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DEFINATION DEFINATION ““Growth Growth was was concieved concieved byby anan anatomist, born to a biologist, delivered
DEFINATION
DEFINATION
““Growth
Growth was
was concieved
concieved byby anan
anatomist, born to a biologist, delivered by a
anatomist, born to a biologist, delivered by a
physician, physician, left left onon aa chemist chemist doorstep, doorstep, and and
adopted by a physiologist.At an early age- she
adopted by a physiologist.At an early age- she
eloped with a statistician, divorced him for a
eloped with a statistician, divorced him for a
psycologist, and is now wooed, alternatively
psycologist, and is now wooed, alternatively
and concurrently, by an endrocrinologist, a
and concurrently, by an endrocrinologist, a
biochemist,a physicist, a mathematician, an
biochemist,a physicist, a mathematician, an
orthodontist, a eugenicist and the children’s
orthodontist, a eugenicist and the children’s
bureau”. bureau”.
Growth and development of an indiviual Growth and development of an indiviual is divided into two
Growth and development of an indiviual
Growth and development of an indiviual
is divided into two periods-
is divided into two periods-
 Prenatal
Prenatal period
period
Post natal period
Post natal period
THE PRENATAL LIFE IS DIVIDED THE PRENATAL LIFE IS DIVIDED INTO THREE PERIODS – INTO THREE
THE PRENATAL LIFE IS DIVIDED
THE PRENATAL LIFE IS DIVIDED
INTO THREE PERIODS –
INTO THREE PERIODS –
1.PERIOD
1.PERIOD OFOF THE
THE OVUM
OVUM
2.PERIOD 2.PERIOD OFOF THE THE EMBRYO EMBRYO
3.PERIOD 3.PERIOD OFOF THE THE FETUS FETUS
PRE PRE NATAL NATAL GROWTH GROWTH PHASE PHASE  About About the the fourth fourth week
PRE
PRE NATAL
NATAL GROWTH
GROWTH PHASE
PHASE
 About About the the fourth fourth
week of intrauterine life,,
week of intrauterine life
the
the pharyngeal
pharyngeal
arches
arches are laid down
are laid down
The
The first
first arch
arch isis called
called
the
the mandibular
mandibular arch
arch
and
and the
the second
second arch
arch the
the
hyoid
hyoid arch.
arch.
Each Each ofof these these five five arches arches contain contain -- A central cartilage 1.
Each
Each ofof these
these five
five arches
arches contain
contain --
A central cartilage
1.
A central cartilage rod
rod that
that form
form the
the skeleton
skeleton
1.
of the arch.
of the arch.
A muscular component termed as
2.
A muscular component termed as
2.
bronchomere bronchomere
3.
AA vascular vascular component component..
3.
AA neural neural element. element.
4.
4.
INTRAMEMBRANOUS INTRAMEMBRANOUS BONE BONE FORMATION FORMATION The The first first structure structure toto develop in the
INTRAMEMBRANOUS
INTRAMEMBRANOUS BONE
BONE
FORMATION
FORMATION
The
The first
first structure
structure toto
develop in the
develop in the
primodium primodium ofof the the lower lower
jaw is the
jaw is the mandibular
mandibular
division division of of trigeminal trigeminal
nerve nerve that that precedes precedes the the
mesenchymal mesenchymal
condensation condensation forming forming
the the first first [mandibular] [mandibular]
arch. arch.
At around 36 -38 days of At around 36 -38 days of intrauterine intrauterine life life
At around 36 -38 days of
At around 36 -38 days
of intrauterine
intrauterine life
life there
there isis
ectomesenchymal
ectomesenchymal condensation
condensation
Some Some mesenchymal mesenchymal cells cells enlarges enlarges ,, acquire acquire aa
basophilic cytoplasm and form
basophilic cytoplasm and form osteoblasts
osteoblasts
These osteoblasts secrete a gelatinous matrix called
These osteoblasts secrete a gelatinous matrix called
osteoid
osteoid and
and result
result inin ossification
ossification of
of anan osteogenic
osteogenic
membrane.
membrane.
The The resulting resulting intramembranous intramembranous bone bone lies lies lateral lateral toto meckel’s meckel’s cartilage
The The resulting resulting intramembranous intramembranous bone bone lies lies lateral lateral toto meckel’s meckel’s
cartilage of first [mandibular ] arch.
cartilage of first [mandibular ] arch.
InIn the the sixth sixth week week ofof the the intrauterine intrauterine life life aa single single ossification ossification
centre centre for for each each half half ofof the the mandible mandible arises arises inin the the bifurcation bifurcation ofof
inferior alveolar nerve into mental and incisive branches
inferior alveolar nerve into mental and incisive branches
During During seventh seventh week week ofof intrauterine intrauterine life life bone bone begin begin toto
During
During seventh
seventh week
week ofof intrauterine
intrauterine life
life bone
bone begin
begin toto
develop develop lateral lateral toto meckel’s meckel’s cartilage cartilage && continues continues until until the the
posterior aspect is covered with bone
posterior aspect is covered with bone
Between
Between eigth & tewelth week of intrauterine life
eigth & tewelth week of intrauterine life
mandibular
mandibular growth accelerate , as a result mandibular
growth accelerate , as a result
mandibular length
length
increses. increses.
Ossification Ossification stops stops at at aa piont piont ,, which which later later become become
Ossification
Ossification stops
stops at
at aa piont
piont ,, which
which later
later become
become mandibular
mandibular lingula
lingula,,
the
the remaining
remaining part
part ofof meckels
meckels cartilage
cartilage continues
continues toto form
form
sphenomandibular ligament & spinous process of sphenoid..
sphenomandibular ligament & spinous process of sphenoid
Secondary accseeory cartilage appear
Secondary accseeory cartilage
appear between
between tenth
tenth && fourteenth
fourteenth
week of intrauterine life to form head of condyle , part of coronoid
week of intrauterine life to form head of condyle , part of coronoid
process & mental protuberance
process & mental protuberance
ENDROCHONDRAL ENDROCHONDRAL BONE BONE FORMATION FORMATION Endrocondral Endrocondral bone bone formation formation isis seen seen inin
ENDROCHONDRAL
ENDROCHONDRAL BONE
BONE
FORMATION
FORMATION
Endrocondral
Endrocondral bone
bone formation
formation isis seen
seen inin 33
areas of mandible-
areas of mandible-
The condylar process
1)
The condylar process
1)
The
The coronoid
2)
coronoid process
process
2)
The
The mental
mental process
3)
process
3)
THE CONDYLAR PROCESS- THE CONDYLAR PROCESS- At fifth week of At fifth week of intruterine intruterine
THE CONDYLAR PROCESS-
THE CONDYLAR PROCESS-
At fifth week of
At fifth week of
intruterine
intruterine life
life , an area of mesenchymal
, an area of mesenchymal
condensation
condensation isis seen
seen above
above the
the ventral
ventral part
part ofof
developing
developing mandible.
mandible.
At
At about
about tenth
tenth week
week it develops in cone
it develops in
cone shaped
shaped
cartilage.
cartilage.
It migrate inferior & fuses with
It migrate inferior & fuses with mandibular
mandibular ramus
ramus at
at
about
about 44 month.
month.
This cone shaped cartilage isis replaced This cone shaped cartilage replaced byby bone bone but but
This cone shaped cartilage isis replaced
This cone shaped cartilage
replaced byby bone
bone but
but itsits
upper end persists acting as growth cartilage & articular
upper end persists acting as growth cartilage & articular
cartilage. cartilage.
THE CORONOID PROCESS- THE CORONOID PROCESS- Secondary Secondary accessory accessory cartilage cartilage appear in region of
THE CORONOID PROCESS-
THE CORONOID PROCESS-
Secondary
Secondary
accessory
accessory cartilage
cartilage appear in region of
appear in region of
coronoid coronoid process process at at about about 10- 10- 1414 week week of of
intrauterine
intrauterine life.
life.
This cartilage become incorporated into
This cartilage become incorporated into
expanding
expanding intramembranous
intramembranous bone
bone of
of ramus
ramus &&
dissapear
dissapear before
before birth.
birth.
THE MENTAL REGION- THE MENTAL REGION- In mental In mental region region ,, onon either side
THE MENTAL REGION-
THE MENTAL REGION-
In mental
In
mental region
region ,, onon
either side of symphysis , one or two small
either side of symphysis , one or two small
cartilage cartilage appear appear and and ossify ossify inin seventh seventh week week of of
intrauterine
intrauterine life
life to become mental
to become
mental ossicles.
ossicles.
These
These ossicles
ossicles become
become incorporated
incorporated into
into
intramembranous
intramembranous bone
bone when symphysis ossify
when symphysis ossify
completely.
completely.
POST NATAL GROWTH PHASE POST NATAL GROWTH PHASE At At birth birth the two rami of
POST NATAL GROWTH PHASE
POST NATAL GROWTH PHASE
At
At birth
birth the two rami of the mandible are short , condylar
the two rami of the mandible are short , condylar
development is minimum and there is no articular eminence in
development is minimum and there is no articular eminence in
glenoid fossa. A thin layer of fibrocartilage & connective tissue
glenoid fossa. A thin layer of fibrocartilage & connective tissue
exists exists at at the the midline midline ofof symphysis symphysis toto separate separate right right && left left
mandibular mandibular bodies. bodies.
At fourth month of age and end of first year
At fourth month of age and end of first year symphysial
symphysial
cartilage cartilage isis replaced replaced byby bone bone
During first year of life During first year of life appositional appositional growth growth isis active
During first year of life
During first year of life
appositional appositional growth growth isis
active at alveolar
active at alveolar
border,
border, at
at distal
distal &&
superior superior surfaces surfaces ofof the the
ramus,
ramus, at
at the
the condyle,
condyle,
along
along the
the lower
lower border
border
ofof mandible mandible and and onon itsits
lateral lateral surface. surface.
After first year of life these changes occurs - After first year of life these changes
After first year of life these changes occurs -
After first year of life these changes occurs -
 Mandibular
Mandibular growth
growth become
become more
more selective
selective ,, condyle
condyle shows
shows
considerable
considerable activities,
activities, mandible
mandible moves
moves and
and grows
grows
downward
downward && forward.
forward.
 Appositional
Appositional growth
growth occurs
occurs onon posterior border of the ramus
posterior border of the ramus
and on the alveolar process.
and on the alveolar process.
 Resorption
Resorption occurs
occurs along
along the
the anterior
anterior border
border ofof ramus
ramus
lenthening the alveolar border & maintaining the anterior-
lenthening the alveolar border & maintaining the anterior-
posterior posterior dimension dimension ofof ramus. ramus.
 Gonial Gonial angle angle changes after little muscle activity. changes after little muscle activity. 
 Gonial
Gonial angle
angle changes after little muscle activity.
changes after little muscle activity.
Transverse dimension is mainly due to growth at
Transverse dimension is mainly due to growth at
posterior posterior border border inin anan expanding expanding VV pattern pattern..
 The two rami also diverge The two rami also diverge outward outward from from below
The two rami also diverge
The two rami also
diverge outward
outward from
from below
below toto
above so that additive growth at coronoid
above so that additive growth at
coronoid notch
notch ,,
coronoid
coronoid process
process &condyle
&condyle also increses the superior
also increses the superior
inter-ramus inter-ramus dimension. dimension.
 Alveolar
Alveolar process
process ofof mandible
mandible grows
grows upward
upward &&
outward
outward on an expanding arc. This permit dental arc to
on an expanding arc. This permit dental arc to
accommodate the larger permanent teeth.
accommodate the larger permanent teeth.
Scott Scott divides divides the the mandible mandible into into three three basic basic types of
Scott
Scott divides
divides the
the mandible
mandible into
into three
three basic
basic
types of
types
of bone
bone ––
Basal
1)
Basal
1)
Muscular
2)
Muscular
2)
Alveolar
3)
Alveolar
3)
Basal
Basal portion
portion is tube like central foundation
is tube like central foundation
running from condyle to the symphysis.
running from condyle to the symphysis.
Muscular
Muscular portion
portion [gonial angle &coronoid process]
[gonial angle &coronoid process]
isis under
under influence
influence ofof masseter, internal pterygoid &
masseter, internal pterygoid &
temporal
temporal muscle.
muscle. They determine the ultimate form
They determine the ultimate form
ofof the
the mandible
mandible inin these
these areas.
areas.
 Alveolar Alveolar portion portion exists exists toto hold hold the the teeth teeth && gradually
 Alveolar
Alveolar portion
portion exists
exists toto hold
hold the
the teeth
teeth &&
gradually resorbed in the event of tooth loss.
gradually resorbed in the event of tooth loss.
Reduced muscular activity
Reduced muscular activity
would would account account for for flattening flattening of of gonial gonial angle angle
and reduction of the coronoid process.
and reduction of the coronoid process.
MOSS say that the mandible as a group of microskeleton MOSS say that the mandible as
MOSS say that the mandible as a group of microskeleton
MOSS say that the mandible as a group of microskeleton
unit
unit ––
Coronoid
Coronoid process
process as one skeleton unit under influence of temporalis.
as one skeleton unit under influence of temporalis.
Gonial
Gonial angle
angle is another skeleton unit under influence of massetor &
is another skeleton unit under influence of massetor &
internal pterygoid muscles.
internal pterygoid muscles.
Alveolar
Alveolar process
process is under the influence of the dentition.
is under the influence of the dentition.
Basal
Basal tubular
tubular portion
portion of
of mandible
mandible serves
serves asas protection
protection for
for the
the
mandibular canal and follows a logarithim
mandibular canal and follows a
logarithim spiral
spiral inin itsits downward
downward &&
forward movement from beneath the cranium.
forward movement from beneath the cranium.
THE THE CHIN CHIN –– Enlow Enlow && harris harris feel feel that that chin chin
THE
THE CHIN
CHIN ––
Enlow
Enlow && harris
harris feel
feel that
that chin
chin isis
““associated with a generalised cortical
associated with a generalised cortical
recession recession inin the the flattened flattened regions regions positioned positioned
between the canine teeth. The process involves
between the canine teeth. The process involves
a mechanism of endosteal cortical growth.”.”
a mechanism of endosteal cortical growth
On lingual surface, behind the chin heavy
On lingual surface, behind the chin heavy
periosteal
periosteal growth
growth occurs
occurs ,, with
with the
the dense
dense
lamellar
lamellar bone
bone merging
merging and
and overlaping
overlaping onon the
the
labial
labial side
side of
of the
the chin.
chin.
 InIn male male ,, the the apposition of the bone at apposition of the bone
InIn male
male ,, the
the apposition of the bone at
apposition of the bone
at
symphysis
symphysis seems to be about the last change in
seems to be about the last change in
shape shape during during the the growing growing period. period. This This change change
is much less apparent in the females.
is much less apparent in the females.