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MARINE

BIOLOGY

Marine Biology
Marine

biology is the scientific study of the


organisms that live in the ocean.

The

ocean is a vast realm that contains many


strange and wonderful creatures. It is often the
beauty, mystery, and variety of life in the sea
that attracts students to a course in marine
biology.

Marine Zones:
Benthic vs. Pelagic
Neritic vs. Oceanic

Fig1216,p.285Garrison

Divisions of the Marine Environment


Pelagic (open sea)

Neritic (< 200 meters) and oceanic

Benthic (sea floor)

Subneritic and suboceanic

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Pelagic Environment
into
biozones

Neritic

Province
from shore
seaward, all water
< 200 meters deep

Oceanic

Province
depth increases
beyond 200 meters

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Divided

Life in the Ocean

The PELAGIC community!

A Pelagic community is a community of organisms that live


suspended in the water columnthey either float (plankton) or
swim (nekton).

This is different than those that live on shore, on the bottom


(etc.)

Pelagic
Communitiy,
Plankton
And
nekton

Marine
Mammals
that live in
the pelagic
zone
(Baleen)

Marine
Mammals
that live in
the pelagic
zone
(Toothed)

Even deep down there


are pelagic fish:
Deep sea angler fish

Benthos
Epifauna live on the surface of the sea floor.

Infauna live buried in sediments.

Nektobenthos swim or crawl through water above the seafloor.

Benthos are most abundant in shallower water.

Many live in perpetual darkness, coldness, and stillness.

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Benthic Environments
Subneritic
Littoral
Sublittoral
Inner
Outer

Suboceanic
Bathyal
Abyssal
Hadal

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Supralittoral

Benthos

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Intertidal Zonation
shore:

Spray

zone above
spring tide zone

Intertidal
High

tide zone

Middle
Low

zone

tide zone

tide zone

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Rocky

Coral Reef Zonation

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Organisms of the Deep


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Pelagic (discussed earlier) & Benthic (Heart Urchin seen here to right)

Types of Life!

Dont forget PLANKTON (from previous lectures and lab) but


now
NEKTON!

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Inc.

Types of Plankton
biomass on
Earth consists of
plankton.

Phytoplankton
Autotrophic

Zooplankton
Heterotrophic

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Most

Nekton
Independent swimmers

Most adult fish and squid

Marine mammals

Marine reptiles

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Nekton

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Animal Kingdom

Classify similar animals into Phyla

36 Animal Phyla

Only 1 has vertebrates

These animals are either BENTHIC or PELAGIC; PLANKTONIC or


NEKTONIC

Invertebrates

Animals without backbones

No internal rigid skeleton

Softbodied

Many have hard external coverings

Phylum Porifera

Phylum Cnidaria

Phylum
Cnidaria CORAL

Phylum
Annelida

Phylum Arthropoda - Crustaceans

Crabs, lobster, shrimp, barnacles, copepods

Phylum
Arthropoda
Class
Crustacea

Phylum Mollusca

3 Main groups

Gastropods - snails

Bivalves- oysters, clams, mussels

Cephalopods octopuses, squids

Gastropods

Spiral shells

Shell-less = sea slugs or nudibranchs

Project head and muscular foot when moving

Phylum
Mollusca

Bivalves

Twin, hinged shells

not very mobile

Suspension feeders

Gills for gas exchange

Phylum
Mollusca

Cephalopods

Largest of the invertebrates (59 ft squid)

Foot modified into tentacles

Active predators

Highly evolved nervous system

Phylum Mollusca Class


Cephalopoda- CUTTLEFISH

Phylum
Mollusca

Phylum Echinodermata

Sea stars, sand dollars, brittle stars, sea urchins

Phylum
Echinodermata