CIRCUIT

(USE OF NUMBERS LIKE 6 AND 9 SHOULD BE REDUCED)
(USE OF ALPHABET "I" SHOULD BE AVOIDED)

Energy Automation

Details
Detailsof
ofother
otherCRP
CRPAccessories
Accessoriesother
otherthan
thanMain
MainRelay
Relay

Power Transmission and Distribution

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

INDICATING METERS - SIZE, ANGLE OF DEFLECTION, ANALOG OR DIGITAL, NO
OF DIGITS IF DIGITAL, SCALE, CTR, PTR, ACCURACY CLASS
TRANSDUCERS - CTR, PTR, ACCURACY CLASS, RANGE OF OUTPUTS, NUMBER
OF OUTPUTS, GALVANICALLY ISOLATION REQUIRED OR NOT, AUX SUPPLY
REQUIRED OR NOT
SWITCHES - NO OF WAYS, NO OF POSITIONS, RATING, STAYPUT OR SPRING
RETURN, INSCRIPTION, LOCKABLE OR NOT
INDICATION LAMP - COLOUR, SIZE, AUX SUPPLY, LED TYPE OR FILAMENT
PUSH BUTTON - COLOUR, SIZE, NUMBER OF NO/NC, NORMALTYPE OR STAYPUT
OR LOCKABLE.
AUX RELAYS - MODEL NO, CASE SIZE (WHETHER DRAWOUT OR NON DRAWOUT
OR MIDOS ETC) , NUMBER OF CONTACT, AUXILIARY SUPPLY, CURRENT COIL
RATING OF ANY, PT SUPPLY RATING IF ANY. ALSO CHOOSE WHETHER THE
WIRING DIAGRAM USED BY YOU IS AVAILABLE IN THAT PARTICULAR C

ENERGY METERS - ELECTRONIC OR ELECTROMECHANICAL TYPE, 3 PHASE 3
WIRE OR 3 PHASE 4 WIRE, TVM OR ONLY KWH, EXPORT IMPORT REQUIRED OR
NOT, CLASS OF ACCURACY, AUXILIARY SUPPLY REQUIREMENT IF ANY.
STRIP CHART RECORDERS - TYPE OF INPUT, NUMBER OF PENS, SPEED OF
RECORDER, WIDTH OF THE RECORDER, AUXILIARY SUPPLY REQUIREMENT.
Energy Automation

DIGSI Configuration and operational
software for SIPROTEC - devices

Power Transmission and Distribution

Power Transmission and Distribution

Milestones of DIGSI –
Long tradition and strong experience
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Versions of
DIGSI
DIGSI 4

WINDOWS 95/98/ME/NT4/2000/XP
- Serial via front interface
-Rear service interface (Port C)
- Substation control interface with
Profibus FMS module (Port B)
- Starting 07/2004: Via Ethernet –
interface with Ethernet – module (Port B)

• All version 1,2, 3 and 4
relays from SIEMENS
• Comprehensive additional
functions (fault record, CFC,
display editor …… )

DIGSI 3

WINDOWS 3.1
Serial via
front interface
or rear substation
control interface

• All version 1, 2 and version
3 relays from SIEMENS
• Protocol used for version 3
relays (like IEC60870-5-103)

DIGSI 2
• All version 1 and version 2
relays from SIEMENS
• ASCII - characters
• First numerical relays from
SIEMENS

MS DOS
Serial via
front interface
CP/M V2.0
1990

Energy Automation

V3.0

1994

V3.3 V4.0

1999

V4.5

2004

Power Transmission and Distribution

Direct access to the relay about the front-interface
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

I4
DIGS

RS232Kabel
DIGSI - cable

I4
DIGS

Energy Automation

I4
DIGS

Power Transmission and Distribution

Central access with DIGSI 4 about
the rear service-interface (Port C)
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

RS485 or fiber optic cable

RS485 or
fiber optic
<-> RS232
converter
RS232-cable

I4
DIGS

Energy Automation

Rear service
interface
(Port C)

Power Transmission and Distribution

Central access with DIGSI 4 about
the rear service-interface via a telefon network
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Rear service
interface
(Port C)

Serial RS485 or fiber optical connection

Dial up
modem +
RS485/FO
converter
telefoncable

Headoffice / Central office /
Support-Center

Telefon network
public / private /
utility owned
analog / digital
(ISDN)

Energy Automation

I4
DIGS
Dial up modem

telefoncable

RS232-cable

DIGSI
4

Power Transmission and Distribution

Central operation with DIGSI 4 about
the rear service-interface via an Ethernet network
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Rear service
interface
(Port C)

Serial RS485 or fiber optical connection

Ethernetmodem +
RS485/FO
converter
Router /
Switch

Patchcable

I4
DIGS

Ethernetmodem

Headoffice / Central office /
Support-Center

RS232 Kabel

Internet / Intranet,
WAN / public,
LAN / private /
utility owned

I4
DIGS DIGSI
4

Ethernet patch-cable
Ethernetmodem
Energy Automation

Commissioning - / ServiceNotebook

Serial
RS232cable

Power Transmission and Distribution

DIGSI - The manager that keeps order
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

 Easy management of relays in
projects

 Selection of relays from a catalog
 Archiving, export, and import
 Variation management
 Plug and play
 Reading out process data with
single-keystroke operation

 Work like in MS Windows Explorer
 Any station topologies
 Same platform as for SICAM
Substation Automation System

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

DIGSI – One program for all SIPROTEC relays
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Uniqu
e !! !

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Components of DIGSI
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Allocation matrix

Parameterization

Change relay display

Logic program
Test
Energy Automation

Fault
evaluation

Power Transmission and Distribution

No. 1 with
Energy Automation

DIGSI - The function tree is the central
coordinating point

 The function tree is the
central coordinating point

 "What you see is what
you need“

 Graphic visualization of
the tripping characteristic

 Comparison of
parameters

 Structured tab card
Energy Automation

dialogs

Power Transmission and Distribution

DIGSI - The allocation matrix, a clear overview
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

 Routing of indications,
measured/metered values,
commands to inputs/outputs,
LEDs, CFC, buffers, system
interface, feeder control
diagram

 No incorrect input possible
Energy Automation

 Matrix instead of nested
operating sequences

 Popup menus provide the
options

 Overview using filter,
hiding/showing

Power Transmission and Distribution

DIGSI - Compare parameter sets
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

 Offline/Offline
comparison

 Offline/Online
comparison

 Comparison can be
freely configured

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

DIGSI - Test functions, support for commissioning
and operation
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

 Testing and diagnostic functions
 Quick and problem-free testing of
wiring

 Output of indications via the
system interface

 Simuation of make and break of
binary outputs

 Simuation of binary inputs
(set input without voltage)

 Relay specific test functions
 …….
Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

DIGSI - Fault record analysis with SIGRA
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

DIGSI – Optional logic programming with CFC
(Continuous Function Chart)
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

 PLC integrated into the SIPROTEC 4 relays
 Fully graphic, no progamming skills required
 Libraries with standard blocks
 Dragging blocks from the catalog into the chart, then
linking with a mouse click

 Connecting block inputs and outputs with information
items (measured values, indications, circuit breaker
positions, ...)
Energy Automation

 Consistency check with guarantee of effectiveness of

Power Transmission and Distribution

DIGSI - Typical CFC applications
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

 Logically checking the release conditions for a breaker control command







(e.g. by the position of a further disconnector and the information item
„charged spring")
Display of an application-specific group indication in an LED
(single indications logically combined with operators, such as AND, OR,
NOT)
Display of a new dynamic symbol for an item of equipment in the display
(various states calculated by the CFC logic)
Switchover of the parameter group
(on phase currents dropping below a limit value)
Blinking alarm LED if the switching authority is set to "LOCAL"
Implementation of expansions for protection function
(e.g. "Reverse power protection" or "Efficiency monitoring")
Forced sequence switching after pressing a function key on the relay
(e.g. automatic grounding)
Step-by-step load shedding on power deficit
(calculation of suitable feeders by the CFC logic)
...

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

DIGSI – Design the display with the Display Editor
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

 Changing the preconfigured basic
displays and feeder control diagrams

 Operation like with a conventional image
editor (e.g. PAINT)

 Libraries with static and dynamic
symbols, including user symbols, different
standards (IEC, ANSI)

 Linking of the dynamic symbol with the
associated item of equipment, measured
value in the allocation matrix

 Typical diagrams can be stored as
templates
for later use in other projects

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

DIGSI - Station configuration and monitoring for busbar
protection
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

 Busbar protection 7SS52 is set with
DIGSI 4 (V4.30)

 Drawing with the Display Editor
 Libraries with static and dynamic
symbols, including user symbols

 Linking of dynamic symbols with the
associated item of equipment,
measured value, ...

 Typical diagrams can be stored as
templates

 On-line visualization (HMI)
 Lines are colored depending on
state

Energy Automation

Measured Values can be freely
placed

Power Transmission and Distribution

DIGSI - Protection data export into
substation automation system (SICAM)
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

 Consistent data
base

 XML – file export
with DIGSI 4.5
for IEC 61850
Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

Running
under MS Win
95/98/ME/NT4/
2000/XP

DIGSI - the benefits
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

1 program
for all tasks

1 program
for all relays

User
friendly
Standardized
over the bay and
station control levels
Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

DIGSI – 4 You
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

 Demo programs (On CDROM)
 DIGSI 4 DEMO
 SIGRA 4 TRIAL & DEMO

 Training
In German and English, in
Nuremberg, but also "locally"
anywhere in the world

 Hotline
Phone: +49 1805 247 000
eMail:
services@ptd.siemens.de

 Newsletter
4x a year, information about
products, tips & tricks,
 Internet
solutions, training dates
Information about DIGSI, Online forms for product
registration, hotline queries,
software order
under
http://www.siprotec.com
Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

DIGSI – Latest News in the INTERNET
www.siprotec.com
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

CFC
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

Energy Automation

Power Transmission and Distribution

CFC
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

NEG Y= X1
(+)

X1

1

X1

AND Y= A *
A
B
B
(+)

A

&

Y

1

Y

B
Y

OR Y= A + B

A

A
B
(+)

Y

B

Energy Automation

Y

Power Transmission and Distribution

CFC
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

XOR
Y= X1 * X2 + X1*
X2 X1
X2

(+)
X1

=1

Y

X2
X1

X2

TIMER

F1- EIN IE

F1- EIN IE
LED 1 AM

Y

5000

Energy Automation

LED 1 AM

Power Transmission and Distribution

CFC
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

INPUTS

Energy Automation

OUTPUTS

Power Transmission and Distribution

CFC
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

INPUTS

Energy Automation

OUTPUTS

Power Transmission and Distribution

CFC
No. 1 with
Energy Automation

4 Logic levels
 Interlocking (Priority lower than protection, event triggered)
 Slow PLC (Priority lower than protection, event triggered
 Rapid PLC (Priority higher than protection, event triggered)

Blocking of protection functions

 Measurand Processing (cyclical all 600ms)

Revers Power (ANSI 32)

Power Factor (ANSI 55)

Instrument Transducer Inputs
(4-20mA)

Energy Automation

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