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DCDC MACHINES MACHINES
MOTORS
MOTORS
&&
GENERATORS
GENERATORS
Presented
Presented ByBy
RITU
RITU KK RR
Assistant
Assistant Professor
Professor (EE)
(EE)
SISTec-E
SISTec-E
BHOPAL
BHOPAL
ELECTRICAL
ELECTRICAL MACHINES
MACHINES
DCDC GENERATOR GENERATOR
Operating
Operating Principle
Principle
• According
laws of
of electromagnetic
electromagnetic induction
induction
,, whenever
whenever aa conductor
conductor isis placed
placed inin aa varying
varying magnetic
magnetic
field
field (OR
(OR aa conductor
conductor isis moved
moved inin aa magnetic
magnetic field),
field), anan
emf
emf (electromotive
(electromotive force)
force) gets
gets induced
induced inin the
the conductor.
conductor.
The
The magnitude
magnitude of
of induced
induced emf
emf can
can bebe calculated
calculated from
from
the
the emf
emf equation
equation of
of dcdc generator
IfIf the
the conductor
conductor isis
provided
provided with
with the
the closed
closed path,
path, the
the induced
induced current
current will
will
circulate
circulate within
within the
the path.
path. InIn aa DCDC generator,
generator, field
field coils
coils
produce
produce anan electromagnetic
electromagnetic field
field and
and the
the armature
armature
conductors
conductors are
are rotated
rotated into
into the
the field.
field. Thus,
Thus, anan
electromagnetically
electromagnetically induced
induced emf
emf isis generated
generated inin the
the
armature
armature conductors.
conductors. The
The direction
direction of
of induced
induced current
current isis
given
given byby Fleming’s
Fleming’s right
right hand
hand rule
rule..
Flemings
Flemings left
left hand
hand rule
rule
for
for Generators
Generators
The
The statement
statement
This This rule rule states states "Hold "Hold out out the the right right hand hand
with with the the first first finger, finger, second second finger finger and and
thumb
thumb
atat
right
right
angle
angle
toto
each
each
other other..
IfIf
forefinger forefinger represents represents the the direction direction of of the the
line line of of force, force, the the thumb thumb points points inin the the
direction direction of of motion motion oror applied applied force, force, then then
second second finger finger points points inin the the direction direction of of the the
induced induced current. current.
ItIt isis seen
seen that
that inin the
the first
first half
half of
of the
the revolution
revolution current
current flows
flows
always
always along
along ABLMCD
ABLMCD i.e.
i.e. brush
brush nono 11 inin contact
contact with
with segment
segment a.
a.
InIn the
the next
next half
half revolution,
revolution, inin the
the figure
figure the
the direction
direction of
of the
the
induced
induced current
current inin the
the coil
coil isis reversed.
reversed. But
But atat the
the same
same time
time the
the
position
position of
of the
the segments
segments aa and
and bb are
are also
also reversed
reversed which
which results
results
that
that brush
brush nono 11 comes
comes inin touch
touch with
with that
that segment
segment b.
b. Hence,
Hence, the
the
current
current inin the
resistance again
again flows
flows from
from LL toto M.
M. The
The wave
wave
from
from of
of the
the current
current through
through the
circuit isis asas shown
shown inin the
the
figure.
figure. This
This current
current isis unidirectional.
unidirectional.
This
This isis basic
basic working
working principle
principle of
of DCDC generator,
generator, explained
explained byby single
single loop
loop
generator
generator model.
model. The
The position
position of
of the
the brushes
brushes of
of DCDC generator
generator isis soso arranged
arranged
that
that the
the change
change over
over of
of the
the segments
segments
aa and
and bb from
from one
one brush
brush toto other
other takes
takes place
place when
when the
the plane
plane of
of rotating
rotating
coil
coil isis atat right
right angle
angle toto the
the plane
plane of
of the
the lines
lines of
of force.
force. ItIt isis soso become
become inin that
that
position,
position, the
the induced
induced emf
emf inin the
the coil
coil isis zero.
zero.
Armature
Armature Winding
Winding inin aa
DCDC Machine
Machine
Armature Armature windings, windings, along along with with the the
commutators, commutators, form form the the heart heart of of the the d.c. d.c.
machine. machine. This This isis where where the the emf emf isis induced induced
and and hence hence its its effective effective deployment deployment
enhances enhances the the output output of of the the machine. machine.
The
The armature
armature windings
windings are
are classified
classified into
into
two two families families based based onon this. this. They They are are called called
lap
lap winding
winding and
and wave
wave winding.
winding. They
They can
can
bebe simply simply stated stated inin terms terms of of the the
commutator commutator pitch pitch used used for for the the winding. winding.
dcmotor
9
Some
Some Important
Important Terms
Terms
1.
1. Pole
Pole pitch:
pitch: ItIt isis defined
defined asas number
number of
of armature
armature slots
slots per
per pole.
pole. For
For
example,
example, ifif there
there are
are 3636 conductors
conductors and
and 44 poles,
poles, then
then the
the pole
pole
pitch
pitch isis 36/4=9.
36/4=9.
2.
2.
Coil
Coil span
span oror coil
coil pitch
pitch (Ys):
(Ys): ItIt isis the
the distance
distance between
between the
the two
two
sides
sides of
of aa coil
coil measured
measured inin terms
terms of
of armature
armature slots.
slots.
3.
3.
Front
Front pitch
pitch (Yf):
(Yf): ItIt isis the
the distance,
distance, inin terms
terms of
of armature
armature
conductors,
conductors, between
between the
the second
second conductor
conductor of
of one
one coil
coil and
and the
the
first
first conductor
conductor of
of the
the next
next coil.
coil. OROR itit isis the
the distance
distance between
between two
two
coil
coil sides
sides that
that are
are connected
connected toto the
the same
same commutator
commutator segment.
segment.
4.
4.
Back
Back pitch
pitch (Yb):
(Yb): The
The distance
distance byby which
which aa coil
the
back
back of
of the
the armature
armature isis called
called asas back
back pitch
pitch of
of the
the coil.
coil. ItIt isis
measured
measured inin terms
terms of
of armature
armature conductors.
conductors.
5.
5.
Resultant
Resultant pitch
pitch (Yr):
(Yr): The
The distance,
distance, inin terms
terms of
of armature
armature
conductor,
conductor, between
between the
the beginning
beginning of
of one
one coil
coil and
and the
the beginning
beginning
of
of the
the next
next coil
coil isis called
called asas resultant
resultant pitch
pitch of
of the
the coil.
coil.
Fig
Fig showing
showing the
the coil
coil span
span
Lap
Lap Winding
Winding of
of aa DCDC Mac
Mac
• Used in high current
low voltage circuits
•Number
of
parallel
paths
equals
number
of
brushes
or poles
dcmotor
13
Armature windings are mainly of two types – lap winding and wave
winding. Here we are going to discuss about lap winding. Lap
winding is the winding in which successive coils overlap each other.
It is named "Lap" winding because it doubles or laps back with its
succeeding coils.
In this winding the finishing end of one coil is connected to one
commutator segment and the starting end of the next coil
situated under the same pole and connected with same
commutator segment. Here we can see in picture, the finishing
end of coil - 1 and starting end of coil - 2 are both connected to
the commutator segment - 2 and both coils are under the same
magnetic pole that is N pole here. Lap winding are of two types
– Simplex Lap Winding
Duplex Lap Winding
Simplex
Simplex Lap
Lap Winding
Winding
A winding in which the number of parallel path between
the brushes is equal to the number of poles is called
simplex lap winding.
A winding in which the number of parallel path between the brushes
is twice the number of poles is called duplex lap winding.
Some important points to remember while designing the Lap
winding: If,
Z = the number conductors P = number of poles Y B = Back pitch
Y F = Front pitch Y C = Commutator pitch Y A = Average pole pitch
Y P = Pole pitch Y R = Resultant pitch
Y
is even because it is the difference between two odd numbers.
R
Then, the back and front pitches are of opposite sign and they cannot be
equal.
Y B = Y F ± 2m, m = multiplicity of the winding
. m = 1 for Simplex Lap winding m = 2 for Duplex Lap winding
When, Y B > Y F , it is called progressive winding.
Y B < Y F , it is called retrogressive winding. Back pitch and front pitch must
be odd.
Resultant pitch (Y R ) = Y B - Y F = 2m
Commutator pitch (Y C ) = ±m Number of parallel path in
the Lap winding = mP
Q.1. Draw the winding diagram of a D C Machine with 4 poles,
having 16 no of conductors , progressive Lap Winding. Show
the position of brushes and direction of induced emf.
Ans.
Number of poles = 4 ;
Number of conductors=16;
Pole pitch = Number of conductors/pole = 16/4 = 4
For lap winding both Yb and Yf must be odd and differ by 2 Satisfying the
above condition Yb = (4+1)=5 and Yf = (4-1)=3.
Let us start from 1
st
conductor,
Back connections
Front connections
1
to (1+Y B )=(1+5)=6
6 to (6-Y F )=(6-3)=3
3
to (3+5)=8
8 to (8-3)=5
5to (5+5)=10
10 to (10-3)=7
7
to (7+5)=12
12 t0 (12-3)=9
9
to (9+5)=14
14 to (14-3)=11
11
to (11+5))=16
16 to (16-3)=13
13
to (13+5)=18=(18-
2 to (18-3)=15
16)=2
15
to (15+5)=20=(20-
4
to(20-3)=17=(17-
16)=4
16)=1
of Lap
Lap Winding
Winding
This winding is necessarily required for large
current application because it has more parallel
paths.
It is suitable for low voltage and high current
generators.
It gives less emf compared to wave winding. This
winding requires more no. of conductors for giving
the same emf, it results high winding cost.
It has less efficient utilization of space in the
armature slots.
Wave
Wave Winding
Winding of
of aa DCDC Ma
Ma
• Used in high voltage
low current circuits
•Number
of
parallel
paths
always equals 2
dcmotor
21
Wave
Wave winding
winding
Wave winding is one type of armature winding. In this winding the end of
one coil is connected to the starting of another coil of the same polarity as
that of the first coil.
In this type of winding the coil side(A-B) progressforward around the
armature to another coil side and goes on successively passing through N
and S pole till it returns to a conductor (A1-B1) lying under the starting pole.
This winding forms a wave with its coil, that’s why it is named as wave
winding. It is also called series winding because its coils are connected in
series.
Progressive
Progressive wave
wave winding
winding
If after one round of the armature the coil falls in a slot
right to its starting slot the winging is called Progressive
wave winding.

# Retrogressive wave

wave
winding
winding
If after one round of the armature the coil falls in a slot left to its starting
slot the winging is called Retrogressive wave winding.
Here in the picture above we can see that 2nd conductor CD is in the left
of the 1st conductor.
Important
Important points
Wave
winding
winding
In simplex wave winding Back pitch(Y B ) and front pitch (Y F ) are both odd
and are of same sign. Back pitch and front pitch are nearly equals to the
pole pitch and may be equal or differ by ±2. + for progressive winding, - for
retrogressive winding.
here, Z is the no of conductors in the winding. P is the no of poles. average
pitch (Y A ) must be an integer no. because it may close itself. ±2 is taken
because after one round of the armature the winding falls sort of two
conductors. If average pitch is taken Z/P then after one round the winding
will close itself without including all coil sides. Since average pitch must be
an integer, this winding is not possible with any no. of conductors. Let us
take 8 conductors in a 4 pole machine.
Being fractional no the wave winding is no possible but if there was 6
conductors then the winding can be done. Since,
For this problem the DUMMY COILS are introduced.
Dummy
Dummy Coil
Coil
The wave winding is possible only with particular number of conductors
and slots combinations. It is not always possible to have the standard
stampings in the winding shop consist of the number of slots according to
the design requirements. In such cases dummy coils are employed. This
coils are placed in the slots to give the machine the mechanical balance
but they are not electrically connected to the rest of the winding.
In multiplex wave winding …
m is the multiplicity of the winding. m = 1 for simplex winding m = 2
for duplex winding.
Construction of Wave winding
Let us develop a simplex and progressive wave winding diagram of a
machine having 34 conductor in 17 slots and 4 poles. Average pitch:
Now we have to construct a table for the connection
diagram:
Winding
Winding Diagram
Diagram
Characteristics
Characteristics and
of
simplex
simplex wave
wave winding
winding
•In this winding only two brushes are required but more parallel brushes
can be added to make it equal to the no. of poles. If one or more brushes set
poor contacts with the commutator, satisfactory operation is still possible.
•This winding gives sparkles commutation. The reason
behind that it has two parallel paths irrespective of no of
poles of the machine. The conductors in each of the two
parallel path distributed around the armature in the
entire of circumference.
•No.
conductors in each path = Z/2 , Z is the total no.
of conductors.
•Generated emf = average emf induced in each path X
Z/2
•For a given no of poles and armature conductors it gives more emf than
that of lap winding. Hence wave winding is used in high voltage and low
current machines. This winding is suitable for small generators circuit
with voltage rating 500-600V.
•Current flowing through each conductor
I a is the armature current. Current per path for this kind of winding
must not be exceeded 250A.
•Resultant emf around the entire circuit is zero.
Wave winding cannot be used in the machines having
higher current rating because it has only two parallel
paths.
INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION OFOF DCDC
MOTOR
MOTOR
• AA DCDC Motor
Motor isis aa
machine
machine which
which
converts
converts electrical
electrical
energy
energy into
into
mechanical
mechanical energy.
energy.
ItIt depends
depends for
for its
its
operation
operation onon the
the
force
force which
which isis known
known
toto exist
exist onon conductor
conductor
carrying
carrying aa current
current
while
while situated
situated inin aa
magnetic
magnetic field.
field.
Construction
Construction of
of DCDC MOTOR
MOTOR
• FIELD
FIELD POLES-
POLES- The
The pole
pole shoe
shoe acts
acts asas aa
support
support toto the
the field
field coils
coils and
out the
the
flux
flux inin the
the air
air gap
gap and
and reduce
reduce the
the reluctance
reluctance
of
of magnetic
magnetic field.
field.
• FRAME-
FRAME- The
The Frame
Frame isis the
the stationary
stationary part
part of
of
aa machine
machine inin which
which poles,
poles, and
and rotor
rotor are
are
stationed.
stationed.
• ARMATURE-
ARMATURE- The
The armature
armature consist
consist of
of core
core
and
and winding.
winding. ItIt isis built
built upup of
of thin
thin lamination
lamination
of
of lowlow loss
loss silicon
silicon steel(0.4
steel(0.4 toto 0.5)
0.5)
• COMMUTATOR-
COMMUTATOR- AA
commutator
commutator converts
converts
alternating
alternating voltage
voltage toto direct
direct
voltage.
voltage. ItIt isis aa cylindrical
cylindrical
structure
structure built
built upup of
of segment
segment
drawn copper.
copper.
• BRUSHES-
BRUSHES- The
The use
use of
of brushes
brushes
for machines
machines
designed
designed for
for large
large current
current at
at
lowlow voltage.
voltage.
• ARMATURE
ARMATURE WINDING-
WINDING- The
The
winding
winding must
must bebe designated
designated
with
with the
the most
utilization
utilization of
of the
the material
material inin
respect
respect toto weight
weight and
and
efficiency efficiency
Flemings
Flemings left
left hand
hand rule
rule
for
for motors
motors
Hold
Hold out
out your
left hand
hand with
with forefinger,
forefinger, second
second
finger
finger and
and thumb
thumb atat right
right angle
angle toto one
one another
IfIf
the
the fore
fore finger
finger represents
represents the
the
direction
direction of
of the
the field
field and
and the
the second
second finger
finger that
that
of
of the
the current,
current, then
then thumb
thumb gives
gives the
the direction
direction of
of
the
the force.
force.
TYPES
TYPES OFOF DCDC MOTOR
MOTOR
• SHUNT
SHUNT MOTOR
MOTOR ––
Shunt
Shunt Motor
Motor inin
which
which the
the field
field
winding
winding isis
connected
connected inin
parallel
parallel with
with the
the
armature
armature
•SERIES
SERIES
MOTOR-
MOTOR-
Series
Series Motor
Motor
inin which
which the
the
armature
armature and
and
field
field winding
winding
are
are connected
connected
inin series
series
• COMPOUND
COMPOUND
MOTOR-
MOTOR- This
This type
type
of
of motor
motor has
has two
two
field
field winding,
winding, one
one
of
of which
which isis
c6nnected
c6nnected inin
parallel
parallel with
with the
the
armature
armature and
and other
other
inin series
series with
with itit
Working
Working Principle
Principle Of
Of DCDC MOTOR
MOTOR
• Whenever
Whenever aa current
current
carrying
carrying conductor
conductor isis
placed
placed inin aa magnetic
magnetic
field,
field, itit experienced
experienced aa
force
force whose
whose direction
direction isis
given
given byby Fleming’s
Fleming’s Left
Left
Hand
Hand Rule.
Rule.
• ItIt shows
shows the
the field
field set
set upup
byby the
the poles
poles
• ItIt shows
shows the
the conductor
conductor
field
field due
due toto flow
flow of
of
current
current inin the
the conductor
conductor
• MERITS MERITS
• DEMERITS
DEMERITS
• High
High starting
starting torque
torque
• High High initial initial cost cost
• Speed
Speed control
control over
over aa
• Increased
Increased
wide
wide range,
range, both
both
operating
operating and
and
below
below and
and above
above
maintenance
maintenance cost
cost
normal
normal speed
speed
because
because of
of the
the
• Accurate
Accurate seedless
seedless
commutator
commutator and
and
speed
speed control
control
brush
brush gear
gear
• Quick
Quick starting,
starting,
stopping
stopping
THANK
THANK YOU
YOU